Article

Evaluation of Anticarcinogenic and Antimutagenic effect of tinospora cordifolia in experimental Animals

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Tinospora cordifolia is used to treat various diseases in the traditional medicinal system in India. Its chemopreventive potential for cancer was the subject of present study. In this study the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of T. cordifolia extract was used, in C57 Bl mice and Swiss albino mice respectively. In antimutagenic study, a single application of T. cordifolia extract at a dose of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg dry weight, 24 hrs prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide (at the 50 mg/kg), significantly prevented the micronucleus formation in bone marrow of mice, in a dose dependent manner. In melanoma assay, C57 Bl mice when received 50% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia at a dose 750 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span and tumor size was significantly reduced as compared to control.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... TC extract induces cytotoxicity (maximum at 50µg/ml), cytostatic and antiproliferative (71.46% to 87% inhibition at 50µg/ml and 75µg/ml respectively) activity which significantly indicates a G1 phase arrest of cell cycle progression [57]. Methanolic extract of TC has shown antimutagenic activity (dosedependent manner) and anticancerous activity at 750 mg/kg body weight in in-vivo study after 30 days of treatment against the induction of cyclophosphamide (CP) at 50 mg/kg body weight of mice [58]. In-vitro study www.ijpbs.com ...
... ISSN: 2230-7605 (Online); ISSN: 2321-3272 (Print) Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 58 of methanolic extract of TC stem exhibited anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 cell line at IC50 value of 50 µg/ml in .05% DMSO [59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) is commonly found in tropical countries of the world like India, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and is a glabrous, woody and a succulent climbing shrub. The plant is well described for its therapeutic property in all the traditional systems of treatment like Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Folk etc. The extracts of the different parts of Tinospora cordifolia (bark, stem, and root) possess potential chemo-preventive, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effect against different cancerous cells. Phytochemical components involved are the alkaloids (Palmetin, berberine, derivatives of berberines like 9-o-alkyl- and 9-o-terphenyl berberine), phenolics, diterpenoids, lactones, glycosides (syringin, cordiol), steroids, sesquiterpenoids, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides (α-D glucan), in which palmetin, berberine, G1-4A and α-D glucan are much effective as anti-inflammatory against cancerous cell lines. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anticancer mechanism of T. cordifolia is due to activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in the cells/tissue. Immunomodulation is by regulating the activity of cytokines (like IL-2, IFN-ϒ, TNF-α etc), cytotoxicity is by increasing apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle growth. This review focuses on a systematic analysis of existing knowledge of T.cordifolia on its anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory properties and further studies on the plant's other unexplored medicinal properties. KEY WORDS Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, G1-4A, α-D glucan, cytokine. INTRODUCTION Cancer is the most dreaded disease, where there is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the affected region of body/tissue/organs. WHO (2012), reports that globally 14.1 million new cancer cases, 8.2 million cancer deaths and 32.6 million people living with cancer within 5 years of diagnosis exist. The five most common prevailing cancers in India are breast, cervical, colorectal, oral and stomach in women and oral, lung, stomach, colorectal and pharyngeal in men respectively. Out of five in each six breast cancers among females and mouth cancers in males are at the top of the list (GLOBOCAN 2012) (icmr.nic.in 2016). According to ICMR 2016 report, the number of new cancer cases reported around 14.5 lakh may increase to 17.3 lakh in 2020
... TC, used in several indigenous drug preparations for general health and other disease conditions, has been shown to possess immunomodulatory antiallergic [12] antidiabetic [13] , antihepatotoxic [14] and antipyretic [15] properties. TC has also been evaluated for its role as an anti-neoplastic agent [16] . It has also been found that TC can kill HeLa cells very effectively in vitro [17] . ...
... It has also been found that TC can kill HeLa cells very effectively in vitro [17] . Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effect of TC has been evaluated in C57 Bl mice and Swiss albino mice [16] . Application of TC extract has been shown to significantly prevent micronucleus formation in bone marrow of mice, in a dose dependent manner and significant reduction of tumor as compared to control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tinospora cordifolia, also known as Giloy, Guduchi or Amrita, is used in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional medicinal system in India and is also an immune system modulator. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxic activity of 50% methanolic extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia was evaluated against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and normal Vero epithelial cell line. Methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia showed significant anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. IC50 values of TC methanolic extract with respect to MDA-MB-231 were found to be 59 ± 4.05 μg/ml in 0.25% DMSO and 50± 2.01 μg/ml in 0.5% DMSO. Methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was shown to possess cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cells. The methanolic extract would be studied further for isolation and characterization of active components for lead optimization studies.
