Effects of interleukin-6 on extravillous trophoblast invasion in early human pregnancy

Reproductive and Vascular Biology Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor, William Leech Building, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
Molecular Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.75). 02/2012; 18(8):391-400. DOI: 10.1093/molehr/gas010
Source: PubMed


Invasion of uterine tissues by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT) is essential for successful human pregnancy. EVT invasion is tightly regulated by a number of factors, including growth factors and cytokines, but the mechanisms that underlie their regulatory effect remain poorly understood. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been suggested to play a role in controlling EVT invasion. We hypothesized that IL-6 produced by cells in uterine decidua would regulate EVT invasiveness via IL-6Rα and gp130 receptors expressed by trophoblast cells. The effect of IL-6 on EVT signalling and cytokine production was also studied. Supernatants from disaggregated 'total' decidual cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD10(+) decidual stromal cells, CD14 macrophages, CD56(+) uterine natural killer cells, cytotrophoblast and EVT cells contained large quantities of IL-6 protein at both 8-10 and 12-14 weeks gestational age. IL-6Rα and gp130 were immunolocalized to EVT in placental bed biopsies from 8 to 20 weeks gestation and IL-6Rα expression was confirmed by western blotting. IL-6 had no effect on the invasive potential of EVT from chorionic villi or the immortalized EVT cell line HTR-8/SVneo in a Matrigel(®) invasion assay. IL-6 stimulated phosphorylation of several cell signalling proteins in EVT (8-14 weeks' gestation), although significance was lost after correction for multiple comparisons. Incubation with IL-6 decreased secretion of regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) by EVT cells. In conclusion, although IL-6 did not affect trophoblast cell invasion, it stimulated EVT cellular cascades and inhibited secretion of RANTES involved in a number of cellular processes.

