Assessing Urine Human Papillomavirus Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing As a Tool for Screening Anal HPV infection in HIV-Positive MSM
Department of Infectious Disease, Amiens University Hospital, France.AIDS patient care and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 02/2012; 26(4):208-13. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2011.0301
Multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for most cervical cancers but also cause anal cancers-especially in HIV-positive patients. Furthermore, men who have sex with men (MSM) are twice as likely to develop anal cancers as non-MSM. A simple screening test for HPV infection would be useful in these patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the detection of HPV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine as a marker of anal infection in MSM. The study included 52 HIV-positive MSM treated at Amiens University Hospital (Amiens, France). After obtaining informed consent, we performed an anal swab and gathered 10 mL of first-void urine. Samples were extracted and amplified in a real-time PCR. Genotypes were determined with a PapilloCheck(®) system (Greiner Bio-One, Frickenhausen, Germany). The anal test was the gold standard for calculating the characteristics of the urine test. The sensitivity of the urine test for diagnosing anal HPV infection was 15%, the specificity was 66%, the positive predictive value was 87.5%, and negative predictive value was 4.5%. The prevalence of anal HPV infection in the study population was 94%. Genotype 42 was the most common. The anal HPV viral load was significantly lower in men in a stable relationship than in single men. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between anal viral load and anal intraepithelial lesions. We conclude that urine-based HPV is a poor predictor of anal HPV infection in HIV-positive MSM.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.
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