... R. Verma, H.S Choudhary [7] Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effect of Tinospora cordifolia in experimental animal 50% methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia to C57 BI mice for 30 days at a dose of 750 mg/ the tumour size reduced life span. [8] Tinospora cordifolia water extract Protective effect in hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicity and normalized liver function. ...
Article
In traditional medicine, Guduchi is considered to have a status of the highest order in natural medicine and Ayurveda. Guduchi is derived from a Sanskrit word called “Amrita” due to its medicinal and therapeutic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies around the world proved the medicinal value of Tinospora cordifolia. Guduchi's medicinal therapeutic effect was identified: antioxidant property, antimicrobial property, anticancer activity, antihepatotoxic effects, anti-inflammatory activities, antistress and memory enhancement, antidiabetic property, anti-osteoporotic effect, analgesic activity, and wound healing. This paper is produced by systematically reviewing the scientific literature and comprehensive summary of the medicinal properties of Guduchi.
... Different class of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolic, aliphatic compounds, and polysaccharides has been isolated from T. cordifolia [21] while the stem is a rich source of steroids and contains β-or δ-sitosterol including hydroxyecdysone [22]. It exhibits various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, diuretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, and cholesterol lowering because it contains powerful antioxidant phytochemicals [23,24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the DNA protective effects of ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia stem on Swiss albino mice lymphocytes against the sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity. Methods: In this experiment, 25 animals of nearly the same age were equally divided. Group 1 (control) fed on tap water while rest four (2, 3, 4, and 5) groups were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight, per orally sodium arsenite for 12 weeks. Sodium arsenite pretreated groups (4 and 5) were followed by administration of 80 mg/kg body weight, per orally T. cordifolia extracts for the next 12 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at the 8 th week and 12 th week, respectively, for the assessment of sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity and comparative genoprotective effects of experimental plant extracts. The extent of DNA migration is directly proportional to the magnitude of DNA damage. Percentage tail DNA content and olive tail moment parameters were used in the comet to relate DNA damage. Results: The findings suggested that the ethanolic stem extracts of T. cordifolia significantly inhibited the sodium arsenite-induced oxidative genotoxicity. The phytoconstituents of T. cordifolia shown to retard genetic damage associated with arsenic exposure. Conclusion: T. cordifolia may be used as a preventive herbal preparation against chemical or arsenical toxicity.
... Extensive research is being carried out on these plant products as they also have the potential to improve Vyadhikshamatwa. Tinospora cordifolia, also known as 'Guduchi' or 'Amrita', is a plant being used from centuries for its medicinal values and has been proven to have hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiosteoporotic, antiobesity, anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . It has also shown beneficial effects in lead exposure, diabetic foot ulcers and diabetic neuropathy and improves learning and memory [15][16][17][18] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The immune system in children is constantly developing and they are at an increased risk of infections. It is vital to help enhance immunity by vaccination but more people are turning towards traditional medicines today. The vast flora of the world offers newer options to this effect and is worth exploring. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) is one such plant which has been traditionally used for various health conditions and is also proven to be an immunomodulator. Objective: To evaluate the role of Tinospora cordifolia in status of Vyadhikshamatwa (immunity) in children. Materials and Methods: An open-labelled, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 400 children aged 1-15 years, with 200 each in control and test groups. Study drug and placebo were administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight twice daily with honey for 2 months. Response was assessed by total leucocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte percentage and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Results were analysed statistically using repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for intra-group comparisons and unpaired t-test for inter-group comparisons using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20.0. Results: The test drug showed statistically significant increase in TLC (P<0.001), ALC (P<0.001) and lymphocyte percentage (P<0.001) as compared to placebo. Also the rate of infections in the trial group were significantly lesser during the study period (P<0.001). Conclusion: Tinospora cordifolia significantly improves immunity in children and can be used as an adjuvant to vaccination.
... As an adjuvant: Beneficial effects of the extract of this plant have also been reported in radiotherapy of human cancer [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases of the 20th century and spreading further with continuance and increasing incidence in 21st century. At present Chemoprevention and Radiotherapy is main stay of management. But these can produce toxic side effects, which have limited their extensive use. Ayurveda drugs available in different part of the world have been extensively studied for their anti-cancer activity. Ayurveda also have provided with many such drugs which can be proved to be a good anti-cancer substitute to conventional treatment or also provide benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Researches on many such Ayurvedic plants available in India like Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Plumbago zeylanica, Ocimum sanctum, Tinospora cordifolia, Catharanthus roseus are reviewed, and found to be effective as anti-cancer in many types of cancers and adjuvant therapy along with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There is a broad scope to derive the potent anticancer agents from medicinal plants, which need thorough research. Present review reveals the anticancer potential of various Ayurveda drugs so that the findings can be applied in the benefit of cancer patient.
