Sleep and Gambling Severity in a Community Sample of Gamblers

UCLA Gambling Studies Program, University of California, Los Angeles 90095, California, USA.
Journal of Addictive Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.46). 01/2012; 31(1):67-79. DOI: 10.1080/10550887.2011.642754
Source: PubMed


Although sleep has been extensively studied in substance related disorders, it has yet to be examined as thoroughly in gambling-related disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gambling severity and sleep disturbances in a sample of non-treatment seeking gamblers (N = 96) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Mean ESS scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 4.13, 5.81, and 8.69, respectively, with a significant difference between pathological gamblers and both problem (P = .007) and recreational gamblers (P < .001). Mean PSQI scores for recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers were 3.35, 5.30, and 5.44, respectively, with a significant difference in sleep quality between recreational and problem gamblers (P = .018), as well as recreational and pathological gamblers (P = .008). As the first study to use objective sleep measures, these findings will not only increase awareness of this relationship, but also provide a foundation on which others can investigate the benefits of screening and adjunct treatment for sleep disorders in the gambling population.

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Available from: Iman Parhami
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    • "This study contributes evidence to a previous study (Parhami et al. 2012) that found an association between problem gambling and sleep difficulty. Moreover, related measures of SOGS and negative sleep habits were associated in the expected directions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Problem gambling and sleep difficulty threaten health. Using the basis of self-regulatory theory, potential mechanisms for these problems were investigated. Fifty-nine treatment-seeking gamblers completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep difficulty), the Sleep Hygiene Index (negative sleep habits), the Problem Gambling Severity Index and measures of self-regulatory capacity and arousability with data entered into regression analyses. Results supported the relationship between problem gambling and greater sleep difficulty (β = .18, t = 3.22, p < .01). Self-regulatory capacity mediated the relationship between problem gambling and sleep difficulty (R 2 change = .15, F(2, 57) = 12.14, β = −.45, t = −3.45, p < .001) as well as between problem gambling and negative sleep habits; R 2 change = .17, F(2, 57) = 13.57, β = −.28, t = −3.76, p < .001. Arousability predicted sleep difficulty (β = .15, t = 3.07, p < .01) and negative sleep habits (β = .40, t = 5.40, p < .01) but showed no relationship with problem gambling (r = .09, ns). Self-regulatory capacity represents an important mediator of the relationship between problem gambling and sleep-related behaviour and if targeted could reduce behavioural threats to health.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Gambling Studies
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    • "The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (Johns, 1991), a valid and reliable scale of sleepiness, was used as a measure of sleepiness. ESS scores have been shown to positively correlate with GD criteria (Parhami et al., 2012) and negatively correlate with executive functioning (Anderson, Storfer- Isser, Taylor, Rosen & Redline, 2009; Naismith, Winter, Gotsopoulos, Hickie & Cistulli, 2004). The ESS poses eight hypothetical situations, which the test taker rates in terms of how likely they would be to fall asleep in them: (0) "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Past research suggests that sleep problems are associated with increased risky decision-making. Similarly, gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder are also associated with increased risky decision-making. Individuals with gambling disorder or alcohol use disorder have also reported higher rates of sleep problems compared to normal healthy controls. As such, we sought to examine whether sleep problems play a role in the development of alcohol use disorder or gambling disorder. Methods: One hundred and forty-one individuals who gamble and use alcohol, yet do not meet criteria for gambling disorder or alcohol use disorder, were assessed to determine the correlation between sleepiness, amount of sleep obtained, decision-making, and alcohol or gambling behaviors. Results: Our results suggest that inconsistent sleep patterns may be associated with increased frequency of alcohol use and gambling. We did not, however, find a significant correlation between sleep factors and decision-making. Discussion: Further research is needed to examine the specific relationship between sleep patterns and alcohol use and gambling frequency. Overall these data suggest that sleepiness or sleep and risky decision-making is not a significant factor in gambling and alcohol use behaviors in individuals not meeting criteria for alcohol use disorder or gambling disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Behavioural Addictions
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    • "Insomnia has been identified as a very robust independent indicator of suicidal behavior among individuals with depression, even taking into account the core symptoms of depression such as low mood and anhedonia in a clinical study (Mc- Call et al., 2010). Without a thorough understanding of the insomnia–gambling–suicide link, it is too early to suggest that managing insomnia may help reduce suicidal behavior among people with gambling problems; however, our findings point to the relevance of monitoring and managing insomnia in problem gambling clients and considering it as an indicator of the risk of SI (Parhami et al., 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies have consistently reported high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) among individuals with disordered gambling. None have explored gambling-related familicidal-suicidal ideation (FSI). Aims: This study examined the (1) prevalence of SI and FSI among treatment-seeking gamblers in Hong Kong, (2) characteristic profile of factors associated with SI and FSI, and (3) factors that predict SI and FSI. Method: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected at initial clinical assessments from a specialized gambling counseling centre in Hong Kong. Participants were gamblers (N = 3,686) who sought treatment at the centre between 2003 and 2012. Information about socio-gambling demographics, physical and mental health status, current presenting problems, self-rated South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS, Chinese version), and occurrence of SI or FSI were examined. Descriptive analysis and ordinal regression analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of the gamblers and the association of variables. Results: In our sample, 720 (20.0%) individuals reported SI, and 22 (0.6%) individuals reported FSI at the initial assessment. Individuals with SI and FSI differed from the nonsuicidal individuals in terms of their demographics, gambling experiences and severity, mental and physical wellbeing, and types of gambling-related problems. The adjusted ordinal regression model shows that participating in table games in casinos and having familial and financial problems seem to enhance the likelihood of having SI and FSI. Conclusion: While mental health issues are significantly related to SI and FSI among gambling treatment seekers, the impacts of physical, family, and financial strains should not be underestimated.
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