Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Supplementation with a Milk-Based Wolfberry Formulation in Healthy Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Wolfberry (fruit of Lycium barbarum) has been prized for many years in China for its immunomodulatory property and its high specific antioxidant content. However, clear clinical evidence demonstrating the effect of wolfberry dietary supplementation is still lacking. After our earlier report showing that a proprietary milk-based wolfberry formulation (Lacto-Wolfberry) enhances in vivo antigen-specific adaptive immune responses in aged mice, the present study aimed at demonstrating the effect of dietary Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation on immune functions in the elderly, especially vaccine response known to decline with aging. A 3-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 150 healthy community-dwelling Chinese elderly (65-70 years old) supplemented with Lacto-Wolfberry or placebo (13.7 grams/day). Immune response to influenza vaccine was assessed in the study, along with inflammatory and physical status. No serious adverse reactions were reported during the trial, neither symptoms of influenza-like infection. No changes in body weight and blood pressure, blood chemistry or cells composition, as well as autoantibodies levels were observed. The subjects receiving Lacto-Wolfberry had significantly higher postvaccination serum influenza-specific immunoglobulin G levels and seroconversion rate, between days 30 and 90, compared with the placebo group. The postvaccination positive rate was greater in the Lacto-Wolfberry group compared to the placebo group, but did not reach statistical significance. Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation had no significant effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity response and inflammatory markers. In conclusion, long-term dietary supplementation with Lacto-Wolfberry in elderly subjects enhances their capacity to respond to antigenic challenge without overaffecting their immune system, supporting a contribution to reinforcing immune defense in this population.

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... All RCTs had a parallel study design with durations ranging between 2 and 16 weeks. In RCTs classified under the whole wolfberry subcategory (n = 4), three used dried whole wolfberry at a dosage of either 14, 15 or 90 g/d [2,19,28] while one provided a milk-based wolfberry formulation with approximately 7.3 g dried wolfberry/d [30,31]. The wolfberry extract subcategory intervened with either wolfberry fruit juice (120 mL/d) [24,32,33], extracted LBP (0.72 and 150 mg/d) [20,29] or an aqueous wolfberry concoction (80 mL/d) [26]. ...
... The optimal dosage however, remains challenging to identify due to the heterogeneity in methods and forms used for wolfberry administration between studies. Nevertheless, among RCTs which utilized whole wolfberry, a daily intake of 7.3, 14 and 15 g of dried fruit were reported [2,19,30,31]. Interventions that administered wolfberry at these quantities consistently reported marked increments in blood zeaxanthin concentrations [18,25,30,31,46]. Although limited to carotenoids, this suggests that a daily consumption of wolfberry at these dosages might suffice to elicit remarkable improvements in carotenoids status, a key factor that may be responsible for its bioactivity. ...
... Nevertheless, among RCTs which utilized whole wolfberry, a daily intake of 7.3, 14 and 15 g of dried fruit were reported [2,19,30,31]. Interventions that administered wolfberry at these quantities consistently reported marked increments in blood zeaxanthin concentrations [18,25,30,31,46]. Although limited to carotenoids, this suggests that a daily consumption of wolfberry at these dosages might suffice to elicit remarkable improvements in carotenoids status, a key factor that may be responsible for its bioactivity. ...
Article
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PurposeWolfberry is rich in bioactive compounds which may lower cardiovascular disease risk. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of wolfberry-based randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on overall cardiovascular health.Methods Four online databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Medline and Cochrane Library) were searched to shortlist relevant RCTs. Outcomes of interests included blood lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and other cardiovascular health-related indicators. Random-effects models were used to provide a weighted mean difference (WMD) and/or Hedges’ g for quantitative synthesis. This was coupled with subcategory analyses which stratified RCTs according to the form in which wolfberry was administered (whole wolfberry versus wolfberry extract).ResultsFrom the 785 articles identified, 10 were selected for meta-analysis. Compared to the control, groups which consumed wolfberry showed a reduction in blood triglycerides [WMDpooled (95% confidence interval): − 0.14 (− 0.19, − 0.09) mmol/L] and increased blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [WMDpooled: 0.06 (0.02, 0.09) mmol/L]. Notably, effects for both triglycerides [WMDwhole: − 0.14 (− 0.19, − 0.09) mmol/L; WMDextract: − 0.07 (− 0.30, 0.16) mmol/L] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [WMDwhole: 0.06 (0.02, 0.09) mmol/L; WMDextract: 0.05 (− 0.02, 0.13) mmol/L] were more prominent after whole wolfberry interventions. Additionally, blood malondialdehyde equivalents were also significantly decreased in wolfberry consuming groups [Hedges’ gpooled: − 1.45 (− 2.75, − 0.16)]. No changes were observed for the other lipids and lipoproteins as well as blood pressure.Conclusions Wolfberry consumption is effective in improving blood lipids and lipoproteins profile and lowering oxidative stress. This supports the incorporation of wolfberry, particularly as whole fruits, into dietary patterns targeted at improving cardiovascular health.
... Goji berry (Lycium barbarum), as a Chinese traditional herb and food supplement, contains many nutrients and phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides, scopoletin, the glucosylated precursor, carotenoids, flaconoids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins (Cheng et al., 2015). Evidence showed that Goji berry or Goji juice can improve the antioxidant markers, increase short-memory and caloric expenditure and increase immunity in healthy adults (Amagase & Nance, 2008Amagase, Sun, & Borek, 2009;Amagase, Sun, & Nance, 2009;Vidal et al., 2012). Furthermore, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) is the main bioactive compound extracted from Goji berry. ...
... Lycium barbarum has been applied into food production and health food for thousand years (Amagase & Nance, 2011;Cheng et al., 2015;Potterat, 2010;Vidal et al., 2012). The polysaccharides abstracted from it gained a lot attention recently due to plenty of health efficacy (Cai et al., 2014;Cao et al., 1994;Xia et al., 2016). ...
... In this study D-talose was decreased and D-talose can stimulate the activity of glucokinase, activate glycogen synthase, then increase glycogen synthesis and therefore finally reduce glycogenolysis (Liang, Zhai, Zou, Liu, & Zhang, 2011;Zhang, Li, & Feng, 2004). As for the rise of phosphate and leucine in serum, phosphate is involved in the process of ADP and ATP energy metabolism (Vidal et al., 2012). Leucine plays beneficial roles in the activation of the AMPK/ SIRT1 pathway, which is associated with regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, liver steatosis and tumorigenesis (Canto et al., 2009;Ding, Bao, & Deng, 2017;Herranz & Serrano, 2010). ...
Article
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) has been reported to possess abundant bioactive activities, such as anti-cancer, antioxidant activities, anti-diabetes, immune function and anti-fatigue, however, whether it can influence the healthy adults, especially at metabolomics level is still unclear. Therefore, metabolomics effects of LBP on adults were investigated in the present study. 42 males were randomly divided into LBP supplementation (300 mg/d) and control group for 4 weeks, followed by anthropometric, biochemical indexes, and metabolic profiles detection. LBP was determined with 3.74 kDa, consisted of fucose, rhamnose, amino-galactose, galactose, glucose, mannose and fructose with a molar ratio of 0.02:0.08:0.03:0.11:46.67:0.37:4.72. Dietary LBP supplementation decreased the TG/HDL index significantly. d-talose decreased, phosphate and leucine increased significantly in serum. 4-Hydroxymandelonitrile 1 increased, and tyrosine 1, 3-Aminoisobutyric acid 1, threitol and ribose decreased significantly in urine. Eight metabolites were simultaneously assessed by indicating the glycerophospholipid metabolism and tyrosine metabolism after LBP supplementation in males.
... Thirty-six experimental trials (2,8,, and one crosssectional study (59) assessed the association of fruit intake and inflammatory biomarkers and circulating levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), or E-selectin (Table 2). Fruit intake was reported to have beneficial effects on at least 1 marker of systemic inflammation such as hsCRP or TNF-α in most of the studies (2, 8, 25, 27, 29-32, 35-41, 43-46, 48-51, 59), although some studies (26,28,33,34,42,47,(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58) found no significant effects. The type of fruits investigated varied, and included berries, such as strawberries, blueberries, or barberry (n = 12) (25,28,37,39,41,43,45,47,52,55,58,59), pomegranate juice (26,33,49,50) or extract (2) (n = 5), grape products such as grape extract (38,51), powder (27,54) or juice (31), and cherries (29,40,56). ...
... Fruit intake was reported to have beneficial effects on at least 1 marker of systemic inflammation such as hsCRP or TNF-α in most of the studies (2, 8, 25, 27, 29-32, 35-41, 43-46, 48-51, 59), although some studies (26,28,33,34,42,47,(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58) found no significant effects. The type of fruits investigated varied, and included berries, such as strawberries, blueberries, or barberry (n = 12) (25,28,37,39,41,43,45,47,52,55,58,59), pomegranate juice (26,33,49,50) or extract (2) (n = 5), grape products such as grape extract (38,51), powder (27,54) or juice (31), and cherries (29,40,56). Other studies examined whether consumption of mixedfruit juice (8,42), orange juice (30,32,34,48), kiwifruit (36,53), grapefruit (35), star fruit (44), raisins (57), or lychee extract (46) beneficially altered circulating levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, sVCAM, sICAM, or E-selectin. ...
... Amagase et al. (25) examined the effects of daily barberry juice on immune function, and reported that the intervention group had significantly decreased serum levels of IL-2 compared to baseline and the control group, whereas serum concentration of IL-4 was not altered by the treatment. In contrast, a 3-mo trial by Vidal et al. (52) found that there was no difference in CRP, IL-6, or orosomucoid following barberry supplementation compared to placebo. Guo et al. (37) described a 4-wk trial comparing bayberry juice with placebo and reported the intervention group had significantly lower plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-8 compared to placebo. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inflammation is associated with an increased risk of a range of chronic diseases. A diet high in fruit and vegetables may help to reduce inflammation, as fruit and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidants and other biologically active substances, which may improve immune function. Objective: To summarize the evidence, we executed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effects of fruit and/or vegetable intake on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cells in humans with different diseases and conditions. Design: Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and EMBASE were systematically searched up to March 2018. Results: Eighty-three studies were included. Of these, 71 (86%) were clinical trials, and 12 were observational studies (n = 10 cross-sectional and n = 2 cohort). Amongst the observational research, n = 10 studies found an inverse association between intakes of fruit or vegetables and inflammatory biomarkers. Similarly, the majority of the intervention studies (68%, n = 48) reported beneficial effects of fruit or vegetable intake on ≥1 biomarker of systemic or airway inflammation. A meta-analysis of included studies showed that fruit or vegetable intake decreased circulating levels of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.05) and increased the γδ-T cell population (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, this review suggests that higher intakes of fruit and vegetables lead to both a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and an enhanced immune cell profile.