... T. cordifolia is commonly called as Giloy and it is climbing shrub belongs to family menispermaceae. It is earlier informed that T. cordifolia has anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic compounds widely used in Ayurveda [15]. The alcoholic extract of such plant shows the antineoplastic and anti-oxidative properties [16]. ...
... Cyclophosphamide treated rat showed decrease in MN frequency after oral administration of methanolic bark extract of Ficus benghalensis [21]. The Tinospora cordifolia methanolic stem extract retarded the MN formation in dose dependent manner in melanoma tumor model and have a preventive effect on volume of tumor against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate anticlastogenic potential of ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem against arsenic induced genotoxicity.Methods: In the experiment twenty five animals were taken and divided into five groups and each group contain five animals. Group 01(control) and fed on tap water while the rest four (02, 03, 04, 05) groups were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight, per orally sodium arsenite for 8 w. Sodium arsenite pretreated groups 04 and 05 were followed by dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of 5% ethanolic solution of the test plant stem extract for a next 8 w. Bone marrow cells were collected in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution and smeared on a slide followed by double staining (Giemsa and Harris hematoxylin).Results: High index of micronucleus frequency was observed in the groups 02 and 03 in contrast to group 01(control) while micronucleus frequency dramatically reduced in 04 and 05 groups. The mean number of micronucleus scored/2000 cell was found to be 2.6, 19.2, 20.2, 7 and 6.8 in group 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 respectively. Arsenic treated mice (03) showed remarkable increase (p≤0.001) in micronucleus frequency when compared to the corresponding values for control group (01). The percentage micronucleus frequency (mean and standard deviation) was markedly decreased (p≤ 0.019) when group 04 was compared with arsenic treated animals (group 02) and (p≤ 0.001) while group 05 was compared with arsenic treated animals (group 03) for their corresponding values.Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown that T. cordifolia may be used as a preventive herbal drug against chemical or arsenical toxicity which leads to damage of genetic materials.
... However, T. cordifolia in combination with cyclophosphamide drug exhibits a cumulative effect in tumor inhibitory rate and survival percentage respectively. 54 An extract of the isolated active constituent palmatine of plant T. cordifolia clearly indicates the anti-cancer potential in a Dimethylbenzanthracene induced (DMBA) skin cancer model conducted in mice (Swiss Albino). 55 T. cordifolia also possesses anti-neoplastic property as it has significant ability in treating the brain tumor in C-6 glioma cell by decreasing the proliferation and differentiation rate as reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of indigenous drug industry in India has been widely expanded in recent years. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) belonging to family Menispermaceae has a wide array of bioactive principles in exploring nutraceuticals from plant materials. It is a versatile resource for all forms of life and can be an alternative for synthetic drugs considering their adverse effects and also for economic purposes. T. cordifolia is considered as an important herbal drug of Indian System of Medicines (ISM).The herb is known for its therapeutic efficacy and used in treatment of dyspepsia, diabetes, fever, urinary problems, jaundice, chronic diarrhoea, cardiac disease, dysentry, helmenthiasis, skin diseases, leprosy and many more diseases. Present review highlights the classical anti-toxin, anti diabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepato-protective activity of Guduchi and their validation through existing literature.The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. The current study is undertaken to explore and establish the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of T. cordifolia.
