To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
Clay is often used in cosmetic treatments, although little is known about its action.
To evaluate the effect of topical clay application on the histoarchitecture of collagen fibres in rat skin.
Animals received a daily application of clay and retinoic acid (RA) 0.025% to the dorsal skin over 7 and 14 days, under vaporization at 37 °C for 40 min. Control skin was not vaporized. Samples from each region were excised, and stained with picrosirius red for collagen evaluation.
Seven days after clay treatment, an increase in the number of collagen fibres was observed in treated skin compared with control skin (51.74 ± 1.28 vs. 43.39 ± 1.79%, respectively, P < 0.01), whereas RA did not alter the collagen level (45.66 ± 1.10%). Clay application over 14 days did not induce a further increase in skin collagen, whereas treatment with RA did (58.07 ± 1.59%; P = 0.001 vs. control).
Clay application promotes an increase in the number of collagen fibres, which may account for its beneficial effects.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... Clays are layered aluminosilicates formed by the arrangement of two different sheets: one of these sheets consists on tetrahedral SiO 4 units, where each Si atom shares one of its O atoms with the second sheet which in turn consists on aluminum in octahedral co-ordination, represented as AlO 6 . There are also two different sheet structures. ...
... Clays have been used in many areas. They can be used as a geopolymer material from the production of geopolymer brick due to their significant impact on the strength of the material  or in the development of cosmetic treatments as a therapeutic option for facial rejuvenation . Clays have been extensively used in the area of drilling muds  and foundry muds and for paper coating with the aim of controlling paper surface morphology, optical and physical properties as well as its printing properties [8,9]. ...
... These facts can be attributed to the amorphous nature of the pore wall present on most mesoporous aluminosilicates, since the preparation conditions required to generate mesoporosity do not generally favor the formation of the crystalline aluminosilicate framework [19,33,48]. However, some recent studies show that it is possible to achieve crystalline mesoporous aluminosilicates that will allow the combination of the advantages of zeolites and mesoporous materials [6,33,49]. ...
... This material also plays an important role in the development of health products (Viseras et al., 2010) such as cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals (Allo and Murray, 2004). It has been extensively used in the treatment of pain, for wound healing, colitis, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, stomach ulcers, intestinal problems, acne and anemia, and it has been shown to increase the collagen fibers in skin and a variety of other tissues (López-Galindo and Viseras, 2004;Dong and Feng, 2005;Kevadiya et al., 2012;Valenti et al., 2012). ...
... Clay packs significantly reduce tissue damage associated with swelling, when applied externally in severe trauma situations (Emami-Razavi et al., 2006). The rapid beneficial effects of clay on the collagen network, while not affecting the skin histoarchitecture, suggest that clay may be a good therapeutic option for facial rejuvenation (Valenti et al., 2012). ...
... Numerous studies have demonstrated its clinical benefits and its effects on inflammatory mediators. Interleukins, the immune system, respiratory factors, collagen production boost [1,2]. In addition, it is beneficial to reduce excess oil, absorbs unwanted toxins and impurities in the skin . ...
This research is a study on the development of innovative clay mask mixed with the Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extract product. The purposes of this research are as follows. Firstly, the research is to develop a clay mask product mixed with natural extracts from the Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Secondly, it is aimed to study on the antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, antimicrobial effect and total Phenolic contents of the Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extracts. Thirdly, it is tostudy stability of the product. Finally, the research is to study on the calculation of suitable product formulations for clay products mixed with Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extracts. By starting from the selection of raw materials, the extracts are prepared to determine the total phenolic content. Later, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay method is conducted for antioxidant activity test, followed by anti-inflammatory effect test (Nitric oxide production inhibitory activity test, inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α secretion test and Anti-inflammatory activity test (COX-2). Afterwards, a suitable formulation is developed. The test for the safety and physical properties of the product is then carried out followed by the skin irritation test in a group of 10 volunteers in order to ensure that the clay mask product containing Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extracts is effective and safe. From the results of the product stability study, the findings indicated that the clay mask product containing Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extracts did not show any phase separation. The irritation test in 10 volunteers after 12 hours of using the product showed no sign of allergic reaction, itching or irritation. Toxicity test results found no cytotoxicity. The anti-inflammatory effect test was found to have potent anti-inflammatory properties, when tested in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell. This study is only for the development of an innovative product of skin clay mask mixed with the Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl extracts.