... Thirty-six experimental trials (2,8,, and one crosssectional study (59) assessed the association of fruit intake and inflammatory biomarkers and circulating levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), or E-selectin (Table 2). Fruit intake was reported to have beneficial effects on at least 1 marker of systemic inflammation such as hsCRP or TNF-α in most of the studies (2, 8, 25, 27, 29-32, 35-41, 43-46, 48-51, 59), although some studies (26,28,33,34,42,47,(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58) found no significant effects. The type of fruits investigated varied, and included berries, such as strawberries, blueberries, or barberry (n = 12) (25,28,37,39,41,43,45,47,52,55,58,59), pomegranate juice (26,33,49,50) or extract (2) (n = 5), grape products such as grape extract (38,51), powder (27,54) or juice (31), and cherries (29,40,56). ...
... Fruit intake was reported to have beneficial effects on at least 1 marker of systemic inflammation such as hsCRP or TNF-α in most of the studies (2, 8, 25, 27, 29-32, 35-41, 43-46, 48-51, 59), although some studies (26,28,33,34,42,47,(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58) found no significant effects. The type of fruits investigated varied, and included berries, such as strawberries, blueberries, or barberry (n = 12) (25,28,37,39,41,43,45,47,52,55,58,59), pomegranate juice (26,33,49,50) or extract (2) (n = 5), grape products such as grape extract (38,51), powder (27,54) or juice (31), and cherries (29,40,56). Other studies examined whether consumption of mixedfruit juice (8,42), orange juice (30,32,34,48), kiwifruit (36,53), grapefruit (35), star fruit (44), raisins (57), or lychee extract (46) beneficially altered circulating levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, sVCAM, sICAM, or E-selectin. ...
... Amagase et al. (25) examined the effects of daily barberry juice on immune function, and reported that the intervention group had significantly decreased serum levels of IL-2 compared to baseline and the control group, whereas serum concentration of IL-4 was not altered by the treatment. In contrast, a 3-mo trial by Vidal et al. (52) found that there was no difference in CRP, IL-6, or orosomucoid following barberry supplementation compared to placebo. Guo et al. (37) described a 4-wk trial comparing bayberry juice with placebo and reported the intervention group had significantly lower plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-8 compared to placebo. ...
... Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum, Solanaceae), or goji berry, has traditionally been used in Chinese herbal medicine. Recent research also suggests a number of potential health benefits including antioxidant and antitumor activities (17,18) as well as neuroprotective (19) and immunoenhancing effects (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Of particular note, a milk-based preparation of wolfberry has been shown to improve cell-mediated immune response in aged mice (24) and to elevate antibody titers after influenza vaccination in elderly persons (25). ...
... Recent research also suggests a number of potential health benefits including antioxidant and antitumor activities (17,18) as well as neuroprotective (19) and immunoenhancing effects (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Of particular note, a milk-based preparation of wolfberry has been shown to improve cell-mediated immune response in aged mice (24) and to elevate antibody titers after influenza vaccination in elderly persons (25). However, the impact of wolfberry on improving vaccine efficacy against a new infection has not been studied. ...
... Thus, developing strategies to reverse these age-related changes would have a great impact on public health, particularly in the elderly. As a promising nutritional approach, a recent study reported that elderly persons who consumed wolfberry for 3 mo (13.7 g/d in the form of the same milk-based preparation of wolfberry used in the current study) had higher serum influenza-specific antibody concentrations after receiving an influenza vaccine compared with age-matched elderly individuals in the placebo group (25). To further support these findings, in the current study we used an influenza infection animal model and determined the impact of wolfberry on antibody production in aged mice as well as wolfberryÕs ability to enhance the protective effect of flu vaccine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 × 2 design in which aged male mice (20-22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin323-339-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-γ production in CD4(+) T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function.
... Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum, Solanaceae), or goji berry, has traditionally been used in Chinese herbal medicine. Recent research also suggests a number of potential health benefits including antioxidant and antitumor activities (17,18) as well as neuroprotective (19) and immunoenhancing effects (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Of particular note, a milk-based preparation of wolfberry has been shown to improve cell-mediated immune response in aged mice (24) and to elevate antibody titers after influenza vaccination in elderly persons (25). ...
... Recent research also suggests a number of potential health benefits including antioxidant and antitumor activities (17,18) as well as neuroprotective (19) and immunoenhancing effects (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Of particular note, a milk-based preparation of wolfberry has been shown to improve cell-mediated immune response in aged mice (24) and to elevate antibody titers after influenza vaccination in elderly persons (25). However, the impact of wolfberry on improving vaccine efficacy against a new infection has not been studied. ...
... Thus, developing strategies to reverse these age-related changes would have a great impact on public health, particularly in the elderly. As a promising nutritional approach, a recent study reported that elderly persons who consumed wolfberry for 3 mo (13.7 g/d in the form of the same milk-based preparation of wolfberry used in the current study) had higher serum influenza-specific antibody concentrations after receiving an influenza vaccine compared with age-matched elderly individuals in the placebo group (25). To further support these findings, in the current study we used an influenza infection animal model and determined the impact of wolfberry on antibody production in aged mice as well as wolfberryÕs ability to enhance the protective effect of flu vaccine. ...
Conference Paper
Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Although wolfberry (goji berry) has been shown to improve immune response, including enhanced antibody production, after vaccination in the aged, it is not known if this effect would translate to better protection after influenza infection, nor is its underlying mechanism well understood. To address these issues, we conducted a study using a 2 3 2 design in which aged male mice (20–22 mo) were fed a control or a 5% wolfberry diet for 30 d, then immunized with an influenza vaccine or saline (control) on days 31 and 52 of the dietary intervention, and finally challenged with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus. Mice fed wolfberry had higher influenza antibody titers and improved symptoms (less postinfection weight loss) compared with the mice treated by vaccine alone. Furthermore, an in vitro mechanistic study showed that wolfberry supplementation enhanced maturation and activity of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in aged mice, as indicated by phenotypic change in expression of DC activation markers major histocompatibility complex class II, cluster of differentiation (CD) 40, CD80, and CD86, and functional change in DC production of cytokines interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-a as well as DC endocytosis. Also, adoptive transfer of wolfberry-treated bone marrow DCs (loaded with ovalbumin 323–339-peptide) promoted antigen-specific T cell proliferation as well as interleukin-4 and interferon-g production in CD4 + T cells. In summary, our data indicate that dietary wolfberry enhances the efficacy of influenza vaccination, resulting in better host protection to prevent subsequent influenza infection; this effect may be partly attributed to improved DC function.
... isoflavones, terpenoids, and diterpenes) [37]; one study used Covexir (Ferula foetida oleogum) [38]; one study used Zufa syrup (a composition of Nepeta bracteata, Ziziphus jujube, Glycyrrhizaglabra, Ficuscarica, Cordia myxa, Papaver somniferum, Fennel, Adiantumcapillus veneris, Viola, Viper's-buglosses, Lavender, and Iris) [39]; one study used sachets of Matricaria chamomilla L., Zataria multiflora Boiss., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Ziziphus jujuba Mill., Ficus carica L., Urtica dioica L., Althaea officinalis L., Nepeta bracteata Benth, and capsules of Rheum palmatum L. rizhome, Glycyrrhiza glabra root, Punica granatum L. fruit peel, Rheum palmatum, and Nigella sativa L. [40]; one study used giloy, swasari ras, ashwagandha, and tulsi ghanvati [41]; one used a multicomponent over-the-counter formulation [42]; one used lacto-wolfberry [43]; one used aged garlic extract powder [44]; one used ephedra herb, apricot kernel, cinnamon bark and glycyrrhiza root [45]; one used ginseng [46]; two used broccoli sprout decoction [47,48]; one used a Chima qingwen decoction [49]; one used elderberry extract orally [50]; and one use posaconazole [51]. The administered doses ranged from 300 mg to 200 g per day, and the intervention period ranged from 4 days to 20 weeks. ...
... However, whether the lacto-wolfberry effect can be attributed to a single wolfberry, wolfberry compound, or the combinatorial impact of mixing active compounds of fruit or a wolfberry/milk mixture is still unclear. In addition, demographic and prognostic data were not reported [43]. This aspect deserves further investigation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic antivirals and corticosteroids have been used to treat both influenza and the SARS-CoV-2 disease named COVID-19. However, these medications are not always effective, produce several adverse effects, and are associated with high costs. Medicinal plants and their constituents act on several different targets and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of influenza and COVID-19. This study aimed to perform a review to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on influenza and COVID-19, and to investigate the potential delivery systems for new antiviral therapies. EMBASE, PubMed, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and COCHRANE databases were searched. The studies included in this review showed that medicinal plants, in different formulations, can help to decrease viral spread and the time until full recovery. Plants reduced the incidence of acute respiratory syndromes and the symptom scores of the illnesses. Moreover, plants are related to few adverse effects and have low costs. In addition to their significance as natural antiviral agents, medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds may exhibit low bioavailability. This highlights the need for alternative delivery systems, such as metal nanoparticles, which can effectively transport these compounds to infected tissues.
... Micronutrient supplementation is widely used as a usual practice in disease and sport. In patients with diabetes, it improved cellular immunity without significant effects on IgA, IgM, and IgG serum concentrations [13] and, in healthy elderly sedentary persons, a milk-based wolfberry formulation increased the serum IgG level [14]. Data are conflictual in sport-related studies, depending substantially on the type of supplement used. ...
... The exercise immune response modulation with nutritional supplementation suggests some positive effect of micronutrient supplementation in inhibiting eventual exacerbation of autoimmune inflammatory responses to intensive training continuity [34]. This finding partially corroborates that of Vidal et al. [14], who verified that a milk-based wolfberry formulation increased serum IgG levels in healthy sedentary elderly. It was also verified that bovine colostrum protein concentrate prevented a drop in post-exercise serum IgG concentration in highly trained cyclists [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive physical training programs can affect the immune system. This study aims to verify the multi-micronutrient supplementation effects on serum immunoglobulins levels prior to and after a five-week physical training program. Twenty-four male recruit firefighters were randomly allocated into supplemented (with Prisfar Ever-Fit Plus over 35 consecutive days) and placebo groups (n = 12 each). Serum immunoglobulins G, A, and M were assessed. Supplementation effect was detected for immunoglobulin G (eta-squared, η2: 0.09; p = 0.035; power: 0.56), A (η2: 0.24; p = 0.001; power: 0.95), and M (η2: 0.09; p = 0.036; power: 0.56). Although immunoglobulin A was different between groups at baseline (mean difference: 42.58; 95 %CI: 7.00 to 78.16 mg/dL; p = 0.021; d = 2.48), within-group (before vs. after five weeks) showed no differences for both supplemented and control groups. In addition, even if immunoglobulin G and M were similar at baseline, immunoglobulin G decreased (mean diff.: 46.4; 95 %CI: 6.7 to 86.1 mg/dL; p = 0.03; d = 0.74) and immunoglobulin M increased (mean diff.: − 10.7; 95 %CI: − 15.8 to − 5.5 mg/dL; p = 0.001; d = − 1.33) in the control group. Although mean values remained within the reference values, changes observed for immunoglobulin G and M may reflect some immune protection for firefighters engaged in recruit training.
... Micronutrient supplementation is widely used as a usual practice in disease and sport. In patients with diabetes, it improved cellular immunity without significant effects on IgA, IgM, and IgG serum concentrations [13] and, in healthy elderly sedentary persons, a milk-based wolfberry formulation increased the serum IgG level [14]. Data are conflictual in sport-related studies, depending substantially on the type of supplement used. ...
