Epidemiology and outcomes associated with surgical site infection following bariatric surgery

Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States
American journal of infection control (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/2012; 40(9). DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.10.015
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a frequent problem complicating bariatric surgery. However, the potential risk factors, risk stratification, and outcomes of SSIs in this patient population remain poorly defined. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to characterize better the risk factors and to improve risk stratification for SSIs following bariatric surgery. METHODS: Patients studied had SSI following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBS) between November 2006 and March 2009 at Harper University Hospital and were each matched with 3 controls based on type of operative procedure, surgeon, and year of surgery. Thirty-day outcomes included mortality, hospital readmissions, outpatient procedures, and emergency room visits. A scoring system (BULCS score) was compared with the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index using logistic regression. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, duration of surgery (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-6.74), diagnosis of bipolar disorder (OR, 3.341; 95% CI: 1.0-12.27), use of prophylactic antibiotics other than cefazolin (OR, 4.2; 95% CI: 1.47-11.69), and sleep apnea (OR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.05-2.97) were significantly associated with SSI. Patients with SSI were more likely to have return emergency visits (OR, 4.96; 95% CI: 2.9-8.48), readmission (OR, 6.53; 95% CI: 3.44-12.42), and outpatient procedures following surgery (OR, 4.75; 95% CI: 1.32-17.14) than were controls without SSI. The BULCS score was a stronger predictor of SSI than the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (C-statistic, -0.62 vs 0.55, respectively). CONCLUSION: SSI following bariatric surgery was associated with receipt of antibiotic prophylaxis other than cefazolin and comorbid conditions including sleep apnea and bipolar disorder. The BULCS score performed favorably as a predictor and risk adjuster for SSI following bariatric surgery. SSI was associated with increased health care resource utilization.

Download full-text


Available from: Christos Kosmidis, Sep 25, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984-2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Surgical Infections

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP: official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the use of cefazolin in prophylaxis of surgical wound infection (SSI) in bariatric surgery (BS). A systematic review was performed from October to November, 2013 using the following databases: The Cochrane Library, Medline, LILACS, and EMBASE. The inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials and observational studies that were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Nine hundred and sixty one titles were recovered after preliminary analysis (title and abstract), seven studies remained for final analysis. There were three clinical trials (one with SSI, and two with antibiotic levels as the outcome), and four were observational studies (three cohorts and one case-control, all had SSI as the outcome). After administration of 1g or 2 g, levels of cefazolin in serum and tissue were suboptimal according to two studies. Results from observational studies indicated that different antibiotics were used for prophylaxis of SSI in BS and that use of other drugs may be associated with higher rates of SSI. The use of cefazolin for surgical wound infection prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is recommended, however further studies are needed in order to refine parameters as initial dose, redose, moment of administration and lasting of prophylaxis.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Show more