... Rahul et al., prepared the extract of 200, 400, 600 mg/kg dry weight in a dose depend upon manners. 50% methanolic extract of cordifolia to C57 BI mice for 30 days at a dose of 750 mg/kg body weight the tumor size reduced life span [88]. Mishra et al., showed the anti-brain cancer potential, 50% ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia (TCE) using C6 glioma cells significantly induced differentiation in C6 glioma cells, and reduced cell proliferation [89]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tinospora cordifolia is a popular medicinal plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. The common names are Amrita and Guduchi and belong to the family of Menispermaceae. It is considered an essential herbal plant of Indian system of medicine (ISM) and has been used in the treatment of fever, urinary problem, dysentery, skin diseases leprosy, diabetes, and many more diseases. The plant reported containing chemical compound including Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Lignans, Steroids and others that establish the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Tinospora cordifolia. The present review highlights the pharmacological importance viz antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-diabetic activity, antistress activity, hypolipidaemic effect, hepatic disorder, anticancer anti HIV potential, antiosteoporotic effects, antitoxic effects, wound healing, anticomplementary activity, and immunomodulating activity, systemic infection and Parkinson ̓s disease. Keywords: Natural product chemistry, Pharmaceutical science, Pharmaceutical chemistry, Tinospora cordifolia, Menispermaceae, Pharmacognostic description, Chemical constituent, Pharmacological activity
... 5g of T. cordifolia powder was weighed and dissolved in 100 ml of 50% methanol (molecular grade) in a conical flask. We selected 50% methanol as an extracting solvent because it contains the active components that are water soluble, such as phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, as well as methanol soluble, such as lipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, steroids, sterols, etc. (Verma et al., 2011), (Palmieri et al., 2019). The mixture was stirred overnight on a magnetic stirrer for two days and then filtered through Whatman filter paper twice to obtain more clear extract as it would help in making the sample more concentrated through rotary evaporation technique. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cancer has emerged as a systemic disease which targets various organs thus challenging the overall physiology of the host. Recently, we have shown that hyperactive neutrophils infiltrate various organs of tumor bearing host and contribute to gradual systemic deterioration. Therefore, taming neutrophils via potent immunomodulators could be an appropriate therapeutic approach in regulating systemic damage. Tinospora cordifolia (TC), an Ayurvedic panacea, is known for its immense medicinal values in traditional literature and recent reports have also documented its immunomodulatory potential. However, whether TC can regulate neutrophils to exert its therapeutic effectiveness has not been deciphered so far. Methods For the in vivo study, we utilized murine model of Dalton's Lymphoma (DL). Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) treatment was scheduled at early, mid and advanced stages of tumor growth at a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w for 30 consecutive days. Effect of TCE on neutrophil infiltration was examined by immunostaining. Neutrophil elastase (NE) level in serum, ascitic fluid and various tissues was monitored by ELISA. Further, qPCR was performed to assess transcripts levels of NE, myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinases (MMP-8, MMP-9) and cathepsin G (CSTG) in various tissues. ROS level in tissue was assessed by DHE staining and organ function was assessed by histology post TCE treatment. Results Our findings showed that TC treatment significantly reduced neutrophil count in peripheral blood and their infiltration in vital organs of tumor-bearing host. Further, it ameliorated neutrophil hyperactivation by down regulating the expression of its key cargoes including NE, MPO, MMP-8, MMP-9 and CSTG at early and mid stage of tumor growth. In addition, TC treatment prevented histopathological alterations and restored the normal serum enzyme levels at different stages of tumor growth. Importantly, TC treatment also showed significant reduction in tumor burden which was accompanied by a remarkable increase in survival of the tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions We conclude that Tinospora cordifolia could limit systemic damage via regulating neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation which can further lead to cancer control at both prophylactic and therapeutic level.
... T. cordifolia is commonly called as Giloy and it is climbing shrub belongs to family menispermaceae. It is earlier informed that T. cordifolia has anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic compounds widely used in Ayurveda [15]. The alcoholic extract of such plant shows the antineoplastic and anti-oxidative properties [16]. ...
Article
The present study was aimed to evaluate anticlastogenic potential of ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia against arsenic induced toxicity. In the course of experiment, thirty animals were taken and divided into five groups each group contains six animals. Group 01 was control fed on distilled water supply while rest four (02, 03, 04, 05) groups were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight sodium arsenite daily for 8 weeks. After eight weeks sodium arsenite pre-treated groups 04 and 05 were followed by treatment of 80 mg/kg body weight ethanolic extract of test plant for next 8 weeks. Afterwards blood sample were collected from caudal region of mice without their sacrifice from all groups and smeared on glass slide which was later followed by double staining process. Micronucleus frequency was expressed in the terms of mean and standard deviation. Approximately 2000 cells were scored by help of light microscopy to determine micronucleus frequency. A high index of micronucleus formation in group 02 and 03 due to clastogenic effect of arsenite were observed while its frequency drastically reduced in T. cordifolia administered group due to its anticlastogenic effect. Antimutagenic potential of such test plant may be proven as potent herbal drug against genotoxicity. So this herbal extract may be used as effective drug in preventing genotoxicity.