... Several substances have been tested to assess their contribution to delaying the skin aging process, by various mechanisms, such as scavenging of ROS and restoration of the redox balance (Hwang, 2010), inhibiting the expression or activity of MMP (Valenti et al., 2011), increasing the expression or regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) (Landau, 2007), inhibition of elastosis (Langton et al., 2010), or simply by protecting against ultraviolet (UV) radiation that promotes the formation of ROS and triggers many of these processes that are responsible for aging (Choe et al., 2003). ...
The human skin aging process is a complex mechanism that can be induced both by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Observations include a decrease in the biosynthetic and proliferative capacity of cells, increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases, reduction in collagen type I expression, and the progressive disappearance of elastic tissue in the papillary dermis. L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthesis, is involved in angiogenesis and cell proliferation, as well as an indirect precursor of collagen synthesis via the proline pathway. The aim of this study was to examine the tensile strength, histology, and immunohistochemistry of female and male mice skin receiving different concentrations of topically applied L-arginine, in order to evaluate the possibility of using L-arginine as an active cosmetic ingredient in antiaging products. The results suggest that the application of L-arginine improves the mechanical resistance of skin from older female mice (20 weeks old) and promotes the formation of a larger amount of collagen and elastic fibers in the skin when applied at a concentration of 15%.
... It was found that the clay samples induced a significant increase in the relative rate of collagen synthesis (5.4 ± 0.6) as compared to the rate of the control group (2.9 ± 0.4) and to the rate of the group that received sterile sand in their incisions instead of clay (3.1 ± 0.3). Another study, conducted by Valenti et al., 2011 showed that the topical application of kaolinite clay masks in rats promoted an increase in the amount of collagen fibers in their skins. The group of rats that received skin treatment with clay masks for a period of 7 days displayed a significant increase in the percent area of collagen fibers (51.74 ± 1.28%) in comparison to the control group (43.39 ± 1.79%). ...
Clay minerals are layered materials with a number of peculiar properties, which find many relevant applications in various industries. Since they are easily found everywhere, they are particularly attractive due to their economic viability. In the cosmetic industry, clay minerals are often used as excipients to stabilize emulsions or suspensions and to modify the rheological behavior of these systems. They also play an important role as adsorbents or absorbents, not only in cosmetics but also in other industries, such as pharmaceuticals. This reviewer believes that since this manuscript is presented as covering topical applications that include pharmaceuticals, some types of clay minerals should be considered as a potential material to be used as drug delivery systems. We review several applications of clay minerals to dermocosmetic products, relating them to the underlying properties of these materials and exemplifying with a number of clay minerals available in the market. We also discuss the use of clay minerals in topically-applied products for therapeutic purposes, specially for skin treatment and protection.
... Thus, the composition of the different clays did not influence the skin viscoelasticity behavior in the short-term clinical study. The long-term use of this type of formulation probably would have more benefits because it was already demonstrated that the clay application in rats for 7 days increased the numbers of collagen fibers (Valenti et al., 2012), which could decrease wrinkles and increase the skin firmness. ...
Clay mineral facial masks are used to treat some dermatological diseases, just for cleansing or reduce the amount of oil secreted by sebaceous glands. There are several types of clays, which vary in mineralogical and chemical composition, color and origin. However, the literature lacks studies involving clay facial masks, in particular regarding their influence on skin´s biomechanical properties. Thus, this work aimed to characterize colored clays and evaluate its influence on skin firmness and elasticity by a short-term clinical study. Different clays (named in this study magnesium aluminum silicate - MAS, white, pink and green) were chemically characterized, and facial mask formulations were prepared. The short-term clinical study was performed through the application of formulations on the skin. The skin firmness and elasticity were assessed before treatment and after mask removal. The statistical analysis showed no significant influence of time or formulations in those parameters, although volunteers reported the sensation of mechanical tension after the removal of the clay facial masks. Thus, the composition of the different clays did not affect the skin viscoelasticity behavior in the short-term clinical study, and a long-term use of this type of formulation must be indicated to observe all the expected benefits.
