Program of Cardiovascular Developmental Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Development and Repair, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, E-28029 Madrid, Spain.
The Notch pathway is a crucial cell-fate regulator in the developing heart. Attention in the past centered on Notch function in cardiomyocytes. However, recent advances demonstrate that region-specific endocardial Notch activity orchestrates the patterning and morphogenesis of cardiac chambers and valves through regulatory interaction with multiple myocardial and neural crest signals. Notch also regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation during ventricular chamber development and is required for coronary vessel specification. Here, we review these data and highlight disease connections, including evidence that Notch-Hey-Bmp2 interplay impacts adult heart valve disease and that Notch contributes to cardiac arrhythmia and pre-excitation syndromes.
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"The results of this study indicate a potential role of Notch signaling in the adult heart and suggest that it can be a therapeutic target for dilated cardiomyopathies. In humans, Notch signaling is important for the organogenesis of the heart (de la Pompa and Epstein, 2012) and mutations in NOTCH1 cause aortic valve disease (Garg et al., 2005). Although the importance of Notch signaling in mammalian heart development has been studied, its role in the adult heart, especially in a regenerative context, is an emerging area that has many unexplored questions (Ferrari and Rizzo, 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Many of the internal organ systems of Drosophila melanogaster are functionally analogous to those in vertebrates, including humans. Although humans and flies differ greatly in terms of their gross morphological and cellular features, many of the molecular mechanisms that govern development and drive cellular and physiological processes are conserved between both organisms. The morphological differences are deceiving and have led researchers to undervalue the study of invertebrate organs in unraveling pathogenic mechanisms of diseases. In this review and accompanying poster, we highlight the physiological and molecular parallels between fly and human organs that validate the use of Drosophila to study the molecular pathogenesis underlying human diseases. We discuss assays that have been developed in flies to study the function of specific genes in the central nervous system, heart, liver and kidney, and provide examples of the use of these assays to address questions related to human diseases. These assays provide us with simple yet powerful tools to study the pathogenic mechanisms associated with human disease-causing genes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Disease Models and Mechanisms
"These genes are critical components of the NOTCH signaling pathway, which regulates various developmental processes. This pathway is involved in the morphogenesis of the heart and the partitioning of the heart by the left-right axis. Ninety percent of individuals with this condition exhibit phenotypes characteristic of peripheral pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary stenosis, and TOF.: Macro-deletion syndromes, such as 3q, 4q, 5p, 8p, 9p, 11q, 13q, 18p, and 18q, are commonly associated with congenital heart defects. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) represent the biggest fraction of morbid congenital anomalies worldwide. Owing to their complex inheritance patterns and multifactorial etiologies, these defects are difficult to identify before complete manifestation. Research over the past two decades has established firmly the role of genetics in the development of these congenital defects. While syndromic CHDs are more straightforward, non-syndromic CHDs are usually characterized by multiple mutations that affect intricate inter-connected developmental pathways. Knock-out and gene expression studies in mice and other genetic models have been performed to elucidate the roles of these implicated genes. Functional analysis has not been able to resolve the complete picture, as increasingly more downstream effects are continuously being assigned to CHD mutant factors. NKX2-5, a cardiac transcription factor, has received much attention for its role in cardiac dysmorphogenesis. Approximately 50 different mutations in this gene have been identified to date, and only a few have been functionally characterized. The mutant NKX2-5 factor can regulate a number of off-targets downstream to facilitate CHD development. This review summarizes the genetic etiology of congenital heart defects and emphasizes the need for NKX2-5 mutation screening.
"However , direct role of TEK has not been implicated with either Coats plus syndrome or dextrocardia phenotype till date. Notch signaling regulates cardiac development, septal development and coronary vascular development . Cardiac septal abnormalities, like atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and coronary artery fistula have been reported in a few cases of Coats plus syndrome harboring compound heterozygous mutations in CTC1 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Coats plus syndrome is an autosomal recessive, pleiotropic, multisystem disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudates, intracranial calcification with leukoencephalopathy and brain cysts, osteopenia with predisposition to fractures, bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal bleeding and portal hypertension. It is caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the CTC1 gene.
We encountered a case of an eight-year old boy from an Indian family with manifestations of Coats plus syndrome along with an unusual occurrence of dextrocardia and situs inversus. Targeted resequencing of the CTC1 gene as well as whole exome sequencing (WES) were conducted in this family to identify the causal variations. The identified candidate variations were screened in ethnicity matched healthy controls. The effect of CTC1 variation on telomere length was assessed using Southern blot. A novel homozygous missense mutation c.1451A > C (p.H484P) in exon 9 of the CTC1 gene and a rare 3'UTR known dbSNP variation (c.*556 T > C) in HES7 were identified as the plausible candidates associated with this complex phenotype of Coats plus and dextrocardia. This CTC1 variation was absent in the controls and we also observed a reduced telomere length in the affected individual's DNA, suggesting its likely pathogenic nature. The reported p.H484P mutation is located in the N-terminal 700 amino acid regionthat is important for the binding of CTC1 to ssDNA through its two OB domains. WES data also showed a rare homozygous missense variation in the TEK gene in the affected individual. Both HES7 and TEK are targets of the Notch signaling pathway.
This is the first report of a genetically confirmed case of Coats plus syndrome from India. By means of WES, the genetic variations in this family with unique and rare complex phenotype could be traced effectively. We speculate the important role of Notch signaling in this complex phenotypic presentation of Coats plus syndrome and dextrocardia. The present finding will be useful for genetic diagnosis and carrier detection in the family and for other patients with similar disease manifestations.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Medical Genetics