Dietary adequacy of HIV infected individuals in north India - A cross-sectional analysis

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 1.4). 12/2011; 134(6):967-71. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.92644
Source: PubMed


Dietary inadequacy is common in developing countries and so is in immune-deficient HIV infected individuals. Hence, an assessment of dietary patterns was done among a group of HIV infected individuals and compared with recommended dietary allowances.
One hundred consecutive HIV infected individuals were interviewed from the Immunodeficiency Clinic of a tertiary care center at Chandigarh. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 h recall method. Mean carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were evaluated. Mean difference in the calorie intake from recommended dietary intake was then calculated. Mean absolute CD4 cell count was calculated and correlated with BMI and mean calorie intake.
Mean weight and BMI of the individuals participated in the study was 58.6 ± 11.7 (range, 34 - 94) kg and 21.5 ± 3.7 (range, 13.6 - 36.7) kg/m [2] , respectively. Mean total calories intake was 1713 ± 292.8 (860 - 2525) calories/day and mean difference in the calories taken from the standard values was 249.5 ± 190.7 (10.6 - 967.5) calories/day. There was no significant correlation between CD4 cell count and total calories taken.
In HIV-infected individuals the energy intake was significantly lower than the recommended average intake. Hence, efforts should be taken to ensure that HIV-infected individuals have access to high-quality, nutritious food choices that promote optimal dietary patterns.

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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in nutritional status are common with HIV infections. Wasting syndrome increases predisposition to opportunistic infections. Food consumption pattern is a known determinant factor for nutritional problems among PLWH. This study was conducted at the Heart-to-Heart Clinic of General Hospital Calabar, to assess food consumption patterns of PLWH. One hundred and twenty eight (128) subjects (50 males and 78 females) made of 50 HIV+ve on treatment (ART), 50HIV+ve not on treatment (NART) and 28 non infected control group. Ethical clearance and consent was obtained from Centre for Clinical Governance, Research and Training, Ministry of Health Calabar while participation was voluntary. Data collection was done by trained field workers for measurement of weight and height, food frequency questionnaire. The results showed significant differences in consumption pattern of carbohydrates (chi = 15.994, df = 6, p<0.05), legumes (chi = 9.871, df = 4, p<0.05), fats/oil at p<0.001 level. The most commonly consumed foods were cassava and cassava products, plantain, rice, bread, fish and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits were consumed only 3-6 times a week. Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly lower in NARTs. This study showed that food consumption patterns and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) are synergistically interwoven among PLWH.
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