... The exercise immune response modulation with nutritional supplementation suggests some positive effect of micronutrient supplementation in inhibiting eventual exacerbation of autoimmune inflammatory responses to intensive training continuity [34]. This finding partially corroborates that of Vidal et al. [14], who verified that a milk-based wolfberry formulation increased serum IgG levels in healthy sedentary elderly. It was also verified that bovine colostrum protein concentrate prevented a drop in post-exercise serum IgG concentration in highly trained cyclists [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive physical training programs can affect the immune system. This study aims to verify the multi-micronutrient supplementation effects on serum immunoglobulins levels prior to and after a five-week physical training program. Twenty-four male recruit firefighters were randomly allocated into supplemented (with Prisfar Ever-Fit Plus over 35 consecutive days) and placebo groups (n=12 each). Serum immunoglobulins G, A, and M were assessed. Supplementation effect was detected for immunoglobulin G (eta-squared, η 2 : 0.09; p =0.035; power: 0.56), A (η 2 : 0.24; p =0.001; power: 0.95), and M (η 2 : 0.09; p =0.036; power: 0.56). Although immunoglobulin A was different between groups at baseline (mean difference: 42.58; 95%CI: 7.00 to 78.16 mg/dL; p =0.021; d =2.48), within-group (before vs . after five weeks) showed no differences for both supplemented and control groups. In addition, even if immunoglobulin G and M were similar at baseline, immunoglobulin G decreased (mean diff.: 46.4; 95%CI: 6.7 to 86.1 mg/dL; p =0.03; d =0.74) and immunoglobulin M increased (mean diff.: -10.7; 95%CI: -15.8 to -5.5 mg/dL; p =0.001; d =-1.33) in the control group. Although mean values remained within the reference values, changes observed for immunoglobulin G and M may reflect some immune protection for firefighters engaged in recruit training. Keywords: exercise; firefighters; immunoglobulin; nutrition; training
... Although the Lycium barbarum provided in both trials was processed differently, it is unlikely that this explains the difference in results. Different preparations of Lycium barbarum, such as powders or juices [17,18] and extracts isolated from the dried fruit, have been found to be biologically active [19], suggesting that potentially active constituents are not lost during drying. ...
... In humans, however, a recent meta-analysis did not find any effects of Lycium barbarum intake on body weight [21]. In the five trials included, a total of 366 subjects were supplemented with Lycium barbarum or placebo for 14 days to 3 months [17,18,[22][23][24]. In none of these trials, food intake was controlled. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim: Increasing energy expenditure is an effective strategy for the prevention of obesity. In this respect, Lycium barbarum (goji berry) is of interest, as it has been shown to increase postprandial oxygen consumption. Although this suggests that energy expenditure was also increased, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation can only be assessed accurately when both oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are measured. We therefore investigated the effects of a single dose of Lycium barbarum fruit on postprandial energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. In addition, markers of lipid and glucose metabolism were measured. Methods: Seventeen healthy, overweight men received in a random order a meal containing 25 grams of dried Lycium barbarum fruit or a control meal matched for caloric content and macronutrient composition. Energy expenditure and the respiratory quotient were determined using indirect calorimetry before and up to 4 hours after meal intake. Blood was sampled before and after meal intake at regular intervals for analyses of plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations. Results: Energy expenditure significantly increased after the Lycium barbarum and control meal, but no differences were found between the meals (p=0.217). Postprandial changes in respiratory quotient (p=0.719) and concentrations of glucose (p=0.663), triacylglycerol (p=0.391), and free fatty acids (p=0.287) were also not affected by Lycium barbarum intake. Conclusions: A single dose of Lycium barbarum does not affect postprandial energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and markers for lipid and glucose metabolism in healthy, overweight men.
... Subsequently, the immune-enhancing properties of LWB in both, young-adult and aged mice, have been characterized [18] . Recent studies have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with LWB enhances immune response to flu vaccine [19] and plasma oxidative capacity in elderly [20] . The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of LWB. ...
... However, to the best of our knowledge, wolfberry has not been shown to reduce cytokine levels under inflammatory conditions, as observed in our present study. In fact, wolfberry has been shown to up-regulate cytokine expression [31] and both LWB and wolfberry have a demonstrated immune-enhancing effect [18,19,[32][33][34] . On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory properties of milk components are well established [35,36] . ...
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To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), both in vitro and using a mouse model of experimental colitis. The effects of LWB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion were assessed in a murine macrophage cell line. in vitro assessment also included characterizing the effects of LWB on the activation of NF-E2 related 2 pathway and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, utilizing reporter cell lines. Following the in vitro assessment, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an oral intervention with LWB was tested in vivo using a preclinical model of intestinal inflammation. Multiple outcomes including body weight, intestinal histology, colonic cytokine levels and anti-oxidative measures were investigated. LWB reduced the LPS-mediated induction of ROS production [+LPS vs 1% LWB + LPS, 1590 ± 188.5 relative luminescence units (RLU) vs 389 ± 5.9 RLU, P < 0.001]. LWB was more effective than wolfberry alone in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion in vitro (wolfberry vs 0.5% LWB, 15% ± 7.8% vs 64% ± 5%, P < 0.001). In addition, LWB increased reporter gene expression via the anti-oxidant response element activation (wolfberry vs LWB, 73% ± 6.9% vs 148% ± 28.3%, P < 0.001) and inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway (milk vs LWB, 10% ± 6.7% vs 35% ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oral supplementation with LWB resulted in a reduction of macroscopic (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.39 ± 0.61 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0445) and histological scores (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.44 ± 0.32 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0087) in colitic mice. These effects were associated with a significant decrease in levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β (-LWB vs +LWB, 570 ± 245 μg/L vs 89 ± 38 μg/L, P = 0.0106), keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth regulated protein-α (-LWB vs +LWB, 184 ± 49 μg/L vs 75 ± 20 μg/L, P = 0.0244), IL-6 (-LWB vs +LWB, 318 ± 99 μg/L vs 117 ± 18 μg/L, P = 0.0315) and other pro-inflammatory proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.95 ± 0.12 AU vs 0.36 ± 0.11 AU, P = 0.0036) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.51 ± 0.15 AU vs 0.1 ± 0.04 AU, P = 0.057). Moreover, antioxidant biomarkers, including expression of gene encoding for the glutathione peroxidase, in the colon and the plasma anti-oxidant capacity were significantly increased by supplementation with LWB (-LWB vs +LWB, 1.2 ± 0.21 mmol/L vs 2.1 ± 0.19 mmol/L, P = 0.0095). These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory properties of LWB and suggest that the underlying mechanism is at least in part due to NF-κB inhibition and improved anti-oxidative capacity.
... A recent study showed that 90 days of goji berry consumption was accompanied by an increase in macular pigment optical density, a marker of age-related macular degeneration in healthy, middle-aged adults [96]. Other studies demonstrated that dietary intervention with a proprietary milk-based formulation of goji berry (13.7 g/day), with enhancing zeaxanthin bioavailability [98], for 90 days, increases plasma zeaxanthin and improves antioxidant capacity and macular characteristics [87], as well as enhancing the immune system in healthy elderly subjects [88]. Moreover, the retinoprotective effects of 12-month goji berry supplementation were proven in patients with retinitis pigmentosa [92]. ...
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Goji berries have long been used for their nutritional value and medicinal purposes in Asian countries. In the last two decades, goji berries have become popular around the world and are consumed as a functional food due to wide-range bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. In addition, they are gaining increased research attention as a source of functional ingredients with potential industrial applications. This review focuses on the antioxidant properties of goji berries, scientific evidence on their health effects based on human interventional studies, safety concerns, goji berry processing technologies, and applications of goji berry-based ingredients in developing functional food products.
... Peer-reviewed research is continuing regarding the legitimate health benefits of goji berries, with a number of clinical trials involving observation of immunomodulatory activities of goji berries. A randomized, controlled trial on the consumption of a milk-based goji berry formulation by elderly human subjects, intended to observe the effects of goji berries on aging-related immune changes, found improved immunocompetence and antibody response in the elderly as measured by response to vaccination (Vidal et al., 2012). However, inflammatory markers were not significantly altered by this treatment. ...
Article
One of the most prominent concerns that has arisen from global events such as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is how the immune system might be enhanced to provide greater protection against malignant conditions and diseases. Dietary modification is one of the major fields of research, with special focus on how diet interacts with immunity through impacts on factors such as the gut microbiome, inflammation, and nutritional imbalance. This review focuses on current research regarding the use of bioactives derived from berries as a dietary supplement to improve immunity, with discussions of relevant clinical studies. Major bioactive, metabolic compounds of focus- flavonoids, anthocyanins, alkaloids, dietary fiber, and stilbenes- have demonstrated biochemical merits in modulating immunity. In addition, blueberries, goji berries, black raspberries, and cranberries, which have been extensively researched and recently gained interest for their effects on the immune system in animal and cell models, may also hold promise in providing similar benefits to humans, though the precise immunological effects have yet to be clearly determined. Overall, the field of berry research as it relates to diet and immunity shows potential, but more clinical studies will be necessary for a full understanding of the mechanisms of berry immunomodulation.
... There have been a number of studies in the past decade that aim to highlight the specific effects and mechanisms of berries on the immune system and show their potential health benefits for humans. A study conducted in China investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-aging effects of goji berry, also known as wolfberry (Lyciumbarbarum), when combined with milk, namely lacto-wolfberry, over the course of 3 months [118]. The participants were aged between 65 and 70 years old and the study aimed to research if regular consumption of lacto-wolfberry would have enhancing effects after the participants were vaccinated for influenza. ...
Article
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Along with the increased knowledge about the positive health effects of food bioactives, the eating habits of many individuals have changed to obtain higher nutritional benefits from foods. Fruits are among the most preferred food materials in this regard. In particular, berry fruits are important sources in the diet in terms of their high nutritional content including vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Berry fruits have remedial effects on several diseases and these health-promoting impacts are associated with their phenolic compounds which may vary depending on the type and variety of the fruit coupled with other factors including climate, agricultural conditions, etc. Most of the berries have outstanding beneficial roles in many body systems of humans such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. Furthermore, they are effective on some metabolic disorders and several types of cancer. In this review, the health-promoting effects of bioactive compounds in berry fruits are presented and the most recent in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies are discussed from a food science and nutrition point of view.
... Again, no effects of the intervention on these parameters could be demonstrated. However, several lines of evidence from cell, animal and human studies have suggested that spirulina, wakame, goji berries or their extracts may reduce markers of low-grade systemic inflammation [9][10][11][12], but results were not conclusive [13][14][15][16]. Therefore, we hypothesized that both consumption of the algae spirulina and wakame or a single dose of goji berries may lower markers for low-grade inflammation. ...
