Predicting Depression in Mothers With and Without HIV: The Role of Social Support and Family Dynamics
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, Room 2234GG, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, .AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 02/2012; 16(8):2198-208. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-012-0149-6
Many women with HIV are primary caregivers for their children. Social factors, including family dynamics, play a major role in women's depression. We hypothesized an impact of HIV seropositivity on greater depression mediated through poorer family functioning and social support. Participants include 332 Mothers Living with HIV (MLH) and 200 Neighborhood Control Mothers (NCM) recruited in Los Angeles County. The NCM were matched by neighborhood. All had children ages 6 through 20. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated HIV seropositivity was positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with positive social support and effective family functioning. In a predictive path model, the relationship between having HIV and depressed mood was mediated by social support and family functioning. Findings offer explanation for increased depression resulting from HIV and social and family dynamics, and suggest innovative interventions to abate psychosocial health problems and lower risk for depression among women with HIV.
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ABSTRACT: AIM: This article presents a discussion on the role of family interventions in HIV/AIDS disease prevention and care. BACKGROUND: Although HIV/AIDS epidemic and its impact on the society traditionally has been measured in terms of individual risk behaviours and individual-level HIV prevention, HIV/AIDS family-focused prevention and management strategies are increasingly becoming a priority. However, little is known as to what constitutes a HIV/AIDS family intervention. DATA SOURCES: The search was limited to English and published literature starting in the year 1983 to date. CINAHL and PubMed were emphasized using a combination of text words and subject headings. Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Scopus, and the ISI Web of Science databases were also searched using keywords and in the case of PsycInfo, subject headings were used. The main keywords were 'nurse', or 'nursing', 'HIV/AIDS', 'family interventions', 'family support' and 'family education', and/or 'family subsystems'. DISCUSSION: The process of theorizing about 'family interventions' and 'HIV/AIDS-family interventions' is critical for putting forth essential components unique for designing culturally specific HIV/AIDS family interventions. In addition, any proposed design of HIV/AIDS family intervention should consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family across the family life span, disease trajectory, and from an interdisciplinary perspective. CONCLUSION: Training needs of family nurses should be met when designing multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS-FIs. Furthermore, nurses should be proactive in advocating for HIV/AIDS family intervention and HIV/AIDS family policies to improve outcomes in family functioning, processes, and relationships. More needs to be done in regard to research on families, family interventions, effectiveness, and cost of family-focused approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Depression is a significant mental health and public health concern, and women living with HIV are at increased risk for depression. This risk may be especially elevated during pregnancy; however, few studies have attempted to identify rates and predictors of depression in pregnant, HIV-infected women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate rates and predictors of prenatal depression, such as history of depression, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and social support among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that pregnant women with HIV will have higher rates of depressive symptoms and will exhibit a greater number of mood disorder diagnoses as compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women. It was also hypothesized that HIV status, history of depression, CSA, and inadequate social support will emerge as predictors of depressive symptoms. A sample of 163 women, 31% (n=50) of whom were HIV-infected and 69% (n=113) of whom were HIV-uninfected, were recruited from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic affiliated with an urban university hospital. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to identify depressive symptoms, and Modules A and D of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) confirmed the presence of a mood disorder. Findings demonstrated that rates of depressive symptoms and mood disorder diagnoses during pregnancy did not differ according to HIV serostatus. History depression, CSA, and inadequate social support predicted depressive symptoms during pregnancy in this sample. Due to their association with depressive symptoms, history of depression, CSA, and inadequate social support may be important to identify during pregnancy.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers) is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1) to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS) intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2) to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. Methods The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus) was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. Results The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. Conclusions The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in which they are implemented.
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