Children with otitis media mount a pneumococcal serotype specific serum IgG and IgA response comparable to healthy controls after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination
School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Perth, Australia. Vaccine
(Impact Factor: 3.62).
02/2012; 30(20):3136-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.086
It has been suggested that otitis-prone children have an impaired antibody response. To investigate this in the context of pneumococcal vaccination, we used a multiplex bead-based assay to measure serum IgG and IgA levels against pneumococcal serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) and 4 non-PCV7 serotypes (1, 5, 7F and 19A) in healthy (n=43) and otitis-prone children (n=75) before, 6 weeks after and 1 year after vaccination with one dose of PCV7. Pre-vaccination, otitis-prone children had significantly higher serum IgG levels against serotypes 4, 9V and 23F and against all non-PCV7 serotypes. One year following vaccination, there was no difference in IgG or IgA levels between healthy and otitis-prone children. The effect of the administration of one or two doses of PCV7 was investigated in otitis-prone children. After a second dose of PCV7, pneumococcal serotype specific IgG levels, but not IgA titres, were higher compared to the levels measured after the initial dose of PCV7. One year post PCV7 vaccination there was no difference in either IgG or IgA antibody levels to any of the PCV7 serotypes between children who received either one or two doses of PCV7. The finding that otitis-prone children do not have an impaired pneumococcal serotype-specific serum IgG or IgA response suggests that new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may be immunogenic in otitis-prone children, however, further investigations are necessary to determine the clinical impact of such vaccines against the development of recurrent acute otitis media.
Available from: Peter Richmond
- "Serum antibodies will be measured against purified H. influenzae and pneumococcal proteins and pneumococcal polysaccharides outlined above using a multiplex bead assay as described previously . "
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children.
A multi-centre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in tertiary paediatric centres from three Australian cities is planned. Two hundred six children aged 18 months to 14 years with recurrent PBB, CSLD or bronchiectasis will be randomised to receive either two doses of PHiD-CV or control meningococcal (ACYW135) conjugate vaccine 2 months apart and followed for 12 months after the second vaccine dose. Randomisation will be stratified by site, age (<6 years and >=6 years) and aetiology (recurrent PBB or CSLD/bronchiectasis). Clinical histories, respiratory status (including spirometry in children aged >=6 years), nasopharyngeal and saliva swabs, and serum will be collected at baseline and at 2, 3, 8 and 14 months post-enrolment. Local and systemic reactions will be recorded on daily diaries for 7 and 30 days, respectively, following each vaccine dose and serious adverse events monitored throughout the trial. Fortnightly, parental contact will help record respiratory exacerbations. The primary outcome is the incidence of respiratory exacerbations in the 12 months following the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include: nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; systemic and mucosal immune responses to H. influenzae proteins and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; impact upon lung function in children aged >=6 years; and vaccine safety.
As H. influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with these chronic respiratory diseases in children, a novel pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that also impacts upon H. influenzae and helps prevent respiratory exacerbations would assist clinical management with potential short- and long-term health benefits. Our study will be the first to assess vaccine efficacy targeting H. influenzae in children with recurrent PBB, CSLD and bronchiectasis.Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12612000034831.
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ABSTRACT: It is 20 years since the 10 Warning Signs of primary immunodeficiency (PID) were first published and with over 180 PIDs now identified it is timely to evaluate their effectiveness, given the broadening clinical spectrum of PID.
Two recent studies have sought to define the features that best identify patients with PID and compare these with the 10 Warning Signs. They suggest the 10 Warning Signs discriminate poorly between those with and without PID, and that other features identify about one-third of patients with PID in whom none of the 10 Warning Signs was present. Recent literature describes the diverse presenting features that may assist in more accurately identifying those with PID.
Further development and refinement of early warning signs in light of the growing knowledge of how PIDs manifest clinically may allow relatively simple yet effective guidelines targeted at different groups to better detect PID.
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ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are the two major bacterial pathogens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced into Taiwan in 2005 and only some children were vaccinated. This retrospective study assessed the bacterial etiology of AOM and its antimicrobial susceptibility in the era prior to universal pneumococcal vaccination in Taiwan.
From December 2009 to November 2011, children presenting with AOM and having a middle ear effusion sample collected by tympanocentesis were enrolled. The study period was divided into two parts. Demographic data of patients and antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogens were collected and analyzed. Serotypes of S. pneumoniae were identified.
Among the 151 episodes, 46% of samples found bacterial pathogens. S. pneumoniae and NTHi were the leading causes of AOM, detected in 55.7% and 22.9% of bacterial AOM episodes, respectively. The prevalent serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 19 A and 19 F. Significantly more pneumococcal and serotype 19 A AOM were found in the later study period (18.4% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.0036; 10.5% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.028). Among the 39 S. pneumoniae isolates, 11 strains (28.2%) were penicillin-susceptible. Of the 16 NTHi, 10 (62.5%) were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate and all were susceptible to cefotaxime.
S. pneumoniae and NTHi were the leading causes of AOM in Taiwanese children in the study period. An increase in patient numbers and proportion of pneumococcal and serotype 19 A AOM occurred. Antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was common in the predominant pathogens.
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