Article
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Introduction: We have earlier reported that consumption of the algae spirulina (Arthrospira platensis or maxima) and wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) for 17 days, and a single dose of goji berries (Lycium barbarum) did not affect fasting or postprandial CVD risk markers in healthy subjects. However, evidence is increasing that low-grade systemic inflammation is also an important marker for CVD risk. Based on information from in vitro and animal studies, we hypothesize that both consumption of the algae spirulina and wakame as well as a single dose of goji berries lowers markers for low-grade inflammation. Methods: Two randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trials were performed. In the algae study, 35 non-hypercholesterolemic, healthy subjects consumed 4.8 grams of spirulina, wakame or placebo for 17 days, separated by 14-day washout periods. After 17 days, fasting serum TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and hsCRP concentrations were measured. In the goji berry study, 17 healthy, overweight men received a mixed meal with or without 25 grams of dried goji berries. Before and up to 4 hours after meal intake, serum concentrations of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured. Results: Consumption of spirulina or wakame did not affect serum concentrations of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 or hsCRP. In the goji berry study, serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations increased postprandially. For IL-8, these increases were more pronounced after the goji berry meal compared to the control meal (P = 0.003). No effects on TNFα were observed. Conclusion: 17 days of spirulina or wakame consumption, or a single dose of goji berries did not lower markers of low-grade systemic inflammation in healthy, non-immunocompromised subjects. It is plausible that anti-inflammatory effects of these interventions can only be expected in subjects with an inflammatory risk.Keywords: spirulina, wakame, goji berries, low-grade systemic inflammation, cytokines
... Naprostá převaha těchto studií má charakter preklinického testování, ale několik klinických studií na zdravých dobrovolnících ukazuje, že konzumace šťávy z plodů kustovnice zlepšuje celkovou pohodu, atletický výkon, snižuje únavu, zlepšuje spánek a posiluje imunitní funkce. Ve studiích nebyly zaznamenány žádné vedlejší účinky ani žádné abnormality v biochemických a fyzických parametrech (35,36,37,38,39). Ve starší klinické randomizované a placebem kontrolované studii na pacientech s pokročilým nádorovým onemocněním (40) bylo pozorováno zlepšení celkového stavu nemocných a žádné vedlejší účinky. ...
Article
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Lycium barbarum and L. chinense are two closely related shrubs known as goji, which have been used in China for more than 2000 years as a traditional medicine and food supplement. These fruits contain a number of bioactive substances, of which polysaccharides (LBP) in particular are of interest for their inhibitory effects on the aging process. LBPs have antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic effects and also protect DNA from damage. As demonstrated in several animal models, this set of pharmacological activities results in LBP slowing down the aging process. This review article aims to present available valid information on the bioactive substances of plants of the genus Lycium and to critically assess the available scientific evidence on their retarding effects on the biological aging process.
... Fifteen trials administered their vaccination post-intervention; k = 32 before or at the first intervention session, k = 57 during the intervention, and k = 2 were not clear in terms of when the vaccination was given in relation to the intervention. Over half of all trials, k = 58/106 (55%) and 50/94 of all RCTs, reported evidence of a statistically significant improvement in the antibody response to vaccination across one or more outcome, but not necessarily all outcomes (see Appendices 2-4) (Ahmed et al., 2009;Akatsu et al., 2013Akatsu et al., , 2016Albert et al., 2003;Bahl et al., 2002;Benn et al., 2002;Bhaskaram et al., 1989;Bhaskaram & Rao, 1997;Boge et al., 2009;Bosch et al., 2012;Chandra & Puri, 1985;Davidson et al., 2011Davidson et al., , 2003de Vrese et al., 2005;Duchateau et al., 1981;Edwards et al., 2006Edwards et al., , 2007Edwards et al., , 2008French & Penny, 2009;Gibson et al., 2012;Girodon et al., 1999;Hawkes et al., 2005;Heine et al., 2011;Hsu et al., 1995;Isolauri et al., 1995;Karlsen et al., 2003;Kohut et al., 2004Kohut et al., , 2005Kukkonen et al., 2006;Langkamp-Henken et al., 2004Link-Amster et al., 1994;Maruyama et al., 2016;Meydani et al., 1997;Negishi et al., 2013;Newton et al., 2007;Olivares et al., 2007;Osendarp et al., 2007;Paineau et al., 2008;Petrie et al., 1995;Rahman et al., 1999;Rizzardini et al., 2012;Roman et al., 2013;Scaglione et al., 1996;Semba & West Jr, 1992;Soh et al., 2010;Stetler et al., 2006;Udani, 2013;Udani et al., 2010;Vedhara et al., 2003;Vidal et al., 2012;Whitham & Blannin, 2003;Woods et al., 2009;Wouters-Wesseling et al., 2002;Yang et al., 2008;Youngster et al., 2011).; k = 43/106 (41%) showed the intervention had no significant effect on the antibody response (Bahl et al., 1999;Benn et al., 1997;Boge et al., 2009;Broome et al., 2004;Brown et al., 1980;Bunout et al., 2002Bunout et al., , 2004Campbell et al., 2010;Cherian et al., 2003;Edwards et al., 2012;Fang et al., 2000;Habib et al., 2015;Harman & White Miller, 1986;Hayney et al., 2014;Huang & Huang, 1999;Ivory et al., 2017;Jespersen et al., 2015;Kelley et al., 1998Kelley et al., , 2000Kriesel & Spruance, 1999;Kutukculer et al., 2000;Link-Amster et al., 1994;Long et al., 2012Long et al., , 2013Namba et al., 2010;Osendarp et al., 2006;Principi et al., 2013;Provinciali et al., 1998;Przemska-Kosicka et al., 2016;Rahman et al., 1998;Ranadive et al., 2014;Remarque et al., 1993;Semba et al., 1997Semba et al., , 1999Soh et al., 2010;Stam et al., 2011;Türk et al., 1998;Van Puyenbroeck et al., 2012;West et al., 2008;Yalçın et al., 2011) and k = 6/106 (6%) showed evidence of a significantly impaired antibody response in the intervention group. In only k = 59/106 trials (56%) was adequate adherence with the intervention reported, or could it be assumed due to the intervention being supervised/administered by the trial team and/or being a single session. ...
Article
Introduction Psychological and behavioural may enhance vaccine effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to examine the effects of non-pharmacological adjuvants on vaccine effectiveness, as measured by antibody responses to vaccination. Areas covered Electronic databases (EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL) were searched from inception to 6th February 2018. This yielded 100 eligible papers, reporting 106 trials: 79 interventions associated with diet and/or nutrition; 12 physical activity interventions and 9 psychological interventions.Over half (58/106) of trials reported evidence of an enhanced antibody response to vaccination across one or more outcomes. The NMA considered the comparative effects between all intervention types, control and placebo for antibody titres (48 studies), seroconversion (25 studies) and seroprotection (23 studies) separately. The NMA provided weak evidence in support of nutritional formulae and probiotics in increasing antibody titres. Expert opinion This review offers a comprehensive summary of the literature on non-pharmacological interventions as vaccine adjuvants. The evidence is characterised by considerable heterogeneity but provides early evidence in support of nutritional formulae and probiotic interventions. Psychological and exercise-based interventions were characterised by limited and unreliable evidence. Large, well-designed studies including consistent core outcomes and measures of intervention adherence and fidelity are required.
... In the phytotherapy category, other clinical studies on immunostimulating activity of Echinacea purpúrea [10] Viscum album [11], individualized chinese herbal therapy [12] and Wolfberry [13] stand out. The Viscum album has been employed mainly by the complex medical system of anthroposophic medicine. ...
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Background Due to the pandemic, there is a significant interest in the therapeutic resources linked to TCIM to support potentially therapeutic research and intervention in the management of COVID-19. At the date of this evidence map´s publication, there is no evidence of specific treatments for Coronavirus - 19 (COVID-19). This map organizes information about symptoms management (especially on dimensions related to mental health and mild viral respiratory infections, as well as immune system strengthening and antiviral activity). Method This evidence map applies methodology developed by Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information based on the 3iE evidence gap map. A search was performed in the Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine Virtual Health Library and PubMed, using the MeSH and DeCS terms for respiratory viral diseases associated with epidemics, COVID-19 symptoms, relevant mental health topics, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions related to TCIM. Results For the map, 126 systematic reviews and controlled clinical studies were characterized, distributed in a matrix with 57 interventions (18 phytotherapy, 9 mind-body therapies, 10 traditional chinese medicine, 3 homeopathic and anthroposophic dynamized medicines and 17 supplements), and 67 outcomes (14 immunological response, 23 mental health, 25 complementary clinical management of the infection and 5 other). Discussion The map presents an overview of possible TCIM contributions to various dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the field of mental health, and it is directed to researchers and health professionals specialized in TCIM. Most of the antiviral activity outcomes described in this map refers to respiratory viruses in general, and not specifically to SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2). This information may be useful to guide new research, but not necessarily to support a therapeutic recommendation. Finally, any suspicion of COVID-19 infection should follow the protocols recommended by the health authorities of each country/region.
... Goji berries have been shown to possess antioxidant properties, neutralizing the oxidative action of free radicals and activating antioxidant mechanisms (Figure 10.8 week Rectal hemorrhage, bruising and nasal bleeding in a man who had used warfarin juice. Vidal et al. (2012) 150 adults 3 months Improve the immunological response against the influenza vaccine using a milk-based and goji berry product. ...
Chapter
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The world population aging owing to lifespan extension in modern industrialized societies is accompanied by an increasing prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases. In this context, special healthcare measures should be taken to prevent these diseases, and this can be achieved in particular by proper nutrition and consumption of foods rich in bioactive constituents. Goji berry fruits are an example of such a food. They have been used for more than 2000 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and today have gained worldwide popularity due to their recognized beneficial health properties.This chapter is dedicated to the important bioactive ingredients of the two known varieties of goji berry plants (Lyciumbarbarum, Lyciumchinense), and it is especially focused on their functional properties. It also outlines the various technologies aiming at the effective extraction of bioactives from the goji berry in order to be used for the preparation of high-added-value functional foods.
... Daily consumption of Gochi notably increased the number of lymphocytes and levels of IL-2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) for old Chinese adults (55-72 years old) ( Amagase, Sun, & Nance, 2009b ). Receiving milk-based Gouqizi formulation (Lacto-wolfberry) in old Chinese volunteers (65-70 years old) had significantly higher postvaccination serum influenza-specific IgG levels and seroconversion rate ( Vidal et al., 2012 ). These results indicated that consumption Gouqizi could enhance the anti-oxidant capacity and promote the immunity, and would be used as a vaccine adjuvant. ...
Article
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Lycii Fructus (Lycium barbarum, Gouqizi in Chinese name) is one of the most popular Chinese material medica and a common ingredient in tonic food. This fruit has been paid rapidly growing attention for its nutrient value and noticeable pharmacological properties. The present paper focuses on the legal resource of Gouqizi and reviews the main research in medicinal field including botanical identification, ethnopharmacological functions, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, clinic usages, and safety issues. In addition, some issues needed address will be also discussed. We strongly believe that further investigation will deepen our knowledge of Gouqizi and promote the industrial development in the world.