... The administration of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (d.w.) of T. cordifolia extract, 24 hours before the intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (at a rate of 50 mg/kg) in the bone marrow of mice significantly prevented the formation of micronucleus. C57 Bl mice showed a 30-day increase in the lifecycle and the tumor size decreased significantly compared with the control when received 50% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia from the stems part of the plant at dose 750 mg/kg body weight [63]. Dendritic cells derived from the bone marrow can be stimulated by g1-4A, which activates cytotoxic T cells that destroy cancerous cells [80,81]. ...
Article
Background: Plants have been used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases since antiquity in all civilizations including the Indian and Chinse civilizations. Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia L.) is one of the most important medicinal plants in Indian folk medicine and is commonly known as the “Heart-leaved Moonseed” or “Guduchi”. Giloy is a perennial shrubby creeper of the family Menispermaceae. It is native to the tropical areas of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Sothern Eastern Asia, Africa, and Australia. It attracted attention in the last few decades because its roots, stems, and leaves are used in folk medicine treating several disorders. Methods: To reveal its potential, we reviewed the literature on this plant over the last five decades using several search engines. Results: Giloy is recommended in diabetes, stomachache, jaundice, urinary problems, skin ailments, and prolonged diarrhea and dysentery. The medicinal properties of T. cordifolia extracts were attributed to its phytochemical content including steroids, alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, and glycosides. Conclusion: In this review, we summarized the phytochemical content of T. cordifolia and its medicinal properties with special emphasis on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. We aimed to provide natural product researchers with a full picture of the potential applications of this plant in the development of food additives and nutraceuticals.
... Also Terminalia bellerica known as Bahera or Beleric has been found to possess anti-cancer effects [17,18]. The antimutagenic and anti-cancer activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Heart-leaved moonseed) has been found in some studies [19,20]. The spicy Black cumin Nigella sativa has some potential as an anticancer agent [21,22]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
UNANI MEDICINE AND CANCER Christer Sundqvist. Prepublished article, 2020 Petrafoundation, Helsinki, Finland https://www.petrafoundation.com/en/foundation Unani medicine is an alternative medical system originating in ancient Greece almost 2500 years back. It is now practiced primarily in India. Herbal remedies, dietary practices and alternative therapies characterize Unani medicine. Let us study what it can offer for a cancer patient.
Article
Full-text available
Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means "crab". In the classical Unani literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
Book
Full-text available
About the Book The book “Advances in Ethnobotany” is an attempt to integrate research work of different practicing ethnobotanist across India from laboratories of repute. This book is divided into three sections. In first section ethnobotanical works of Veligonda, Shivalik hills, and some other research works of North eastern states are described. A chapter is dedicated on research methodology in ethnobotany. Another chapter describes ethnobotany of orchidaceae. The second section deals with Pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus, bioactive metabolites from plant associated endophytic fungi, berries: source of natural antioxidant, phytochemistry of Murraya Koenigii and several other herbal drugs are explained in very lucid manner. The third section focuses on utilization and conservation of plants in which medicinal and economic importance of Rhododendron in Sikkim Himalaya, an efficient micropropagation protocol for Melissa officinalis, utilization of plant biodiversity for treatment and cure of diseases and many other relevant topics are discussed in length.This book will be very much helpful for Post Graduate students, researchers, scientists and doctors working in the field of Indian System of Medicine and academicians working in the field of Medical Botany, Herbal technology and Ethnobotany as well as other branches of Life sciences. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist. The editor has attempted to organise the book in such a way that it will be useful to everyone interested in the field of medicinal botany, pharmacy, ethno-medicine, ethnobotany, herbal therapy, naturopathy and green health therapy. This book will be equally helpful for students of pharmacognosy, pharmacology as well as environmentalist and conservationist .
Chapter
Full-text available
The article provides a general outline on descriptions of various types of cancers and their management from medicinal and ethnobotanical perspective underlying its scientific principles involved in treating these conditions with the use of natural products. The article reviews the available literature regarding researches on anti-cancerous traditional and ayurvedic herbs and also includes how these plants are used to control and cure various types of cancers.
Article
The Tinospora Cordifolia is important medicinal plant.The family of tinospora cordifolia is “Menispermaceae”. The all part of plant is used medicinally. The are traditionally used of a common ingredient in the different Falk, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha medicine systems. This plant's ceremonial medicinal importance is primarily because of the root, stem, and leaf.This is due to higher alkaloid content in the stems than in the leave. Presence of wide range of chemical constituents, traditional and medicinal use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, fever, arthritis, skin diseases and anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-allergy, antipyretic, antiarthritic and various other medicinal uses . This review paper provides information regarding pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacology of Tinospora cordifolia.