... The changes in the composition of extracellular matrix constitute an important factor in the aging process. Collagen fibers associated with proteoglycans are important components of dermis, and the healthy skin is dependent on the balance of synthesis and degradation of collagen . In young skin, collagen fibers are more organized, as they are arranged to be extended or stay in the normal configuration. ...
Skin is the largest human organ and displays multiple functions involving structure and protection against external agents that may affect the body. Solar radiation accelerates the normal aging process and may even cause great damage leading to many different cutaneous diseases and skin cancer. Moreover, a wound in the skin may be an open channel for the access of pathogens usually exposing blood vessels for infections and causing serious complications. For many reasons, regulatory skin processes are of great deal in different approaches: basic antiaging, wound healing, and skin cancer. In a good way, photoprocesses with specific wavelength at low energy levels associated with photoactive compounds are known to cause the opposite effect, promoting the healing of cutaneous diseases and leading to well-defined outcomes in rejuvenation and antiaging. This chapter will discuss the most relevant topics in photo skin regeneration using low energy levels associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), which emerged as a combination to potentialize molecules with the already known effects of PDT and low level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of skin pathologies, known as a photobiomodulation process.
... Devido a estas propriedades, as bentonitas são utilizadas para reduzir efeitos colaterais provocados por diversos fármacos (Abbès et al., 2008;Kevadiya, 2012). Além disso, suas propriedades químicas auxiliam na cura de feridas, aliviam irritações, protegem a pele contra substâncias químicas ou físicas e auxiliam no tratamento de distúrbios gastrointestinais (López-Galindo e Viseras, 2004;Valenti et al., 2012). ...
... Studies with cultured human neuroblastoma have revealed an increased cell death rate after exposure to anti-cancer drugs, while treatment with clay based drugs (rich in bentonite) has resulted in increased cell viability (Kevadiya et al., 2013). Indeed, bentonite has been used for therapeutic purposes such as: curing wounds, relieving irritations, increasing collagen fibers, protecting skin against physical or chemical substances, and treating gastrointestinal disorders (López-Galindo and Viseras, 2004;Kevadiya et al., 2012;Valenti et al., 2012). ...
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH measurements after lake clay facial applications. Research included short-term tests (measurements 20 and 60 min after clay application) and long-term tests (application every 4th day for 3 weeks with measurements 20–24 h post-application). Control measurements and application tests to exclude contact allergy were made beforehand. No volunteer (n = 30) had positive allergic reaction. The matched-pairs design was applied: the right and left parts of forehead were used for the test and control groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test (significance level p = 0.001) was applied for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant pH changes demonstrated during the short-term measurements. The long-term measurements provided data that clay significantly improves skin hydration and elasticity.
Clay minerals have been used in pharmaceutical industries as active ingredients and excipients without pharmacological activity such as diluents, emulsifying agents, viscosity-increasing agents, and lubricants. For example, bentonite, kaolin, magnesium aluminum silicate, and talc are generally and extensively used pharmaceutical ingredients, which are restrictedly regulated by Pharmacopoeias. We discuss the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of clay minerals. In addition, we introduce the cases of pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals. From this review, pharmaceutical applications of clay minerals can be one of strategies for the development of high value-added products from clay minerals.
Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may influence wound healing and wound closure in non-healing wounds. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that hydrogencalcium salts of oxidized cellulose change the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and TNF-α, wound size and number of bacterial strains in non-healing wounds. We analyzed MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α in the wound fluid from 20 patients by ELISA every fourteen days over six weeks. Wound size, pain, wound closure and bacterial strains in the wound were also investigated. The wound size was reduced in 14 patients and pain in 16 patients. Bacterial contamination of the wound decreased significantly after treatment. The level of MMP-2 correlated with TNF-α production. The level of MMP-9 was unchanged during the healing period. We conclude that hydrogencalcium salts of oxidized cellulose have a favorable effect on the reduction of bacterial contamination, wound size and pain.