... These age-associated nutritional problems provide opportunities and challenges in developing interventions that could reduce inflammation while improving host defense against infection. Strategies include single nutrient interventions, e.g., vitamin E [20,46,48,52,56,99,103,105], vitamin B6 [106], zinc [6-8, 43, 100, 126], fish oils [102,104,159], or whole food such as wolfberry [38,127,145,146] and pre-and probiotics [40,87]. In addition, calorie restriction in both animal and humans has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve immune response [3,101,115,149]. ...
Article
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Many countries are witnessing a marked increase in longevity and with this increased lifespan and the desire for healthy ageing, many, however, suffer from the opposite including mental and physical deterioration, lost productivity and quality of life, and increased medical costs. While adequate nutrition is fundamental for good health, it remains unclear what impact various dietary interventions may have on prolonging good quality of life. Studies which span age, geography and income all suggest that access to quality foods, host immunity and response to inflammation/infections, impaired senses (i.e., sight, taste, smell) or mobility are all factors which can limit intake or increase the body’s need for specific micronutrients. New clinical studies of healthy ageing are needed and quantitative biomarkers are an essential component, particularly tools which can measure improvements in physiological integrity throughout life, thought to be a primary contributor to a long and productive life (a healthy “lifespan”). A framework for progress has recently been proposed in a WHO report which takes a broad, person-centered focus on healthy ageing, emphasizing the need to better understand an individual’s intrinsic capacity, their functional abilities at various life stages, and the impact by mental, and physical health, and the environments they inhabit.
... Increased post-vaccination serum influenza-specific IgG levels and enhances immune system. Vidal et al. 2012 Weight maintenance Goji berry Randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial Increase metabolic rate/energy expenditure. ...
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The term “superfruit” has gained increasing usage and attention recently with the marketing strategy to promote the extraordinary health benefits of some exotic fruits, which may not have worldwide popularity. This has led to many studies with the identification and quantification of various groups of phytochemicals. This contribution discusses phytochemical compositions, antioxidant efficacies, and potential health benefits of the main superfruits such as açai, acerola, camu-camu, goji berry, jaboticaba, jambolão, maqui, noni, and pitanga. Novel product formulations, safety aspects, and future perspectives of these superfruits have also been covered. Research findings from the existing literature published within the last 10 years have been compiled and summarized. These superfruits having numerous phytochemicals (phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, iridoids, coumarins, hydrolysable tannins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) together with their corresponding antioxidant activities, have increasingly been utilized. Hence, these superfruits can be considered as a valuable source of functional foods due to the phytochemical compositions and their corresponding antioxidant activities. The phytochemicals from superfruits are bioaccessible and bioavailable in humans with promising health benefits. More well-designed human explorative studies are needed to validate the health benefits of these superfruits.
... For example one previous study indicated a significant association between inadequate calorie intake and being underweight in older people with deficient or poorly functioning dentition [17]. Studies in which the diet of older individuals was supplemented, with an energy source and trace elements revealed that treated individuals could produce a greater response to influenza [18][19][20][21] and pneumococcal vaccination [22,23]. Changes in the permeability of the gut alter the uptake of trace elements such as zinc. ...
Article
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Advanced age is one indicator of likely immune dysfunction. As worldwide, the global population contains progressively more and more older individuals there is likelihood of an increased prevalence and incidence of infectious diseases due to common and emergent pathogens. The resultant increase in mortality and morbidity would be matched by the risk of functional decline and disability. Maintaining immune function at a plateau throughout life may therefore be associated with considerable cost savings. The aim of improving immune function in older individuals may be achieved through considering a therapeutic approach to rejuvenate, stimulate or support the indigenous immune system to perform in a more optimal manner. In terms of cost effectiveness a therapeutic approach may prove difficult because of issues associated with; identifying those who would benefit the most from this treatment, identifying the type of treatment which would suit them and identifying whether the treatment was the successfulness. The alternative of supporting or providing a stronger stimulus through vaccination, whilst more cost effective, may be a more valuable option in the short term. Both approaches will be addressed in this review.
... Investigations into the benefits of berries for oral health are scarce (Table 2 [34][35][36][40][41][42]44,56,57,[66][67][68]87,89,90,93,[98][99][100][101][113][114][115][116][117][121][122][123][126][127][128][129]132,[134][135][136][137][138] ), and no animal study on this topic was found. Oral health concerns dental cav- ities and inflammation, which can lead to periodontal disease and/or leucoplakia, as well as bacterial balance and oral cancer. ...
Article
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Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of contact. In vivo studies that described the health effects of berries on individual parts of the digestive tract (ie, the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, microbiome, and immune system) were reviewed. Immune effects were included because a large part of the immune system is located in the intestine. Beneficial health effects were mainly observed for whole berry extracts, not individual berry components. These effects ranged from support of the immune system and beneficial microbiota to reduction in the number and size of premalignant and malignant lesions. These results demonstrate the potency of berries and suggest berries can serve as a strong adjuvant to established treatments or therapies for a variety of gastrointestinal and immune-related illnesses.
... Antioxidante, anti-edad, incremento de la memoria, inmunomodulador, anticáncer, citoprotector, protector de la visión, del hígado y del riñón, protector cardiovascular, neuromodulador, antidiabético, hipolipidémico, aumento de las funciones reproductivas. [Luo et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2009;Yu et al., 2005Yu et al., , 2006Li et al., 2007;Chang y So, 2008;Chen et al., 2008;Amagase et al., 2009;Ho et al., 2010;Bucheli et al., 2011;Mao et al., 2011;Shan et al., 2011;Tang et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2011;Lau et al, 2012;Vidal et al., 2012;Xiao et al. 2012 [Semillas] Vigorizante, para recuperar fuerzas. ...
Article
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This paper includes partial results of a research in urban Ethnobotany at the conurbation Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina. Five species with medicinal and food traditional uses, which are commercialized as dietary supplements were studied: Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae), Lycium barbarum L. (Solanaceae), Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) y Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Engl.) H.Rob. (Asteraceae). The analysis of the circulation of these products contributes to the understanding of local botanical knowledge, that includes nontraditional components and others linked to the traditions of two immigrant groups: Bolivian and Chinese. The products recently entered the commercial circuit where they are considered as nutraceuticals and adaptogens. Traditional uses of these plants, their properties claimed in pluricultural urban context as well as the scientifically studied ones were compared. Thus, modifications in the original uses as a result of the expansion of the products in the nontraditional commercial context were evaluated. © 2013 Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas.
... In addition, an antiinflammatory activity mediated by products of milk fermentation was identified after consumption of a probiotic yogurt [351], accompanied by a decrease in mutagenicity in the intestinal tract [352]. Dairy products were also reported to strengthen vaccination protocols as shown for influenza vaccination [353,354]. Another study provided evidence for an immunological contribution of non-bacterial components of dairy products as whey proteins enhanced the serum response of elderly to pneumococcal vaccine [355]. Taken together, dairy products can be considered as strategic food vectors to deliver immunomodulatory components to elderly helping them to strengthen their immune system. ...
Article
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Although the prevalence of malnutrition in the old age is increasing worldwide a synthetic understanding of the impact of aging on the intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients is still lacking. This review article aims at filling the gap in knowledge between the functional decline of the aging gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the consequences of malnutrition on the health status of elderly. Changes in the aging GIT include the mechanical disintegration of food, gastrointestinal motor function, food transit, chemical food digestion, and functionality of the intestinal wall. These alterations progressively decrease the ability of the GIT to provide the aging organism with adequate levels of nutrients, what contributes to the development of malnutrition. Malnutrition, in turn, increases the risks for the development of a range of pathologies associated with most organ systems, in particular the nervous-, muscoskeletal-, cardiovascular-, immune-, and skin systems. In addition to psychological, economics, and societal factors, dietary solutions preventing malnutrition should thus propose dietary guidelines and food products that integrate knowledge on the functionality of the aging GIT and the nutritional status of the elderly. Achieving this goal will request the identification, validation, and correlative analysis of biomarkers of food intake, nutrient bioavailability, and malnutrition.
... These studies indicated that it had potential effects against cancer (44,59), liver injury (12,51), overweight (1), cardiovascular diseases (52) and inflammatory diseases (44). It could also modulate immunity (47) and sex behavior (27). In addition, Lycium barbarum has Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Communication Corporation ...
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Our previous results showed that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) could delay secondary degeneration of retinal ganglion cell bodies and improve the function of the retinas after partial optic nerve transection (PONT). Although the common degeneration mechanisms were believed to be shared by both neuronal bodies and axons, recently published data from slow Wallerian degeneration mutant (Wlds) mice supported the divergence in the mechanisms of them. Therefore, we want to determine if LBP could also delay the degeneration of axons after PONT. Microglia/macrophages were thought to be a source of reactive oxygen species after central nervous system (CNS) injury. After PONT, however, oxidative stress was believed to occur prior to the activation of microglia/macrophages in the areas vulnerable to secondary degeneration both in the optic nerves (ONs) and the retinas. But the results did not take into account the morphological changes of microglia/macrophages after their activation. So we examined the morphology in addition to the response magnitude of microglia/macrophages to determine their time point of activation. In addition, the effects of LBP on the activation of microglia/macrophages were investigated. The results showed that (1) LBP reduced the loss of axons in the central ONs and preserved the g-ratio (axon diameter/fiber diameter) in the ventral ONs although no significant effect was detected in the dorsal ONs; (2) microglia/macrophages were activated in the ONs by 12 h after PONT; (3) LBP decreased the response magnitude of microglia/macrophages 4 weeks after PONT. In conclusion, our results showed that LBP could delay secondary degeneration of the axons, and LBP could also inhibit the activation of microglia/macrophages. Therefore, LBP could be a promising herbal medicine to delay secondary degeneration in the CNS via modulating the function of microglia/macrophages.
... No serious adverse reactions were reported during the trial, neither symptoms of influenza-like infection nor changes in body weight and blood pressure, blood chemistry or cells composition, and autoantibodies levels were observed. 151 Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation had no significant effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity response and inflammatory markers. These data show that chronic dietary supplementation with Lacto-Wolfberry in the elderly enhances their capacity to respond to influenza vaccine challenge. ...
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Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People's Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. LBPs may potentiate the efficacy of lymphokine activated killer/interleukin-2 combination therapy in cancer patients. LBPs exhibit significant hypoglycemic effects and insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic β-cell proliferation. They protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental models of glaucoma. LBPs protect the liver from injuries due to exposure to toxic chemicals or other insults. They also show potent immunoenhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LBPs protect against neuronal injury and loss induced by β-amyloid peptide, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemic/reperfusion, and other neurotoxic insults. LBPs ameliorate the symptoms of mice with Alzheimer's disease and enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, improving learning and memory abilities. They reduce irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced organ toxicities. LBPs are beneficial to male reproduction by increasing the quality, quantity, and motility of sperm, improving sexual performance, and protecting the testis against toxic insults. Moreover, LBPs exhibit hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, antiviral, and antiinflammatory activities. There is increasing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies supporting the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of LBPs, but further mechanistic and clinical studies are warranted to establish the dose-response relationships and safety profiles of LBPs.