Article
Full-text available
Aim of this study was to isolate keratinolytic actinomycetes from poultry waste. Four soil samples were collected from three different poultry farm of Gwalior, Guna and Bhind district of MP, India. Soil suspension were prepared by serial dilution method, inoculated into two different media actinomycetes isolation agar and starch casein agar and incubated at 28°C for 7-14 days. Thirty five isolate were purified and obtained after screening on basis of their different morphology and colour of aerial and substrate mycelium. After gram staining all isolate were found gram positive. Biochemical characterization of gram positive isolate was also performed. Out of Thirty five isolates, twenty nine showed keratinolytic activity in primary screening on Skim milk agar plate, in which clear zone around the colonies were selected responsible for degradation of chicken feathers. Secondary screenings of twenty nine isolates were performed in modified liquid basal medium supplemented with feather for keratinolytic activity. Twenty seven isolates out of twenty nine, showed keratinolytic activity and able to efficiently utilized feather as source of carbon and nitrogen. All isolates were preserved on ISP1 broth (Tryptone – yeast extract Broth) and glycerol stock for storage. The study showed that isolates from poultry soil from 3 districts were able to degrade the keratin waste (feather) by their keratinolytic activity of keratinase enzyme.
Article
Full-text available
Plants may favorably or adversely affect other plants through allelochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine the allelopathic effects of P. pinnata, A. indica and Z. jujuba on phytochemical profile of Tinospora cordifolia. In current study auxiliary buds of plant were cultured on Murasinge and Skoog medium, proved to be the good for shoot as well as root induction. To ensure the quality of plants grown by culture the juice of the plants collected from various supports from the same garden was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). A total number of 11 spots were observed. Out of the 11 spots three of Rf value 0. 192 (Tinosporaside), 0. 551 (berberine) and 0. 717 were found to be universally present in the plants used in the study, which can be used as chemical markers of the plant. Densitometric profiles of the chromatograms showed variable amounts of constituents in the juice of plants supported by various trees. Tinosporaside contents were found to be significantly high in the plant supported by A. indica tree as comparative the plant supported by wall. Berberine contents were found to be almost same in all the plants, a bit higher levels were observed in the plant supported by P. pinnata. Tinosporaside and berberine showed to have antioxidant properties. However, overall antioxidant activity was observed to be high because of highest levels of tinosporaside in the plant supported by A. indica. The TLC profiles of explants grown with different concentration of aqueous extract of A. indica were found to be highly affected when observed after 8 days of culture. The significant difference was observed in the tinosporaside contents after 15 days growth of tissue cultured plants in presence of A. indica root extracts.
Article
Full-text available
The radiosensitizing activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS ex HOOK. F. & THOMS. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice received 0, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. TCE 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy hemi-body γ-radiation and then once daily for another eight consecutive days after irradiation. The EAC mice receiving TCE for the above regimen showed a dose-dependent elevation in tumor-free survival; the highest radiosensitizing activity was observed at 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE. Treatment of animals with 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE, 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy of hemi-body gamma irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six consecutive days post-irradiation increased the life span of EAC mice. This is evident by more number of long-term survivors (LTS) as well as survivors beyond 120 days when compared to the group of animals that received TCE after irradiation for six consecutive days. Treatment modality was also altered to assess the radiosensitizing effect of TCE before and after irradiation. Evaluation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) in mice treated with TCE 1 h before irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six days showed a significant decline in GSH up to 14 h and GST up to 24 h accompanied by a significant elevation in LPx at 12 h post-irradiation. The radiosensitization of TCE may be due to depletion of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of tumor cells. Since Tinospora cordifolia is being used in India for treatment of various ailments, it may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation. Copyright
Article
Full-text available
The present investigations were under taken to study whether the tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) of Dalton's lymphoma (DL), a spontaneous transplantable T cell lymphoma, can be activated by the alcoholic extract of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia (ALTC). Intraperitoneal administration of ALTC in DL-bearing mice not only augments the basic function of macrophages such as Phagocytosis as well as their antigen presenting ability and secretion of IL-1, TNF and RNI. The results of the present investigation also indicate that the intraperitoneal administration of ALTC slow down the tumor growth and increases the life span of tumor bearing host, thus showing its anti tumor effect through destabilizing the membrane integrity of DL cells directly or indirectly. This is the first study of it's kind regarding the effect of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on the activation of tumor associated macrophages and showing the antitumor effect on the spontaneous T-cell lymphoma (DL), thus may have clinical implications.
