Clinical factors to predict a poor prognosis and refractory disease in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis associated with interstitial lung disease
Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan. .Clinical and experimental rheumatology (Impact Factor: 2.72). 02/2012; 30(3):450.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: We aimed to explore the incidence of malignancy in dermatomyositis and assess the potential risk factors of occurrence of malignancy in DM from southern China. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted in the 1st affiliated university hospital between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, medications were documented. The endpoint of the study was defined as occurrence of malignancy or death. Results: For this approximately 10-year retrospective study, 60 out of 246 dermatomyositis patients developed malignancies with the overall incidence of 24.4%. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and ovarian carcinoma were the most common malignant disease, accounting for 35% (21/60) and 15% (9/60) of malignancies, respectively. Lung and colon were followed as the third most common carcinoma (5 out of 60, 8.3%). Among these 60 patients with malignancies, 39 (65.0%, 39/60) cases occurred within 1 year after DM diagnosis. Subsequently, malignancies were detected in 13 (21.7%, 13/60) patients during the second year and 8 (13.3%, 8/60) during the third year. One patient developed cancer at the 35th month after DM as the latest. The logistic regression multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI ) 1.86~7.61, p<0.01], dysphagia (OR= 2.21, 95%CI 1.10~4.48, p=0.03) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR= 2.37, 95% CI 1.18~4.75, p=0.02) were risk factors for the occurrence of malignancies, while interstitial lung disease (ILD) acted as a protective factor (OR=0.13, 95%CI 0.06~0.28, p<0.01). Conclusions: It was necessary to carry out routine malignancy screening for Chinese DM patients due to its high incidence. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and ovarian cancer were the most common malignant disease. The risk of malignancy was highest in the first year after DM diagnosis and reduced thereafter. Extensive work-ups for malignancy screening should be carried out at the first year. Male gender, dysphagia and elevated ESR were risk factors for occurrence of malignancy. The presence of ILD could diminish the risk of coexisting of malignancy.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) is an autoimmune disease characterised by skin and muscle inflammation, internal organ involvement and serum disease-specific autoantibodies. The recently identified anti-MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) antibodies are associated with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM), rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease, severe skin manifestations, and poor prognosis. Our objective was to examine the clinical significance of anti-MDA5 antibodies in a cohort of European Caucasian patients with PM/DM, considering that data on anti-MDA5 serology are limited to Asian and US cohorts. Methods: Sera from 76 consecutive adult Italian patients with PM/DM were analysed by immunoprecipitation (IP) of 35S-methionine radiolabelled HeLa and K562 cell extracts, ELISA using recombinant MDA5 protein and IP-Western Blot using rabbit anti-MDA5 antibodies. Clinical associations of anti-MDA5 antibody positive patients were analysed. Results: Anti-MDA5 antibodies were identified in 5/76 (7%) PM/DM cases and all 5 cases were CADM; anti-MDA5 was the second most common autoantibody in DM after anti-MJ/NXP-2, found in 24% of cases. Compared to 29 anti-MDA5 (-) DM, anti-MDA5 (+) patients have more typical DM skin disease (digit pulp/periungual lesions, Gottron's papules, heliotrope rash) (p=ns). Interstitial lung disease was observed in 3/5 anti-MDA5 (+) patients but only 14% of anti-MDA5 (-) cases (p=0.048). Conclusions: Our study on European patients with PM/DM confirms that anti-MDA5 antibodies are not uncommon. All anti-MDA5 (+) cases are affected by CADM with typical skin disease, while rapidly progressive pulmonary involvement was diagnosed only in one case. Further studies in larger cohorts are necessary to define the clinical significance of anti-MDA5 antibodies in European PM/DM.
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