... Antioxidante, anti-edad, incremento de la memoria, inmunomodulador, anticáncer, citoprotector, protector de la visión, del hígado y del riñón, protector cardiovascular, neuromodulador, antidiabético, hipolipidémico, aumento de las funciones reproductivas. [Luo et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2009;Yu et al., 2005Yu et al., , 2006Li et al., 2007;Chang y So, 2008;Chen et al., 2008;Amagase et al., 2009;Ho et al., 2010;Bucheli et al., 2011;Mao et al., 2011;Shan et al., 2011;Tang et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2011;Lau et al, 2012;Vidal et al., 2012;Xiao et al. 2012 [Semillas] Vigorizante, para recuperar fuerzas. ...
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This paper includes partial results of a research in urban Ethnobotany at the conurbation Buenos Aires-La Plata, Argentina. Five species with medicinal and food traditional uses, which are commercialized as dietary supplements were studied: Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae), Lycium barbarum L. (Solanaceae), Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) y Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Engl.) H.Rob. (Asteraceae). The analysis of the circulation of these products contributes to the understanding of local botanical knowledge, that includes nontraditional components and others linked to the traditions of two immigrant groups: Bolivian and Chinese. The products recently entered the commercial circuit where they are considered as nutraceuticals and adaptogens. Traditional uses of these plants, their properties claimed in pluricultural urban context as well as the scientifically studied ones were compared. Thus, modifications in the original uses as a result of the expansion of the products in the nontraditional commercial context were evaluated.
... supplementation with a milk-based formulation of wolfberry, called lacto-wolfberry (lWB), has been shown to enhance t cell function and improved protection against influenza infection in preclinical models of ageing (68,69). a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 150 healthy community-dwelling chinese elderly investigated the immune response to influenza vaccine after three months supplementation with lWB. the subjects receiving lWB, had significantly higher post vaccination serum influenza-specific immunoglobulin g levels and seroconversion rate, as compared with the placebo group (70). these results indicated an enhanced capacity to respond to antigenic challenge, an important factor for this population for fighting infection. ...
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IMPORTANTE: 1. Até o momento de publicação deste mapa, NÃO EXISTEM EVIDÊNCIAS DE TRATAMENTOS ESPECÍFICOS PARA A COVID-19, este trabalho foi uma revisão rápida da literatura que organiza informações úteis sobre o manejo dos sintomas (especialmente na dimensão da Saúde Mental e de sintomas leves de infecções respiratórias virais), assim como o fortalecimento do sistema imune. Esta informação é direcionada a pesquisadores e profissionais de saúde especialistas em MTCI. 2. A grande maioria dos achados de atividade antiviral aqui descritas se referem a vírus respiratórios em geral, e não especificamente ao SARS-CoV-2, o que pode nortear novas pesquisas mas não necessariamente embasar um protocolo de recomendação terapêutica. 3. Recomendamos que qualquer suspeita de infecção por COVID-19 deve seguir os protocolos recomendados pelas autoridades de saúde de cada região.
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As cancer rates rise globally, standard care is being questioned; new approaches involving immune therapies are emerging. With this shift comes a corresponding shift in the use and potential of herbal medicines and extracts. The focus of this article, which has evolved from a presentation at the Second Beijing International Symposium on Integrative Medicine (BISIM May 19-20, 2012), is particularly on Chinese medicine, but is generalizable to Eastern medicine more broadly and to other herbal traditions. Until recently, herbal and related treatments have been used as adjuvants to conventional care - for reducing side-effects, enhancing cytotoxicity, and sometimes, undesirably counteracting the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation. Now, in the context of a new class of immune-based cancer therapies, herbal and other complementary modalities are looked at as enhancers of the body's immunity.
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An evidence-based systematic review of cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing, by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration is discussed in this monograph.
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Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) is purported to benefit vision because of its high antioxidant (especially zeaxanthin) content, although this effect has not been demonstrated in high-quality human studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily supplementation with a proprietary milk-based formulation of goji berry, Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), on macular characteristics and plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity levels in elderly subjects. This was a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy elderly subjects (range, 65 to 70 years) receiving 13.7 g/d of LWB (n = 75) or placebo (n = 75) for 90 days. Subjects underwent direct ophthalmic examination to assess pigmentation and soft drusen count in the macula and a blood draw to measure plasma zeaxanthin level and total antioxidant capacity. The placebo group demonstrated hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation in the macula, whereas the LWB group remained stable. Both plasma zeaxanthin level and antioxidant capacity increased significantly in the LWB group, by 26% and 57%, respectively, but did not change in the placebo group. No product-related adverse events were reported in either group. Overall, daily dietary supplementation with goji berry for 90 days increases plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant levels as well as protects from hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation in the macula of elderly subjects. However, the mechanism of action is unclear, given the lack of relationship between change in plasma zeaxanthin and change in macular characteristics.
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Dendritic cell (DC) immunogenicity correlates with its maturation, which can be induced by toxic microbial products such as LPS. In this study, we report that a nontoxic polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, Lycium barbarum (LBP), induces phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs with strong immunogenicity. LBP up-regulated DC expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II molecules; down-regulated DC uptake of Ag; enhanced DC allostimulatory activity; and induced IL-12p40 and p70 production. All of its five fractions were active. LBP developed enhanced Th1 response, and LBP-treated DCs enhanced Th1 and Th2 responses in vitro and in vivo. Our study provides evidence and rationale on using LBP in various clinical conditions to enhance host immunity and suggests LBP as a potent adjuvant for the design of DC-based vaccines.
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To determine whether long-term supplementation with vitamin E enhances in vivo, clinically relevant measures of cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study. A total of 88 free-living, healthy subjects at least 65 years of age. Subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo group or to groups consuming 60, 200, or 800 mg/d of vitamin E for 235 days. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response (DTH); antibody response to hepatitis B, tetanus and diphtheria, and pneumococcal vaccines; and autoantibodies to DNA and thyroglobulin were assessed before and after supplementation. Supplementation with vitamin E for 4 months improved certain clinically relevant indexes of cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly. Subjects consuming 200 mg/d of vitamin E had a 65% increase in DTH and a 6-fold increase in antibody titer to hepatitis B compared with placebo (17% and 3-fold, respectively), 60-mg/d (41% and 3-fold, respectively), and 800-mg/d (49% and 2.5-fold, respectively) groups. The 200-mg/d group also had a significant increase in antibody titer to tetanus vaccine. Subjects in the upper tertile of serum alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) concentration (>48.4 micromol/L [2.08 mg/dL]) after supplementation had higher antibody response to hepatitis B and DTH. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on antibody titer to diphtheria and did not affect immunoglobulin levels or levels of T and B cells. No significant effect of vitamin E supplementation on autoantibody levels was observed. Our results indicate that a level of vitamin E greater than currently recommended enhances certain clinically relevant in vivo indexes of T-cell-mediated function in healthy elderly persons. No adverse effects were observed with vitamin E supplementation.
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Respiratory viral infections are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in the United States each year. To estimate annual influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States by hospital discharge category, discharge type, and age group. National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data and World Health Organization Collaborating Laboratories influenza surveillance data were used to estimate annual average numbers of hospitalizations associated with the circulation of influenza viruses from the 1979-1980 through the 2000-2001 seasons in the United States using age-specific Poisson regression models. We estimated influenza-associated hospitalizations for primary and any listed pneumonia and influenza and respiratory and circulatory hospitalizations. Annual averages of 94,735 (range, 18,908-193,561) primary and 133,900 (range, 30,757-271,529) any listed pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations were associated with influenza virus infections. Annual averages of 226,54 (range, 54,523-430,960) primary and 294,128 (range, 86,494-544,909) any listed respiratory and circulatory hospitalizations were associated with influenza virus infections. Persons 85 years or older had the highest rates of influenza-associated primary respiratory and circulatory hospitalizations (1194.9 per 100,000 persons). Children younger than 5 years (107.9 primary respiratory and circulatory hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) had rates similar to persons aged 50 through 64 years. Estimated rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations were highest during seasons in which A(H3N2) viruses predominated, followed by B and A(H1N1) seasons. After adjusting for the length of each influenza season, influenza-associated primary pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations increased over time among the elderly. There were no significant increases in influenza-associated primary respiratory and circulatory hospitalizations after adjusting for the length of the influenza season. Significant numbers of influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States occur among the elderly, and the numbers of these hospitalizations have increased substantially over the last 2 decades due in part to the aging of the population. Children younger than 5 years had rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations similar to those among individuals aged 50 through 64 years. These findings highlight the need for improved influenza prevention efforts for both young and older US residents.
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Observational studies report that influenza vaccination reduces winter mortality risk from any cause by 50% among the elderly. Influenza vaccination coverage among elderly persons (> or =65 years) in the United States increased from between 15% and 20% before 1980 to 65% in 2001. Unexpectedly, estimates of influenza-related mortality in this age group also increased during this period. We tried to reconcile these conflicting findings by adjusting excess mortality estimates for aging and increased circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses. We used a cyclical regression model to generate seasonal estimates of national influenza-related mortality (excess mortality) among the elderly in both pneumonia and influenza and all-cause deaths for the 33 seasons from 1968 to 2001. We stratified the data by 5-year age group and separated seasons dominated by A(H3N2) viruses from other seasons. For people aged 65 to 74 years, excess mortality rates in A(H3N2)-dominated seasons fell between 1968 and the early 1980s but remained approximately constant thereafter. For persons 85 years or older, the mortality rate remained flat throughout. Excess mortality in A(H1N1) and B seasons did not change. All-cause excess mortality for persons 65 years or older never exceeded 10% of all winter deaths. We attribute the decline in influenza-related mortality among people aged 65 to 74 years in the decade after the 1968 pandemic to the acquisition of immunity to the emerging A(H3N2) virus. We could not correlate increasing vaccination coverage after 1980 with declining mortality rates in any age group. Because fewer than 10% of all winter deaths were attributable to influenza in any season, we conclude that observational studies substantially overestimate vaccination benefit.
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Normal functioning of the immune system is crucial to the health of man, and diet is one of the major exogenous factors modulating individual immunocompetence. Recently, nutrition research has focused on the role of foods or specific food components in enhancing immune system responsiveness to challenges and thereby improving health and reducing disease risks. Assessing diet-induced changes of immune function, however, requires a thorough methodological approach targeting a large spectrum of immune system parameters. Currently, no single marker is available to predict the outcome of a dietary intervention on the resistance to infection or to other immune system-related diseases. The present review summarises the immune function assays commonly used as markers in human intervention studies and evaluates their biological relevance (e.g. known correlation with clinically relevant endpoints), sensitivity (e.g. within- and between-subject variation), and practical feasibility. Based on these criteria markers were classified into three categories with high, medium or low suitability. Vaccine-specific serum antibody production, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, vaccine-specific or total secretory IgA in saliva and the response to attenuated pathogens, were classified as markers with high suitability. Markers with medium suitability include natural killer cell cytotoxicity, oxidative burst of phagocytes, lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine pattern produced by activated immune cells. Since no single marker allows conclusions to be drawn about the modulation of the whole immune system, except for the clinical outcome of infection itself, combining markers with high and medium suitability is currently the best approach to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. It would be valuable to include several immune markers in addition to clinical outcome in future clinical trials in this area, as there is too little evidence that correlates markers with global health improvement.