Previous studies have demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid (RA) increases collagen production and decreases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in organ-cultured human skin. Decreased MMP activity is associated with up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). These changes are accompanied by a hyperplastic response in the epidermis. Here we show that a synthetic picolinic ester-substituted retinoid (designated as MDI 301) has comparable effects to those of RA in regard to these activities. What makes these findings of interest is that RA also stimulates elaboration of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulates leukocyte adhesion molecules in organ-cultured skin. MDI 301 does not induce such changes or is much less active. In a past study we showed that while RA was irritating to the skin of topically treated hairless mice, MDI 301 was essentially non-irritating under the same conditions [Varani et al. (2003) Arch. Dermatol Res 295:255-262]. Taken in conjunction with the findings from the past study, the present data suggest that MDI 301 will be similar to RA in capacity to repair damaged skin, but will be effective under conditions that are not irritating. These findings, thus, suggest that retinoid efficacy and clinically relevant irritancy are not inextricably linked. Potential for efficacy under conditions in which irritation is not observed is a strong rationale for further development of MDI 301 as a skin-repair agent.
Background/aims: In physiotherapy, fango (mud) application is a frequently used heat therapy. The main therapeutic effects are due to the elevated temperature of the different tissues with a significant redistribution of blood towards the heated area. This may influence several cardiovascular parameters. There is only limited information on the effect of fango application on skin characteristics. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate the effects of fango application on skin temperature, perfusion of the microcirculation and skin colour. At the same time, cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded.
A highly reactive biomaterial (clay) and a relatively nonreactive substance (silicone) were implanted separately in primarily closed incisions on the backs of rats. Collagen synthesis was determined in biopsies from each test site after 8 days. The biochemical measurements of collagen synthesis showed a significant correlation with the gross pathologic and histologic findings.
Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes.
Stereology is a set of simple and efficient methods for quantitation of three-dimensional microscopic structures which is specifically tuned to provide reliable data from sections. Within the last few years, a number of new methods has been developed which are of special interest to pathologists. Methods for estimating the volume, surface area and length of any structure are described in this review. The principles on which stereology is based and the necessary sampling procedures are described and illustrated with examples. The necessary equipment, the measurements, and the calculations are invariably simple and easy.
This contribution will address the effect of aging on skin functions, with a particular focus on skin permeability, wound healing, angiogenesis, lipogenesis, sweat production, immune function, and vitamin D synthesis. With accelerating age, skin functions deteriorate due to structural and morphologic changes. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, varying from benign to malignant. Because the number of persons aged 80 and older is expected to rise in the next decades, disease prevention will become an important issue. Screening examinations and prevention through public education starting at an early age regarding sun avoidance, the use of sunscreens and the importance of a balanced nutrition are the first steps for successful healthy aging. Although the fundamental mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood, a growing body of evidence points toward the involvement of multiple pathways. Recent data obtained by expression profiling studies and studies of progeroid syndromes illustrate that among the most important biologic processes involved in skin aging are alterations in DNA repair and stability, mitochondrial function, cell cycle and apoptosis, extracellular matrix, lipid synthesis, ubiquitin-induced proteolysis and cellular metabolism. Among others, a major factor that has been implicated in the initiation of aging is the physiologic decline of hormones occurring with age. However, hormones at age-specific levels may regulate not only age-associated mechanisms but also tumor suppressor pathways that influence carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of aging may open new strategies to deal with the various diseases accompanying high age, including cancer.
Retinol is a cosmetic ingredient that is structurally similar to all-trans-retinoic acid, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of photodamage. Since skin keratinocytes are reported to metabolize retinol to retinoic acid, investigators have hypothesized that retinol may also be helpful in improving skin photodamage. In this eight-week, double-blind, split-face, randomized clinical study, a stabilized 0.1% retinol-containing moisturizer was tested (36 subjects) against the vehicle (28 subjects) in women with moderate facial photodamage. Each product was applied once daily to the designated half side of the face. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after four and eight weeks of treatment using a 0-9 scale for photoaging parameters. The results showed that, after eight weeks, the retinol moisturizer was significantly more efficacious than the vehicle in improving lines and wrinkles, pigmentation, elasticity, firmness and overall photodamage. Many of these differences were significant at week 4, with a progressive improvement to week 8. This study demonstrates that a formulation containing stabilized retinol is safe and effective to ameliorate the appearance of photoaged skin.
To investigate whether topical antiaging compounds can reduce wrinkle depth as noted at replica profilometry with comparable changes in histologic findings in hairless mice.
Commercial retinoic acid cream, a peptide lotion, and a soy cream were applied to the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Silicone-negative replicas of treated and untreated skin surface were photographed and evaluated for traditional features of surface roughness. Skin samples were processed using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Quantitative light microscopic data were acquired for estimating replication of epidermal keratinocytes, epidermal thickness, and depth of dermal collagen bundles.
