Characteristics of bloodstream infections in burn patients: An 11-year retrospective study

Burns, Trauma and Critical Care Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries (Impact Factor: 1.88). 02/2012; 38(5):685-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2011.12.018
Source: PubMed


The principal aim of this study was to describe infection related characteristics of blood stream infections (BSI) in patients with burns. We sought to determine the organisms that caused BSI and factors that could predict the outcome of BSI.
Data was collected on admitted patients with burns from January 1998 to December 2008. Selected information from databases was analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago). Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analysis was undertaken to determine factors predictive of clinical outcome. The factors analysed by univariate analysis were selected on clinical plausibility. Multivariate analysis used a crosstabs procedure initially to estimate maximum likelihood. Factors that were associated with a p value <0.15 were entered into a binary logistic regression to detect which factors were independent predictors of mortality in BSI and outcome according to specific organisms.
Ninety-nine out of 2364 (4%) patients developed 212-documented BSI. The median time from burn to BSI was 7 (interquartile range 3-16) days. Gram-positive organisms, in particular Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococci, were the most common bacteria associated with BSI in the first week of hospital admission. The mortality rate for all admissions over the data collection period was 3%. Of the 99 patients with BSI, 13 died giving a mortality rate, in the presence of BSI, of 13%. Univariate analysis found that the factors predictive of P. aeruginosa mortality were inhalational injury, higher total body surface area burns, total days of antibiotic treatment and elevated Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores. Multivariate analysis identified inhalational injury to be the only factor associated with BSI-related mortality.
Whilst the overall mortality in our cohort was low, the presence of BSI increased this four-fold. Whilst infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens occurred earlier in the patient stay than Gram-negative organisms, the highest mortality was associated with P. aeruginosa infections. This study highlights the negative effects of BSI on clinical outcomes in burn patients.

Download full-text


Available from: Jason Roberts
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSI) and sepsis are among the most common complications occurring in severe burn patients. This study was designed to evaluate changes in BSI pathogens over almost a decade in severe burn patients at Rambam Healthcare Campus, and BSI occurrence during early and late hospitalization periods. Retrospective computerized data was retrieved from all severe burn patients hospitalized in our institution during the years 2001-2009. BSI in the first week was defined as early BSI, and in the second week and beyond, late BSI. Of 159 severe burns patients, 74 had at least one BSI episode. Most first BSI episodes were diagnosed during the first week of hospitalization. In late BSI, an increased prevalence of resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae [CRKP], imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PSE-IMP]) and Candida spp. were observed. However, over the 9-year study period, only CRKP increased significantly. In summary, except for the sudden appearance and increase in CRKP (8% increase; p=0.045), we did not observe a significant change in the BSI pathogen profile over the 9-year period. Nevertheless, over the hospitalization period, there is a clear change in the BSI bacteria profile, especially after 4weeks of hospitalization.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY In this study we collected and analysed data of the severe burn patients at our institution over an 11-year period in order to shed light on the controversial role of bloodstream infection (BSI) as a predictive factor for mortality in this burn population. The factors examined were age, total body surface area, smoke inhalation, presence of BSI, and BSI with resistant bacteria. In total 1081 burn patients were hospitalized from 2001 to 2011, of whom 4% died. We focused here on 158 severe burn patients, 74 of whom developed BSI, and 35 who died. Using univariate analysis, it appeared that the BSI group had a threefold greater chance of mortality compared to the non-BSI group. Patients with a Ryan score 3 had a 100% chance of mortality and those with a score 0 had 0%. Thus, focusing only on Ryan score 1 and score 2 patients, BSI did not contribute to mortality, nor was it shown to contribute to mortality in a multivariate analysis in which the score and BSI were included together. When BSI did occur, it predicted longer hospitalization periods. We conclude that BSI predicts longer length of hospitalization stay but does not contribute to the prediction of mortality beyond that offered by the Ryan score in a severe burn population.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Epidemiology and Infection
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery. This study aimed at elucidating the clinical characteristics of community-acquired BSIs (CABs) and nosocomial BSIs (nBSIs) in patients admitted to the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Beijing, China. This cross-sectional study compared 191 episodes of BSIs in 4074 patients admitted to the surgical wards between January 2008 and December 2011. Cases of BSIs were classified as CABs or nBSIs, and the characteristics, relevant treatments, and outcomes of CABs and nBSIs were compared. Of the 191 BSIs, 52 (27.2%) and 139 (72.8%) were CABs and nBSIs, respectively. Escherichia coli, coagulasenegative staphylococci, and Klebsiella spp, were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. There were significant differences between CABs and nBSIs with respect to the use of hormonal drugs, ventilation, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, and prevalence of cancer (P < 0.05). Empirical antibacterial therapy did not decrease the crude mortality, but multivariate analysis showed that high APACHE II was independently associated with a risk of mortality (odds ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-1.02 for APACHE II). We found significant differences in the clinical characteristics of surgical patients with CABs and nBSIs. The outcome of patients seems to be related to high APACHE II scores.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Chinese medical journal
Show more