[Clinical analysis of 8 cases with acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in younger children].

Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 10/2011; 49(10):788-92.
Source: PubMed


To analyze the clinical features of acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in younger children, in order to improve the levels of early recognition, diagnosis and management of this disease.
Clinical data of 8 patients aged below 15 months who were diagnosed as acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis from August 2010 to February 2011 in general pediatric wards in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed for the high-risk factors of the hosts, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and lung CT imaging, the processes of diagnosis and treatment, and the outcomes.
Five cases were tested for serum GM test absorbent index (GMI) ranged from 1.92 to 3.27; in 2 cases sputum culture was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus for twice, and 1 infant was serum GMI 2.85 and a sputum culture was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus positive, all these findings were accordant with the clinical diagnosis. Seven cases had a history of receiving intravenously broad-spectrum antibiotics or plus corticosteroids (6 hospitalized, 1 out-patient), and one was only 1 month old, whose parents had severe tinea pedis. 4 patients of high-fever type had sustained high temperature, severe changes of lungs without obvious respiratory symptoms and signs in early phase, and significant increase of the rod granulocyte rate (0.25 - 0.68), which was apparently discordant with the normal WBC count and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value. Another 4 cases of non-high-fever type were present with normal WBC count, hs-CRP value and the percentage of rod granulocyte. Among them, 3 infants had low-grade fever, with serious respiratory symptoms and signs and changes of lungs CT. Another 1-month-old case only showed lower vigor and response. Lung CT imaging often showed multiple irregular large nodules, patches and streaks of density (6 cases) and unilateral lobar consolidation (1 case), with some involving the pleura; one appeared severe peri-main bronchus lesions with stenoses of bilateral main bronchi. The first case died of multiple organ failure because of severe sepsis complication. Another 7 cases were treated with voriconazole promptly after clinical or suspected diagnosis, and the state of patients relieved rapidly within 1 - 3 d.
The abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids may increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in younger children. There may be the risk of nosocomial infection and spread of aspergillus in general pediatric wards. Cases of high-fever type in early period of disease had two inconsistency: few symptoms and signs, while severe changes of lungs CT; apparent increase of peripheral rod granulocyte, while normal WBC count and hs-CRP value. Preemptive voriconazole therapy could obtain significant effect and reduce the mortality rate.

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