Data were analyzed by comparing means with 1-way analysis of variance, and significant changes in all measurements were noted. Augmented keratinocyte proliferation and thickening of viable epidermis were observed with all 3 compounds, although a greater effect was found in the retinoic acid and peptide treatment groups. A similar trend was noted with respect to widening of the collagen layer. Epidermal surface roughness manifested maximum smoothing after treatment with the peptide compound.
The pronounced effects noted with all 3 compounds indicate that topical agents other than retinoic acid may have comparative stimulating effects on the skin in nonirradiated mice.
Sirius Red, a strong anionic dye, stains collagen by reacting, via its sulphonic acid groups, with basic groups present in the collagen molecule. The elongated dye molecules are attached to the collagen fibre in such a way that their long axes are parallel. This parallel relationship between dye and collagen results in an enhanced birefringency.
Examination of tissue sections from 15 species of vertebrates suggests that staining with Sirius Red, when combined with enhancement of birefringency, may be considered specific for collagen. An improved and modified method of staining with Sirius Red is presented.
The effects of daily topical application onto guinea pig ears of a therapeutic concentration of all trans-retinoic acid (RA) on epidermal thickness and dermal collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis rates were studied during a 40-day period. Clinically, the RA-treated skin became erythematous and scaly beginning at 5-6 days, conditions which persisted throughout the experiment. The epidermis became thickened and hyperplastic with marked psoriasi-form histologic features, and the phenomenon was dependent on RA concentration. The initial hyperplasia resulted from a transient 4-fold increase in epidermal basal cell replication during the first 3-4 days, as shown by the rise and fall of [3H]thymidine labeling index which preceded the hyperplasia. The extent of epidermal hyperplasia as measured by epidermal thickness was not constant throughout the 40-day treatment period, but exhibited maxima on days 11, 25, and 36. These maxima were followed by periods of decreased thickness, although the minima were always greater than the untreated controls. Retinoic acid induced similar temporal cycles in GAG and collagen biosynthesis rates, but the collagen cycles occurred at different times with maxima on days 6, 20, and 34. After 8 weeks' treatment, the blood flow rates in the ear microcirculation (laser Doppler photometry) were increased 81% above that of the water-treated controls. The demonstration of these RA-induced cyclic changes in epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibroblast biosynthetic activities have revealed the presence of control mechanisms in these tissues which normally operate to maintain tissue homeostasis.
Retinoids, either naturally occurring or synthetic, are defined by their ability to bind nuclear retinoid receptors of the steroid/thyroid superfamily. Their protean but key function in physiology is control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Topical retinoids, namely tretinoin, have been proven to prevent and repair clinical features of photoageing; these processes are facilitated by an ability to prevent loss of collagen from, and stimulate new collagen formation in, the papillary dermis of sun-exposed skin. Emerging evidence indicates that intrinsic, chronological ageing of the skin shares several mechanistic features with photoageing. Indeed aged skin is characterized by retinoid sensitivity and is probably reparable by application of topical retinoids.
The objective of this study was to conduct a laser-Doppler flowmetry investigation of skin microcirculation changes induced by mud pack therapy. The magnitude of the changes, potential remote effects, and potential influence of mud pack thickness were studied.
Twenty female spa therapy patients aged 28-67 years (median, 51 years) participated in the study. The reason for spa therapy was lower limb venous insufficiency in 14 patients and osteoarthritis in six patients, none of whom had involvement of the shoulders. Mud pack treatment was associated with a significant elevation in skin temperature, by 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 1.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C with the 30- and 15-mm packs, respectively (P < 0.001 for both comparisons; nonsignificant difference between the two packs). Skin blood flow increased significantly, by 619 +/- 82 and 410 +/- 124 mV with the 30- and 15-mm packs, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons; nonsignificant difference between the two packs). The vasomotion score increased markedly on the treated side, by 16.7 +/- 2.8 and 13.0 +/- 1.6 with the 30- and 15-mm packs, respectively (P < 0.005 for both comparisons; no significant difference between the two packs). Furthermore, low-frequency vasomotion waves of a type not described previously were recorded. The microcirculatory changes lasted longer than did the temperature increase. No significant changes were noted in the other shoulder or in central body temperature.