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The carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated within the macula. Increased macular zeaxanthin is suggested to lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration. The small red berry, wolfberry (Fructus barbarum L.; Gou Qi Zi and Kei Tze), is one of the richest natural sources of zeaxanthin. However, carotenoid bioavailability is low, and food-based products with enhanced bioavailability are of interest. The present study investigated zeaxanthin bioavailability from three wolfberry formulations. Berries were homogenised in hot (80 degrees C) water, warm (40 degrees C) skimmed milk and hot (80 degrees C) skimmed milk, with freeze drying of each preparation into a powdered form. A zeaxanthin-standardised dose (15 mg) of each was consumed, in randomised order, together with a standardised breakfast by twelve healthy, consenting subjects in a cross-over trial, with a 3-5-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were taken via a venous cannula immediately before (fasting) and 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 10 h post-ingestion. Zeaxanthin concentration in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma was measured by HPLC. Results showed that triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein zeaxanthin peaked at 6 h post-ingestion for all formulations. Zeaxanthin bioavailability from the hot milk formulation was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than from the others. Mean area under the curve (n 12) results were 9.73 (sem 2.45), 3.24 (sem 0.72) and 3.14 (sem 1.09) nmol x h/l for the hot milk, warm milk and hot water formulations, respectively. Results showed clearly that homogenisation of wolfberry in hot skimmed milk results in a formulation that has a 3-fold enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin compared with both the 'classical' hot water and warm skimmed milk treatment of the berries.
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This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is the first study reported from outside China that has examined the general effects of the orally consumed goji berry, Lycium barbarum, as a standardized juice (GoChi; FreeLife International LLC, Phoenix, AZ) to healthy adults for 14 days. Based upon the medicinal properties of Lycium barbarum in traditional Asian medicine, we examined by questionnaire subjective ratings (0-5) of general feelings of well-being, neurologic/psychologic traits, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular complaints as well as any adverse effects. Also, measures of body weight, body-mass index, blood pressure, pulse rate, and visual acuity were assessed before and after consuming 120 mL of GoChi/day or placebo control solution. Data were statistically analyzed for changes between day 1 and day 15. Significant differences between day 1 and day 15 were found in the GoChi group (N = 16) in increased ratings for energy level, athletic performance, quality of sleep, ease of awakening, ability to focus on activities, mental acuity, calmness, and feelings of health, contentment, and happiness. GoChi also significantly reduced fatigue and stress, and improved regularity of gastrointestinal function. In contrast, the placebo group (N = 18) showed only two significant changes (heartburn and happiness). No significant changes in musculoskeletal or cardiovascular complaints were observed in either group. All parametric data (body weight, etc.) were not significantly different between groups or between day 1 and day 15 for either group. These results clearly indicate that daily consumption of GoChi for 14 days increases subjective feelings of general well-being, and improves neurologic/psychologic performance and gastrointestinal functions. The data strongly suggest that further research is indicated to confirm and extend knowledge of the potential effects of Lycium barbarum upon human health.
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Polysaccharides, one of the most important functional constituent in Lycium barbarum fruits, a famous Chinese medicinal herb, are isolated with boiling water decoction. Analysis shows that its carbohydrate content is up to 97.54% mainly composed of d-rhamnose, d-xylose, d-arabinose, d-fucose, d-glucose, and d-galactosc. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides extracted from L. barbarum fruits was evaluated by six established in vitro methods, namely superoxide radical () scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene–linoleate model, inhibition of mice erythrocyte hemolysis mediated by peroxyl free radicals, 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH−) radical-scavenging and metal chelating activity. The polysaccharides showed notable inhibitory activity in the β-carotene–linoleate model system in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, it exhibited a moderate concentration-dependent inhibition of the DPPH− radical. The multiple antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides was evident as it showed significant reducing power, superoxide scavenging ability, inhibition of mice erythrocyte hemolysis mediated by peroxyl free radicals and also ferrous ion chelating potency. The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides extracted from L. barbarum fruits.
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Aging is associated with alterations of immune responses. Wolfberry, a popular Chinese functional ingredient, is prized for its anti-aging properties; however, little is known about the immunological effect of wolfberry intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary intake of a milk-based formulation of wolfberry, named Lacto-Wolfberry, on in vivo and ex vivo parameters of adaptive immunity in young-adult and aged mice. Over 44 days, young-adult (2 months) and aged (21 months) C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with a controlled diet and received drinking water supplemented or not with 0.5% (wt/vol) Lacto-Wolfberry. All mice were immunized on day 15 and challenged on day 22 with a T cell- dependent antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation significantly increased in vivo systemic immune markers that are known to decline with aging. Indeed, both antigen-(KLH) specific humoral response and cell-mediated immune responses in young-adult and aged mice were enhanced when compared to their respective controls. No significant effect of Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation was observed on ex vivo spleen cells proliferative response to mitogens and on splenocyte T cell subsets. In conclusion, dietary intake of Lacto-Wolfberry may favorably modulate the poor responsiveness to antigenic challenge observed with aging.
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Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.
Article
Since the beginning of this century, Goji berries and juice are being sold as health food products in western countries and praised in advertisements and in the media for well-being and as an anti-aging remedy. The popularity of Goji products has rapidly grown over the last years thanks to efficient marketing strategies. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium barbarum and L. chinense, two close species with a long tradition of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, in particular in China. While only L. barbarum is officinal, the fruit (fructus Lycii) and the root bark (cortex Lycii radicis) of both species are used in the folk medicine. We review here the constituents, pharmacology, safety, and uses of L. barbarum and L. chinense with consideration to the different parts of the plant. Investigations of the fruit have focused on proteoglycans, known as " Lycium barbarum polysaccharides", which showed antioxidative properties and some interesting pharmacological activities in the context of age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. As to the root bark, several compounds have demonstrated a hepatoprotective action as well as inhibitory effects on the rennin/angiotensin system which may support the traditional use for the treatment of hypertension. While there are no signs of toxicity of this plant, two cases of possible interaction with warfarin point to a potential risk of drug interaction. In view of the available pharmacological data and the long tradition of use in the traditional Chinese medicine, L. barbarum and L. chinense certainly deserve further investigation. However, clinical evidences and rigorous procedures for quality control are indispensable before any recommendation of use can be made for Goji products.
Article
Although Lycium barbarum (goji) and active compounds, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), have a high in vitro antioxidant score as determined by simple chemical reaction methods, their in vivo antioxidant effects in humans have not been extensively examined. After our earlier report that an LBP-standardized Lycium barbarum preparation (GoChi) helps prevent oxidant stress-related conditions in humans, our present study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant effects of GoChi result from its ability to enhance endogenous antioxidant factors. We investigated the effects of GoChi in a 30-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. The study population included 50 Chinese healthy adults aged 55 to 72 years. In vivo antioxidant markers, consisting of serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation (indicated by decreased levels of malondialdehyde, MDA) were examined preintervention and postintervention with GoChi or placebo (120 mL/d). In the GoChi group, antioxidant markers significantly increased by 8.4% for SOD and 9.9% for GSH-Px between the preintervention and postintervention measurements, whereas MDA were significantly decreased by 8.7%. In addition, the SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA levels in the GoChi group were significantly different from those in the placebo group at the postintervention time point, with increases of 8.1% and 9.0% and a decrease of 6.0%, respectively. No significant differences were detected between the preintervention and postintervention time points in the placebo group. These results indicate that GoChi increased antioxidant efficacies in humans by stimulating endogenous factors and suggest that continued use beyond 30 days might help prevent or reduce free radical-related conditions.
Article
Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that predicts cardiovascular disease. Lowering elevated CRP with statins has reduced the incidence of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether vitamin C or E could reduce CRP. Healthy nonsmokers (N=396) were randomized to three groups, 1000 mg/day vitamin C, 800 IU/day vitamin E, or placebo, for 2 months. Median baseline CRP was low, 0.85 mg/L. No treatment effect was seen when all participants were included. However, a significant interaction was found, indicating that treatment effect depends on baseline CRP concentration. Among participants with CRP indicative of elevated cardiovascular risk (> or =1.0 mg/L), vitamin C reduced the median CRP by 25.3% vs placebo (p=0.02) (median reduction in the vitamin C group, 0.25 mg/L, 16.7%). These effects are similar to those of statins. The vitamin E effect was not significant. In summary, treatment with vitamin C but not vitamin E significantly reduced CRP among individuals with CRP > or =1.0 mg/L. Among the obese, 75% had CRP > or =1.0 mg/L. Research is needed to determine whether reducing this inflammatory biomarker with vitamin C could reduce diseases associated with obesity. But research on clinical benefits of antioxidants should limit participants to persons with elevations in the target biomarkers.
Article
T lymphocytes play central roles in adaptive immunity. Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum), also known as wolfberry, is a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities, such as enhancing immunity, protecting liver damage, and reducing the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we report that polysaccharide-protein complex from L. barbarum (LBP) is able to activate T cells. LBP was isolated from L. barbarum and separated to five homogenous fractions, designated LBPF1, LBPF2, LBPF3, LBPF4, and LBPF5. We found that LBP, LBPF4, and LBPF5 significantly stimulated mouse splenocyte proliferation. The proliferation proved to be of T cells, but not B cells. Cell cycle profile analysis indicated that LBP, LBPF4, and LBPF5 markedly reduced sub-G1 cells. LBP, LBPF4, and LBPF5 could activate transcription factors NFAT and AP-1, prompt CD25 expression, and induce IL-2 and IFN-gamma gene transcription and protein secretion. LBP (i.p. or p.o.) significantly induced T cell proliferation. Our results suggest that activation of T lymphocytes by LBP may contribute to one of its immuno-enhancement functions.
Article
Dietary deficiencies of specific nutrients profoundly alter cell-mediated immune responses in man and experimental animals. Both moderate and severe deficiencies are associated with significant changes in immunocompetence. Diets with inadequate levels of protein, calories, vitamin A, pyridoxine, biotin and zinc result in loss of thymic cellularity. Secondary to thymic atrophy, the production of thymic hormones critical for the differentiation of T lymphocytes is reduced, especially in protein-calorie malnutrition and zinc deficiency. Confirmation of a T cell maturational defect in nutritional deprivation comes from the observations of decreased total (T3 and rosette-forming) T cells in the peripheral blood of children with kwashiorkor and marasmus, with preferential loss of helper/inducer (T4) T cell subsets. Reduced number and in vitro function of T cells have also been reported in experimental deficiencies of iron, zinc, copper, and vitamins A and E. Loss of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mitogens and antigens is a consistent sequela of dietary deficiencies of protein, vitamins A and C, pyridoxine, iron and zinc. Cell-mediated immunity directed against allogeneic histocompatibility antigens (e.g. mixed leukocyte cultures, graft versus host, skin graft rejection) may actually be enhanced by experimental protein and polyunsaturated fat deficiencies. Alternatively, pyridoxine, ascorbate and biotin deficiencies resulted in delayed rejection of skin allografts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity is impaired in zinc-, iron- and copper-deficient mice, as well as in scorbutic guinea pigs. Natural killer (NK) cell function may be either enhanced or depressed, depending upon the nutrient and its effects on interferon production. Several authors have demonstrated normal or enhanced macrophage activity in a variety of experimental deficiencies. The extrapolation of these observations to infectious disease resistance is not straightforward, and depends upon the nature of the microbe, its own nutrient needs, and the relative importance of innate, as opposed to immunologic, defense mechanisms.