Article
Full-text available
The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. However, their mechanism of action was largely unknown. We therefore selected these herbs for the present study to test their neuroprotective ability and the associated mechanism in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Hippocampal Slices were subjected to OGD (oxygen glucose deprivation) and divided into 3 groups: control, OGD and OGD + drug treated. Cytosolic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide (NO) was measured as nitrite (NO2) in the supernatant and protein assays were performed in the respective groups at various time intervals. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2.-), hydroxyl radicals (. OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO and Sin-1 respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three groups for GCLC, iNOS, Cu-Zn SOD and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels, expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu-Zn SOD genes. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition all the three herbs significantly diminished the expression of iNOS gene after 48 hours which plays a major role in neuronal injury during hypoxia/ischemia. RC, FC and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression level and may be an effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage.
Article
Full-text available
Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) have been shown to possess anti-tumor properties, but the mechanism of the anti-tumor function of TCE is poorly understood. This investigation elucidates the possible mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of dichlormethane extracts of TCE, after selecting optimal duration and concentration for treatment. HeLa cells were exposed to various concentrations of TCE, which has resulted in a concentration-dependent decline in the clonogenicity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and a concentration-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) with a peak at 4 h and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release with a peak at 2 h. Our results suggest that the cytotoxic effect of TCE may be due to lipid peroxidation and release of LDH and decline in GST.
Article
Full-text available
Chronic diabetic patients with wounds have deficient growth factors and impaired local and systemic cellular immunity. Treatment with growth factors is expensive with risk of infection transmission and these factors may not achieve optimum wound concentration. We evaluated the role of generalized immunomodulation in diabetic ulcers by using Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy and studied its influence on parameters/determinants of healing, on bacterial eradication and on polymorphonuclear phagocytosis. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled study lasting for over 18 months in 50 patients. The ulcer was classified by wound morphology and severity with Wound Severity Score (Pecoraro-Reiber system). Mean ulcer area, depth and perimeter were measured and swabs taken for culture. Blood was collected to assess polymorphonuclear % phagocytosis (PMN function by Lehrer-Cline C. albicans method). Medical therapy, glycemic control, debridement, wound care were optimized. At 4 weeks, parameters were reassessed. PMN function was reviewed at 3 months. Forty-five patients completed the trial: study group - 23 (M:F = 17:1; mean age = 56.3 years; mean ulcer duration = 21.1 days); control group 22 (M:F = 19:3; mean age = 56.3 years; mean ulcer duration = 30.4 days). Net improvement was seen in 17 patients (73.9%) in the study group; while in the control group, in 13 patients (59.1%); P = 0.292. Specific parameters included rate of change of ulcer area - cm(2) /day (study - 0.15; control - 0.07; P = 0.145); rate of change of ulcer perimeter - mm/day (study - 0.09; control = - 0.07; P = 0.089); change of depth - mm (study - 2.2; control - 1.4; P = 0.096); change of wound score (study - 14.4; control - 10.6; P = 0.149); total number of debridements (study - 1.9; control - 2.5; P = 0.03) and change in % phagocytosis (study - 3.9; control - 2.3; P = 0.048). Diabetic patients with foot ulcers on T. cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy showed significantly better final outcome with improvement in wound healing. Reduced debridements and improved phagocytosis were statistically significant, indicating beneficial effects of immunomodulation for ulcer healing.
Article
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), an Indian medicinal plant, was used to explore antitumor promoting activity in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. For this purpose, mice were treated by single application of DMBA (100 microg/100 microl of acetone) and two weeks later promoted by croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) until the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks). Oral administration of the above extract at the preinitiational stage (i.e., seven days before and seven days after DMBA application; group IV), promotional stage (i.e., from the time of croton oil application; group V), and both pre- and postintiational stage (i.e., from the time of DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment; group VI; on the shaven backs of the mice at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 16 weeks) recorded significant reduction in tumor weight, tumor incidence in comparison to control (i.e., mice treated with DMBA and croton oil; group III). Furthermore, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield, tumor burden, and tumor weight showed significant reduction along with significant elevation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver and skin in the animals administered with such plant extract concomitant to carcinogen exposure. Thus, the present data strongly suggests that the Tinospora cordifolia extract has anti-tumor potential in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model.