The patients were volunteers receiving spa therapy and free of diabetes mellitus, vasoactive drug treatment, and inflammatory shoulder disease. Two mud packs, 15 and 30 mm in thickness, respectively, were applied at an interval of 48 h, at the same time of day in a given patient, and at a distance from other spa treatments. The packs were centered on the deltopectoral groove. The side and order of application of the two packs were determined at random. Superficial skin blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (Perimed PF4001, wavelength 82 nm) and recorded by the Perisoft computer program with a 3-s time constant downstream from a broadband filter (12 MHz).
These results suggest that the vascular changes induced by mud pack therapy are not fully explained by vasodilation in response to local temperature elevation. Further studies are in order to identify the other mechanisms involved.
Diabetes increases susceptibility to chronic skin ulceration. The etiology of chronic wound formation in diabetic individuals is multifactoral but may be accelerated by changes in the structure and function of the skin secondary to impaired fibroblast proliferation, decreased collagen synthesis, and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. This study explored the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on cellular and biochemical features of diabetic human skin in organ culture. Two-mm skin biopsies from hip or ankle were obtained from diabetic subjects and incubated for 9 days in the absence or presence of 2 micro mol/L RA. Hip skin from non-diabetic individuals served as control. Following organ culture incubation, untreated and RA-treated tissue was examined histologically after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. In parallel, organ culture-conditioned medium collected on days 5 and 7 was assayed for levels of active and total MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B). The same organ culture fluids were assayed for the presence of soluble collagen. In comparison with skin from non-diabetic individuals, diabetic skin demonstrated no major differences in overall epidermal thickness or collagen production (both were increased in RA-treated tissue as compared to non-RA-treated tissue). In contrast, levels of MMP-9 (active forms) were elevated in organ culture fluid from diabetic skin as compared to non-diabetic control skin. In the presence of RA, active forms of both MMP-1 and MMP-9 were reduced. Together, these data suggest that RA has the capacity to improve structure and function of diabetic skin, and that a major effect is on reduction of collagen-degrading MMPs.
Bathing in the Blue Lagoon, a specific geothermal biotope in Iceland has been known for many years to be beneficial for human skin in general and for patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis in particular. The scientific rationale for this empirical observation, however has remained elusive. We now report that extracts prepared from silica mud and two different microalgae species derived from the Blue Lagoon are capable of inducing involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin gene expression in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. The same extracts also affects primary human dermal fibroblasts, because extracts from silica mud and one type of algae inhibited UVA radiation-induced upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and both algae, as well as silica mud extracts induced collagen 1A1 and 1A2 gene expression in this cell type. These effects were not restricted to the in vitro situation because topical treatment of healthy human skin (n = 20) with a galenic formulation containing all three extracts induced identical gene regulatory effects in vivo, which were associated with a significant reduction of transepidermal water loss. In aggregate, these results suggest that the bioactives in Blue Lagoon have the capacity to improve skin barrier function and to prevent premature skin ageing. These observations explain at least some of the beneficial effects of bathing in the Blue Lagoon and provide a scientific basis for the use of Blue Lagoon extracts in cosmetic and/or medical products.
Cutaneous aging occurs through 2 biologically distinct processes: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. The first is a naturally occurring process that results from slow tissue degeneration. In human dermis, intrinsic aging is characterized by 3 features: atrophy of the dermis due to loss of collagen, degeneration in the elastic fiber network, and loss of hydration. In contrast to intrinsic aging, extrinsic aging is due to environmental factors. Since ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the principal cause of extrinsic aging, it is often referred to as photoaging. At the microscopic level, the distinguishing feature of photoaging is a massive accumulation of elastotic material in the upper and middle dermis, a process termed solar elastosis. Using recombinant DNA technology, it has become possible to demonstrate that UV radiation can activate the human elastin promoter. This provides a mechanism for enhanced elastin biosynthesis, which contributes to the clinical and morphologic changes observed in photoaged skin.
Effect of topical clay application on the synthesis of collagen in skin
D M Z Valenti
CED Ó 2012 British Association of Dermatologists @BULLET Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 37, 164–168 Effect of topical clay application on the synthesis of collagen in skin @BULLET D. M. Z. Valenti et al.