In vitro anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of boesenbergin A, a chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) (fingerroot)

UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] (Impact Factor: 1.01). 02/2012; 45(6):524-30. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500022
Source: PubMed


The current in vitro study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of boesenbergin A (BA), a chalcone derivative of known structure isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), non-small cell lung cancer (A549), prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3), and normal hepatic cells (WRL-68) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of BA using the MTT assay. The antioxidant activity of BA was assessed by the ORAC assay and compared to quercetin as a standard reference antioxidant. ORAC results are reported as the equivalent concentration of Trolox that produces the same level of antioxidant activity as the sample tested at 20 µg/mL. The toxic effect of BA on different cell types, reported as IC50, yielded 20.22 ± 3.15, 10.69 ± 2.64, 20.31 ± 1.34, 94.10 ± 1.19, and 9.324 ± 0.24 µg/mL for A549, PC3, HepG2, HT-29, and WRL-68, respectively. BA displayed considerable antioxidant activity, when the results of ORAC assay were reported as Trolox equivalents. BA (20 µg/mL) and quercetin (5 µg/mL) were equivalent to a Trolox concentration of 11.91 ± 0.23 and 160.32 ± 2.75 µM, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of BA was significant at 12.5 to 50 µM and without any significant cytotoxicity for the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 at 50 µM. The significant biological activities observed in this study indicated that BA may be one of the agents responsible for the reported biological activities of B. rotunda crude extract.

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Available from: Mohammad Rais Mustafa
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    • "On the other hand, only preliminary studies of the cytotoxic activity of boesenbergin A against HL-60 cells have been reported [14]. Following on from recent findings in our research group that boesenbergin A also has cytotoxic activity against A549, PC3, HepG2, HT-29, and WRL-68 cells [15], the present study boesenbergin A (Figure  1) explores its anticancer potential in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CEMss) in vitro. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Boesenbergia rotunda (Roxb.) Schlecht (family zingiberaceae) is a rhizomatous herb that is distributed from north-eastern India to south-east Asia, especially in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Previous research has shown that the crude extract of this plant has cytotoxic properties. The current study examines the cytotoxic properties of boesenbergin A isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda. Methods MTT assay was used to check the cytotoxicity of boesenbergin A. The morphological assessment of apoptosis was monitored using normal and fluorescence microscopy. The early and late phase of apoptosis was investigated using annexin V and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 were also analyzed using western blot. Assays of caspase =-3/7, -8 and =-9 were carried out in order to test for induction during treatment. Lastly, cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Boesenbergin A was found to have the highest toxicity towards CEMss cancer cells (IC50 = 8 μg/ml). The morphology of CEMss cells after treatment showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation. The annexin V assay revealed that early apoptosis is induced after treatment. The DNA laddering assay confirmed that DNA fragmentation had occurred during late apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that boesenbergin A was able to induce G2/M phase arrest in CEMss cells. The activity of caspases -3/7, -8 and -9 was increased after treatment which indicates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are induced during apoptosis. The involvement of mitochondria was established by increased mitochondrial membrane potential and up and down regulation of Bcl2 and Bax proteins as well as HSP70. Conclusion In conclusion, the results demonstrated that boesenbergin A induced apoptosis of CEMss cells through Bcl2/Bax signaling pathways with the involvement of caspases and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The current findings warrant further research on boesenbergin A as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia intervention including studies in animal models.
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-cancer effect of Boesenbergin A (BA) isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda, via the induction of apoptosis resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed in human non-small cell lung cancer (A549) cells. The apoptotic mechanisms of BA induction on cancer cells were studied in the present study for the first time. Nuclear stain, measuring the accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and DNA ladder were done to determine the apoptosis. Further investigations into the depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c determined that BA treatment induced apoptosis via the regulation of the expression of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic caspases (caspase 3/7, 9 and 8) were significantly increased. Moreover the role of free radicals was significantly found to be elevated with concomitant decrease in HSP70. In conclusion the results from the current study indicated BA could be a promising agent for the treatment of lung cancer.
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