We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Subjects were women aged 55-74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers, and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3, and CYP2E1. The study included 1,041 incident breast cancer cases and 1,070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR > 1.34 and all lower CI > 1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction.
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"With few exceptions [5,46,47], our findings are consistent with prior studies that show a positive association between mammographic density and current alcohol intake [8,9,11,17,18,484950, although the precision for many of these estimates is highly variable . In studies that examine beverage type [8,515253, the majority confirm a positive association between wine intake and mammographic density [8,9,18]. We found a positive association between wine intake and percent density; however, the association was attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is associated with higher breast cancer risk. While studies suggest a modest association between alcohol intake and mammographic density, few studies have examined the association in racial/ethnic minority populations.
We assessed dense breast area and total breast area from digitized film mammograms in an urban cohort of African American (42%), African Caribbean (22%), white (22%), and Hispanic Caribbean (9%) women (n = 189, ages 40-61). We examined the association between alcohol intake and mammographic density (percent density and dense area). We used linear regression to examine mean differences in mammographic density across alcohol intake categories. We considered confounding by age, body mass index (BMI), hormone contraceptive use, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, smoking status, nativity, race/ethnicity, age at first birth, and parity.
Fifty percent currently consumed alcohol. Women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, but not those consuming ≤7 servings/week, had higher percent density compared to nondrinkers after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 8.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8, 14.6; ≤7 β = -0.5, 95% CI -3.7, 2.8). There was a positive association between high alcohol intake and dense area after full adjustments (servings/week >7 β = 5.8, 95% CI -2.7, 14.2; ≤7 β = -0.1, 95% CI -4.4, 4.2). We did not observe race/ethnicity modification of the association between alcohol intake and percent density. In women with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), drinkers consuming >7 servings/week of alcohol had a = 17% increase in percent density compared to nondrinkers (95% CI 5.4, 29.0) and there was no association in women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (BMI ≥ 25-30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 5.1, 95% CI -8.5, 18.7 and BMI > 30 kg/m(2) > 7 β = 0.5, 95% CI -6.5, 7.5) after adjusting for age and BMI (continuous).
In a racially/ethnically diverse cohort, women who consumed >7 servings/week of alcohol, especially those with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2), had higher percent density.
"The smallest study included n ¼ 556 women (Lenz et al., 2002) whereas the largest study included n ¼ 274 688 women (Tjonneland et al., 2007).showed that modest or high alcohol consumption was associated with a moderate increase in breast cancer risk (Allen et al., 2009;Beasley et al., 2010;Berstad et al., 2008;Chen et al., 2011;Deandrea et al., 2008;Duffy et al., 2009;Feigelson et al., 2003;Horn-Ross et al., 2004;Kabat et al., 2011;Lenz et al., 2002;Lew et al., 2009;Li et al., 2003Li et al., , 2009Li et al., , 2010Lin et al., 2005;Mattisson et al., 2004b;Mccarty et al., 2012;Morch et al., 2007;Petri et al., 2004;StolzenbergSolomon et al., 2006;Suzuki et al., 2005Suzuki et al., , 2010Tjonneland et al., 2006Tjonneland et al., , 2007Zhang & Holman, 2011;Zhang et al., 2007). Several of the above studies examined also the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and reported an increased risk of ER + (Chen et al., 2011;Deandrea et al., 2008;Kabat et al., 2011;Lew et al., 2009;Suzuki et al., 2005), ER + /PR + (Deandrea et al., 2008;Lew et al., 2009;Li et al., 2003Li et al., , 2010Suzuki et al., 2005;Zhang et al., 2007) and even PR + (Chen et al., 2011;Lew et al., 2009) breast cancers, further supporting the hypothesis that alcohol influences hormonal status through hormone-related mechanisms (such as increased estrogen and androgen levels;Singletary & Gapstur 2001) leading to increased breast cancer risk. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes–diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
"Extending these studies to uncontrolled environmental effects on outbred populations – specifically, humans – poses technical and analytical challenges that have only recently become tractable. A flurry of recent studies report the effects of observed environmental factors on allelotypes of specific candidate genes, including ADH1B genotype Â alcohol use interaction effects on breast cancer risk (McCarty et al., 2012) and effects on behaviour of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) copynumber polymorphism interactions with measured environmental factors (alcohol use, Creswell et al., 2012; socioeconomic status, Sweitzer et al., 2012). In the present study, we undertook an agnostic search of all agecorrelated expression phenotypes by performing formal tests of polygenic G Â AI. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Individual differences in biological ageing (i.e., the rate of physiological response to the passage of time) may be due in part to genotype-specific variation in gene action. However, the sources of heritable variation in human age-related gene expression profiles are largely unknown. We have profiled genome-wide expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1240 individuals in large families and found 4472 human autosomal transcripts, representing ∼4349 genes, significantly correlated with age. We identified 623 transcripts that show genotype by age interaction in addition to a main effect of age, defining a large set of novel candidates for characterization of the mechanisms of differential biological ageing. We applied a novel SNP genotype×age interaction test to one of these candidates, the ubiquilin-like gene UBQLNL, and found evidence of joint cis-association and genotype by age interaction as well as trans-genotype by age interaction for UBQLNL expression. Both UBQLNL expression levels at recruitment and cis genotype are associated with longitudinal cancer risk in our study cohort.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Mechanisms of ageing and development