Article
Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts (methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose-dependent but significant increase in cell killing, when compared to non-drug-treated controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical. However, methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8- and 6.8-fold when compared either to methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a concentration-dependent manner in guduchi-treated groups and this increase in the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non-drug-treated control cultures and also with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract-treated cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, the micronuclei formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract-treated group than in the other two groups. The dose response relationship for all three extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was correlated with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was found to be linear quadratic. Our results demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro and deserves attention as an antineoplastic agent.
Article
Administration of the polysaccharide fraction from Tinospora cordifolia was found to be very effective in reducing the metastatic potential of B16F-10 melanoma cells. There was a 72% inhibition in the metastases formation in the lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, when the drug was administered simultaneously with tumour challenge. Biochemical parameters such as lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamines and uronic acids that are markers of neoplastic development were reduced significantly (P<0.001) in the treated animals compared with the untreated control animals. The treatment could also reduce serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) and sialic acid levels as compared to the control animals.
Article
We and others previously have reported that extract prepared from medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia shows a wide spectrum of immunoaugmentary effects. Tinospora cordifolia was shown to upregulate antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In this article we present evidence to show that an alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (ALTC) enhances the differentiation of TAM to dendritic cells (DC) in response to granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor. DC differentiated in vitro from TAM that were harvested from tumor-bearing mice after i.p. administration of ALTC (200 mg/kg body weight) 2 days posttumor transplantation shows an enhanced tumor cytotoxicity and production of tumoricidal soluble molecules like TNF, IL-1, and NO. Adoptive transfer of these TAM-derived DC to Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice resulted in prolongation of survival of tumor-bearing mice. This is the first report regarding the differentiation and antitumor functions of TAM-derived DC obtained from tumor-bearing host administered with ALTC. The possible mechanisms involved also are discussed.
Article
The present study investigates the effect of in vivo administration of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia whole plant (ALTC) on the proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow hematopoietic precursor cells in mice bearing a transplantable T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). BMC obtained from ALTC administered DL-bearing mice showed an enhanced BMC proliferation and colony forming ability in vitro in response to L929 conditioned medium as a source of colony stimulating factor (CSF). The number of granulocyte-macrophages colony (CFU-GM) was predominantly higher in the cultures of BMC obtained from ALTC administered mice as compared to mice injected with PBS alone. An increase in the count of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from ALTC administered mice was also observed along with an increase in the count of tumor associated macrophages. The BMDM obtained from ALTC administered mice showed an enhanced response to signal of LPS for activation to produce IL-1 and TNF. This study indicates that the T. cordifolia can influence the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells and the recruitment of macrophages in response to tumor growth in situ.
Article
The present study is an effort to identify a potent chemopreventive agent against various diseases (including cancer) in which oxidative stress plays an important causative role. Here, we investigated the effect of a hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol: 20% distilled water) extract of aerial roots of Tinospora cordifolia (50 and 100mg/kg body wt./day for 2 weeks) on carcinogen/drug metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in liver of 8-week-old Swiss albino mice. The modulatory effect of the extract was also examined on extrahepatic organs, i.e., lung, kidney and forestomach, for the activities of GSH S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Significant increases in the levels of acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) and cytochrome P(450) contents, and enzyme activities of cytochrome P(450) reductase, cytochrome b(5) reductase, GST, DTD, SOD, catalase, GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR) were observed in the liver. Both treated groups showed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. In lung SOD, catalase and GST; in kidney SOD and catalase; and in forestomach SOD, DTD and GST showed significant increase at both dose levels of treatment. BHA (0.75%, w/w in diet), a pure antioxidant compound, was used as a positive control. This group showed increase in hepatic levels of GSH content, cytochrome b(5), DTD, GST, GR and catalase, whereas MDA formation was inhibited significantly. In the BHA-treated group, the lung and kidney showed increased levels of catalase, DTD and GST, whereas SOD was significantly increased in the kidney and forestomach; the latter also showed an increase in the activities of DTD and GST. The enhanced GSH level and enzyme activities involved in xenobiotic metabolism and maintaining antioxidant status of cells are suggestive of a chemopreventive efficacy of T. cordifolia against chemotoxicity, including carcinogenicity, which warrants further investigation of active principle (s) present in the extract responsible for the observed effects employing various carcinogenesis models.
Article
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of an alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic medicine in India. Oral administration of the extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCREt) roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in blood and urine glucose and in lipids in serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also prevented a decrease in body weight. Thus our study clearly shows that an alcohol TCREt has a hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action.