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    • "Studies have shown that factors involved in trophoblast invasion regulation are associated with many gestation complications such as early pregnancy loss [6], [7], [8], preeclampsia [9], [10] and fetal growth restriction [11]. Although it plays pivotal roles for successful gestation, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of EVT invasion are not clear, however, it is reported that the invasive capacities of EVT cells are regulated by several factors [12], [13], [14], [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Amongst the secreted factors found to be regulated by T3 in decidua, TNF-α (Otun et al., 2011), GM-CSF (Wu et al., 2012) and IL-10 (Pang et al., 2008) have all been reported to attenuate EVT invasion. IL-1β and VEGF-A promote EVT motility (Lash et al., 1999; Prutsch et al., 2012) and IL-8 promotes EVT invasion (De Oliveira et al., 2010) whilst IL-6 has no effect (Champion et al., 2012). However, we did not observe the expected increase in EVT invasion in vitro as a result of T3-induced suppression of IL-10 in first trimester total decidual cell secretome, suggesting that there are other factors counteracting the lack of IL-10. "
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    ABSTRACT: Does triiodothyronine (T3) regulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines by human decidual cells isolated from early pregnancy? T3 modulates the secretion of specific angiogenic growth factors and cytokines, with different regulatory patterns observed amongst various isolated subpopulations of human decidual cells and with a distinct change between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy is associated with complications of malplacentation including miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. T3 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of fetal-derived trophoblasts, as well as promotes the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). We hypothesize that T3 may also have a direct impact on human maternal-derived decidual cells, which are known to exert paracrine regulation upon trophoblast behaviour and vascular development at the uteroplacental interface. This laboratory-based study used human decidua from first (8-11 weeks; n = 18) and second (12-16 weeks; n = 12) trimester surgical terminations of apparently uncomplicated pregnancies. Primary cultures of total decidual cells, and immunomagnetic bead-isolated populations of stromal-enriched (CD10+) and stromal-depleted (CD10-) cells, uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells; CD56+) and macrophages (CD14+) were assessed for thyroid hormone receptors and transporters by immunocytochemistry. Each cell population was treated with T3 (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) and assessments were made of cell viability (MTT assay) and angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion (immunomediated assay). The effect of decidual cell-conditioned media on EVT invasion through Matrigel(®) was evaluated. Immunocytochemistry showed the expression of thyroid hormone transporters (MCT8, MCT10) and receptors (TRα1, TRβ1) required for thyroid hormone-responsiveness in uNK cells and macrophages from the first trimester. The viability of total decidual cells and the different cell isolates were unaffected by T3 so changes in cell numbers could not account for any observed effects. In the first trimester, T3 decreased VEGF-A secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05) and increased angiopoietin-2 secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) but in the second trimester total decidual cells showed only increased angiogenin secretion (P < 0.05). In the first trimester, T3 reduced IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05), and reduced granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), IL-10 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (P < 0.001) secretion by macrophages, but increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 by uNK cells (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the second trimester T3 increased IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.01) but did not affect cytokine secretion by uNK cells and macrophages. Conditioned media from first trimester T3-treated total decidual cells and macrophages did not alter EVT invasion compared with untreated controls. Thus, treatment of decidual cells with T3 resulted in changes in both angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion in a cell type-specific and gestational age-dependent manner, with first trimester decidual macrophages being the most responsive to T3 treatment, but these changes in decidual cell secretome did not affect EVT invasion in vitro. Our results are based on in vitro findings and we cannot be certain if a similar response occurs in human pregnancy in vivo. Optimal maternal thyroid hormone concentrations could play a critical role in maintaining a balanced inflammatory response in early pregnancy to prevent fetal immune rejection and promote normal placental development through the regulation of the secretion of critical cytokines and angiogenic growth factors by human decidual cells. Our data suggest that there is an ontogenically determined regulatory 'switch' in T3 responsiveness between the first and second trimesters, and support the notion that the timely and early correction of maternal thyroid dysfunction is critical in influencing pregnancy outcomes. This study is funded by Wellbeing of Women (RG/1082/09 to S.Y.C., M.D.K., J.A.F., L.S.L., G.E.L.) and Action Medical Research - Henry Smith Charity (SP4335 to M.D.K., S.Y.C., L.S.L., J.A.F.). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Human Reproduction
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    • "Recently, it was reported that recombinant interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNFα were capable of activating endothelial cells, which is a hallmark of preeclampsia [31]. Another study demonstrated that IL-6 stimulates cell migration and invasion accompanied by the increased expression of related integrin subunits on the HTR8/SVneo cell line [32], although the former study only suggested the effects of IL-6 on EVT invasion cellular cascades [33]. LIF, a member of the IL-6 family, has been suggested to increase the invasiveness of trophoblastic cells through the activation of STAT1 or STAT3 [26,34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: During the first trimester of pregnancy, trophoblastic E-cadherin expression is down-regulated, thereby allowing extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to acquire the potential for migration and invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of OSM on the migration and proliferation of EVT cell line HTR8/SVneo with regard to its effects on the expression of E-cadherin and STAT3 activation. We investigated the effects of OSM on RNA and protein expression of E-cadherin by real time RT-PCR analyses, western blotting, and indirect immunofluorescence staining in HTR8/SVneo cells, as well as the effects on cell migration and proliferation. The selective signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 inhibitor, stattic, and STAT3 siRNA were used to investigate STAT3 activation by OSM. OSM significantly reduced RNA and protein expression of E-cadherin. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of HTR8/SVneo cells also revealed the down-regulation of E-cadherin, compared with the controls. OSM-stimulated cell migration was attenuated by anti-gp130 antibodies. OSM-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, and the down-regulation of E-cadherin by OSM treatment was restored by stattic and STAT3 siRNA. In addition, OSM-stimulated migration and proliferation were significantly suppressed by STAT3 inhibition. This study suggests that OSM stimulates the migration and proliferation of EVTs during the first trimester of pregnancy through the down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, this study suggests that the effects of OSM on migration and proliferation are related to STAT3 activation, which is important in trophoblast invasiveness.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
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