A coding variant in CR1 interacts with APOE- 4 to influence cognitive decline

Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.39). 03/2012; 21(10):2377-88. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/dds054
Source: PubMed


Complement receptor 1 (CR1) is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility locus that also influences AD-related traits such as episodic memory decline
and neuritic amyloid plaque deposition. We implemented a functional fine-mapping approach, leveraging intermediate phenotypes
to identify functional variant(s) within the CR1 locus. Using 1709 subjects (697 deceased) from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, we tested
41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the linkage disequilibrium block containing the published CR1 AD SNP (rs6656401) for associations with episodic memory decline, and then examined the functional consequences of the top
result. We report that a coding variant in the LHR-D (long homologous repeat D) region of the CR1 gene, rs4844609 (Ser1610Thr, minor allele frequency = 0.02), is associated with episodic memory decline and accounts for
the known effect of the index SNP rs6656401 (D′ = 1, r2= 0.084) on this trait. Further, we demonstrate that the coding variant's effect is largely dependent on an interaction with
APOE-ɛ4 and mediated by an increased burden of AD-related neuropathology. Finally, in our data, this coding variant is also associated
with AD susceptibility (joint odds ratio = 1.4). Taken together, our analyses identify a CR1 coding variant that influences episodic memory decline; it is a variant known to alter the conformation of CR1 and points
to LHR-D as the functional domain within the CR1 protein that mediates the effect on memory decline. We thus implicate C1q
and MBL, which bind to LHR-D, as likely targets of the variant's effect and suggest that CR1 may be an important intermediate
in the clearance of Aβ42 particles by C1q.

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    • "Two studies integrated multi-modal data including imaging , genetics and/or cognitive data to improve the classification accuracy (Yu et al. 2012), as well as the prediction accuracy, of neuropsychological performance (Wang et al. 2012b). One study identified a significant association of one coding variant in CR1 gene with episodic memory decline (Keenan et al. 2012). SNPs previously associated with AD, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and MRI-identified infarcts were also investigated (Mukherjee et al. 2012b). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Genetics Core of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), formally established in 2009, aims to provide resources and facilitate research related to genetic predictors of multidimensional Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related phenotypes. Here, we provide a systematic review of genetic studies published between 2009 and 2012 where either ADNI APOE genotype or genome-wide association study (GWAS) data were used. We review and synthesize ADNI genetic associations with disease status or quantitative disease endophenotypes including structural and functional neuroimaging, fluid biomarker assays, and cognitive performance. We also discuss the diverse analytical strategies used in these studies, including univariate and multivariate analysis, meta-analysis, pathway analysis, and interaction and network analysis. Finally, we perform pathway and network enrichment analyses of these ADNI genetic associations to highlight key mechanisms that may drive disease onset and trajectory. Major ADNI findings included all the top 10 AD genes and several of these (e.g., APOE, BIN1, CLU, CR1, and PICALM) were corroborated by ADNI imaging, fluid and cognitive phenotypes. ADNI imaging genetics studies discovered novel findings (e.g., FRMD6) that were later replicated on different data sets. Several other genes (e.g., APOC1, FTO, GRIN2B, MAGI2, and TOMM40) were associated with multiple ADNI phenotypes, warranting further investigation on other data sets. The broad availability and wide scope of ADNI genetic and phenotypic data has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of AD and has nominated novel targets for future studies employing next-generation sequencing and convergent multi-omics approaches, and for clinical drug and biomarker development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11682-013-9262-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Brain Imaging and Behavior
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    • "This coding variant was associated with AD susceptibility, a composite score of episodic memory decline, and increased neuritic pathology in a study cohort primarily consisting of non-Hispanic Caucasian individuals. Moreover , their results suggested that this rare variant could account for the effect of the index GWA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6656401 on episodic memory decline (Keenan et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously described an intragenic functional copy number variation (CNV) in complement receptor 1 (CR1) that is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. A recent study, however, reported a rare CR1 coding variant p.Ser1610Thr (rs4844609) associated with AD susceptibility, explaining the effect of genome wide association (GWA) top single nucleotide polymorphism rs6656401. We assessed the role of the Ser1610Thr variant in AD pathogenesis and the effect on AD-related endophenotypes in a Flanders-Belgian cohort. We evaluated whether this rare variant rather than the CR1 CNV could explain the association of CR1 in our population. The Ser1610Thr variant was not associated with AD, memory impairment, total tau, amyloid β1-42 or tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 levels. It did not explain (part of) the association of genome wide association top single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3818361/rs6656401, nor of the CR1 CNV, with AD in our cohort, whereas the CR1 CNV and rs3818361/rs6656401 represented the same association signal. These findings question a role for the Ser1610Thr variant in AD risk and related endophenotypes, and reaffirm our previous observation that the CR1 CNV could be the true functional risk factor explaining the association between CR1 and AD.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Neurobiology of aging
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    • "However, the CR1 locus also affects the accumulation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy [92] and may therefore also function through an effect on the cerebral vasculature. Beyond demonstrating the utility of leveraging intermediate phenotypes to build a causal chain of events leading from a risk factor to a clinical syndrome, CR1 also illustrates the strategy of using an intermediate phenotype to perform fine mapping of a susceptibility locus, which can help to locate the causal variant and to find additional variants that have an effect on AD and its pathology [93]. These types of studies are not unique to APOE and CR1, as evidence supporting an association of the CETP AD susceptibility allele with AD pathology has recently been reported [94]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Uncovering the genetic risk and protective factors for complex diseases is of fundamental importance for advancing therapeutic and biomarker discoveries. This endeavor is particularly challenging for neuropsychiatric diseases where diagnoses predominantly rely on the clinical presentation, which may be heterogeneous, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the underlying genetic susceptibility factors and environmental exposures. Although genome-wide association studies of various neuropsychiatric diseases have recently identified susceptibility loci, there likely remain additional genetic risk factors that underlie the liability to these conditions. Furthermore, identification and characterization of the causal risk variant(s) in each of these novel susceptibility loci constitute a formidable task, particularly in the absence of any prior knowledge about their function or mechanism of action. Biologically relevant, quantitative phenotypes, i.e., endophenotypes, provide a powerful alternative to the more traditional, binary disease phenotypes in the discovery and characterization of susceptibility genes for neuropsychiatric conditions. In this review, we focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a model neuropsychiatric disease and provide a synopsis of the recent literature on the use of endophenotypes in AD genetics. We highlight gene expression, neuropathology and cognitive endophenotypes in AD, with examples demonstrating the utility of these alternative approaches in the discovery of novel susceptibility genes and pathways. In addition, we discuss how these avenues generate testable hypothesis about the pathophysiology of genetic factors that have far-reaching implications for therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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