Article

Personal medicine—The new banking crisis

Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford, California, USA.
Nature Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 41.51). 05/2012; 30(2):141-7. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2116
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

As the healthcare industry moves from a twentieth century approach of providing treatments of last resort to a future of individualized medicine, biobanks will play a pivotal role in this transition. Yet at the cutting edge of biobanking research are new ethical, social and policy challenges beyond those familiar to basic biomedical research.

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    • "See Hayden (2014). 11 Kohane (2011), Jensen et al. (2012), Scott et al. (2012) and Guarda (2013). 12 Rosenthal et al. (2010) and Stein (2010). "

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    • "Kaiser's Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH) attempts to triage genetic, environmental and medical information, to allow for better interpretation of health outcomes and has also resulted in the largest DNA biobank in the US. Similarly, Genethon (Paris) is one of Europe's largest cell and tissue repositories (Scott et al., 2012). Important biobanking projects in Asia include NUS-NUH Tissue Repository, SingHealth Tissue Repository , Singapore, UMCRI Tumour Tissue Bank, Cryocord Premiere stem cell bank, Malaysia, RIKSEN Bioresource center cell bank, Japan; "
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    • "The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (an NCI initiative) assessed the quality of samples acquired from dozens of tissue banks and produced the surprising result that only one percent of the samples assessed were viable. In addition, most of the tissue banks that supplied these samples had no proper catalog of samples that were stored in their facilities [55, 56]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Personalized medicine promises patient-tailored treatments that enhance patient care and decrease overall treatment costs by focusing on genetics and "-omics" data obtained from patient biospecimens and records to guide therapy choices that generate good clinical outcomes. The approach relies on diagnostic and prognostic use of novel biomarkers discovered through combinations of tissue banking, bioinformatics, and electronic medical records (EMRs). The analytical power of bioinformatic platforms combined with patient clinical data from EMRs can reveal potential biomarkers and clinical phenotypes that allow researchers to develop experimental strategies using selected patient biospecimens stored in tissue banks. For cancer, high-quality biospecimens collected at diagnosis, first relapse, and various treatment stages provide crucial resources for study designs. To enlarge biospecimen collections, patient education regarding the value of specimen donation is vital. One approach for increasing consent is to offer publically available illustrations and game-like engagements demonstrating how wider sample availability facilitates development of novel therapies. The critical value of tissue bank samples, bioinformatics, and EMR in the early stages of the biomarker discovery process for personalized medicine is often overlooked. The data obtained also require cross-disciplinary collaborations to translate experimental results into clinical practice and diagnostic and prognostic use in personalized medicine.
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