Article
A glycoconjugate with pronounced immunoactivity, designated as LbGp2, was isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration. Its carbohydrate content is up to 90.71% composed of Ara, Gal and amino acids. The molecular weight is 68.2 kDa as determined by size exclusive chromatography (SEC). The complete structure of the repeat unit of the glycan of LbGp2 was elucidated based on glycosidic linkage analysis, total acid hydrolysis, partial acid hydrolysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. According to the experiments, the glycan possesses a backbone consisting of (1-->6)-beta-galactosyl residues, about fifty percent of which are substituted at C-3 by galactosyl or arabinosyl groups and the major nonreducing end being made of Ara (1 -->.
Article
Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are discussed in this review. (C) 2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.
Article
To estimate the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in persons aged 65 years and over living in the community. A meta-analysis of studies selected using predetermined criteria without language restriction. Influenza vaccine was effective in reducing influenza-like illness by 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19-47%), hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza by 33% (CI 27-38%), mortality following hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza by 47% (CI 25-62%); and mortality from all causes by 50% (CI 45-56%).
Article
The production of cytokine is a key event in the initiation and regulation of an immune response. Many compounds are now used routinely to modulate cytokine production, and therefore the immune response, in a wide range of diseases, such as cancer. Interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are two important cytokines in antitumor immunity. In this study, the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide-protein complex (LBP(3p)) on the expression of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and bioassay. Administration of LBP(3p) increased the expression of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that LBP(3p) may induce immune responses and possess potential therapeutic efficacy in cancer.
Article
The aging immune system is characterized by the progressive decline in the antibody and T cell-mediated responses to antigen. Little is known, however, about the benefits of exercise in aging on the generation of a primary immune response to antigen and the subsequent antibody and memory T cell-mediated response. Most in vivo immune research to date has utilized vaccines or recall antigens to elicit an immune response. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to examine the association of aging and physical activity on the primary antibody and T cell response to the novel protein antigen keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Forty-six physically active and sedentary, young (20-35 yr) and older (60-79 yr) men were recruited. Subjects were intramuscularly immunized with 100 microg of KLH, and blood samples were collected at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Samples were measured for anti-KLH IgM, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 by ELISA. On day 21 after intramuscular KLH administration, subjects received an intradermal injection with 1 microg of KLH of inflammation recorded at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h to assess anti-KLH delayed-type hypersensitivity response. There was a significant reduction in all anti-KLH measures with aging except for anti-KLH IgG2. The physically active older group had significantly higher anti-KLH IgM, IgG, IgG1, and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, but not IgG2 compared with the sedentary older group. In conclusion, regular physical activity in older men is associated with a more robust immune response to novel antigenic challenge.
Article
In order to investigate the immunoactivity of Lycium Barbarum glycopeptide (LBG), the routinely prepared murine splenic lymphocyte suspension was separately added into the samples with different concentrations (500, 100, 10, 1 microg/ml) of LBG as LBG groups. Blank control group in the absence of Lycium Barbarum glycopeptide or ConA and positive control group in the presence of 0.5 ml ConA but in the absence of LBG were created. 0.5 ml LBG samples with different concentrations in combination with 0. 5 ml ConA (10 microg/ml) into each well to observe the synergic effects of LBG and ConA as LBG+ConA groups. After incubation for 72 h at 37 degrees C, the samples were analyzed by CFSE-labeled cells combined with flow cytometry, and MTT. Flow cytometry revealed that both LBG could enhance the murine splenic lymphocyte proliferative reaction. Combined use of LBG and ConA had synergic effects. MTT demonstrated that sample A could obviously promote the murine splenic lymphocyte proliferative reaction as compared with control group (P<0. 01), while sample B could also enhance the lymphocyte proliferation at a high dose. In combination with ConA, sample A had synergic effects at high dose, while sample B showed obviously synergic effects (P<0.05). It was concluded that both samples (A and B) had strong immunocompetence.
Article
To develop and validate a nutritional screening tool (CNS) for elderly Chinese subjects in the institutional setting. Using the MNA as a guide, a questionnaire was developed appropriate for the Chinese health care system, diet, food customs and culture, using physician assessment for comparison. 200 men and 200 women aged 65 years or older, approximately equally distributed by age between two cities in China (Hong Kong and Shanghai), were recruited from hospitals and old age homes for the reliability study. 340 men and 527 women were recruited for the validity study. The CNS compared with physician assessments based on two groups, normal or at risk with less than normal nutritional status, had kappa coefficients of 0.5 overall and were as high as 0.8 in Shanghai. CNS was able to identify about 90% of all persons with normal nutritional status and had about a 60% chance of correctly identifying a person at risk with a less than normal nutritional status. The CNS can be used in a 2-group classification to identify those who have a normal nutritional status (CNS > or = 21). Those who do not fall into this group should have their nutritional status evaluated in greater detail (CNS score < or = 20). The applicability of screening tools may vary depending on the site and the population characteristics.
Article
We performed a quantitative review of 31 vaccine antibody response studies conducted from 1986 to 2002 and compared antibody responses to influenza vaccine in groups of elderly versus younger adults. We did a weighted analysis of the probability of vaccine response (measured as seroconversion and seroprotection) for each vaccine component (H1, H3 and B antigens). Using a multiple regression model, we adjusted for factors that might affect the vaccine response. The adjusted odds-ratio (OR) of responses in elderly versus young adults ranged from 0.24 to 0.59 in terms of seroconversion and seroprotection to all three antigens. The CDC estimates of 70-90% clinical vaccine efficacy in young adults and these estimates suggest a corresponding clinical efficacy in the elderly of 17-53% depending on circulating viruses. We conclude that the antibody response in the elderly is considerably lower than in younger adults. This highlights the need for more immunogenic vaccine formulations for the elderly.
Article
Oxidative damage of biomolecules increases with age and is postulated to be a major causal factor of various physiological function disorders. Consequently, the concept of anti-age by antioxidants has been developed. Lycium barbarum fruits have been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and the data obtained in in vitro models have clearly established the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides isolated from the fruits. In the present study, the age-dependent changes in the antioxidant enzyme activity, immune function and lipid peroxidation product were investigated and effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-induced oxidative stress in different organs of aged mice was checked. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (200, 350 and 500 mg/kg b.w. in physiological saline) were orally administrated to aged mice over a period of 30 days. Aged mice receiving vitamin C served as positive control. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxides in serum and tested organs, and immune function were measured. Result showed that increased endogenous lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidant activities, as assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and immune function were observed in aged mice and restored to normal levels in the polysaccharides-treated groups. Antioxidant activities of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can be compable with normal antioxidant, vitamin C. Moreover, addition of vitamin C to the polysaccharides further increased the in vivo antioxidant activity of the latter. It is concluded that the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can be used in compensating the decline in TAOC, immune function and the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thereby reduces the risks of lipid peroxidation accelerated by age-induced free radical.
Article
Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions including activation of T cells, B cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of the primary immune response. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of LBPs on murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In the present study, the effects of LBPs on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC were investigated in vitro. Compared to the BMDC that were only subjected to treatment with RPMI1640, the co-expression of I-A/I-E, CD11c and secretion of IL-12 p40 by BMDC stimulated with LBPs (100 microg/ml) were increased. In addition, the endocytosis of FITC-dextran by LBPs-treated BMDC (100 microg/ml) was impaired, whereas the activation of proliferation of allogenic lymphocytes by BMDC was enhanced. Our results strongly suggest that LBPs are capable of promoting both the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC in vitro.
Article
Lycium barbarum (Gouqizi, Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry) is well known for nourishing the liver, and in turn, improving the eyesight. However, many people have forgotten its anti-aging properties. Valuable components of L. barbarum are not limited to its colored components containing zeaxanthin and carotene, but include the polysaccharides and small molecules such as betaine, cerebroside, beta-sitosterol, p-coumaric, and various vitamins. Despite the fact that L. barbarum has been used for centuries, its beneficial effects to our bodies have not been comprehensively studied with modern technology to unravel its therapeutic effects at the biochemical level. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated its neuroprotective effects to counter neuronal loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Polysaccharides extracted from L. barbarum can protect neurons against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity in neuronal cell cultures, and retinal ganglion cells in an experimental model of glaucoma. We have even isolated the active component of polysaccharide which can attenuate stress kinases and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. We have accumulated scientific evidence for its anti-aging effects that should be highlighted for modern preventive medicine. This review is to provide background information and a new direction of study for the anti-aging properties of L. barbarum. We hope that new findings for L. barbarum will pave a new avenue for the use of Chinese medicine in modern evidence-based medicine.
Article
Reliable estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine among persons 65 years of age and older are important for informed vaccination policies and programs. Short-term studies may provide misleading pictures of long-term benefits, and residual confounding may have biased past results. This study examined the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in seniors over the long term while addressing potential bias and residual confounding in the results. Data were pooled from 18 cohorts of community-dwelling elderly members of one U.S. health maintenance organization (HMO) for 1990-1991 through 1999-2000 and of two other HMOs for 1996-1997 through 1999-2000. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effectiveness of the vaccine for the prevention of hospitalization for pneumonia or influenza and death after adjustment for important covariates. Additional analyses explored for evidence of bias and the potential effect of residual confounding. There were 713,872 person-seasons of observation. Most high-risk medical conditions that were measured were more prevalent among vaccinated than among unvaccinated persons. Vaccination was associated with a 27% reduction in the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or influenza (adjusted odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.77) and a 48% reduction in the risk of death (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.55). Estimates were generally stable across age and risk subgroups. In the sensitivity analyses, we modeled the effect of a hypothetical unmeasured confounder that would have caused overestimation of vaccine effectiveness in the main analysis; vaccination was still associated with statistically significant--though lower--reductions in the risks of both hospitalization and death. During 10 seasons, influenza vaccination was associated with significant reductions in the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or influenza and in the risk of death among community-dwelling elderly persons. Vaccine delivery to this high-priority group should be improved.
Poly-saccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum L. is a
  • Lu J N Srinivasan
  • Tan
  • Bk
  • Chan
  • Sh
Chen Z, Lu J, Srinivasan N, Tan BK, Chan SH. Poly-saccharide-protein complex from Lycium barbarum L. is a
Randomized double-blinded clinical trial of Wolfberry on the physical status of elderly persons
  • Q Gao
  • J Ni
  • J-I Cao
  • L Shen
  • L Zheng
  • K Vidal
  • Bucheli
Gao Q, Ni J, Cao J-I, Shen L, Zheng L, Vidal K, Bucheli P. Randomized double-blinded clinical trial of Wolfberry on the physical status of elderly persons. Chinese J Clin Phar-macol 2010;26:729–732.