Management of post-traumatic retained hemothorax: A prospective, observational, multicenter AAST study.
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 01/2012; 72(1):316-317. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182472043
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- "Thoracotomy is a common surgical procedure. The indications for thoracotomy are wide including the management of mediastinal and bronchogenic carcinoma, chest trauma, empyema, recurrent pneumothorax etc. However, it is known that the deterioration of oxygenation is observed after thoracotomy. "
ABSTRACT: Thoracotomy is a common procedure. However, thoracotomy leads to lung atelectasis and deteriorates pulmonary gas exchange in operated side. Therefore, different positions with operated side lowermost or uppermost may lead to different gas exchange after thoracotomy. Besides, PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) influence lung atelectasis and should influence gas exchange. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological changes in different positions after thoracotomy. In addition, we also studied the influence of PEEP to positional effects after thoracotomy. There were eight pigs in each group. Group I received left thoracotomy with zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), and group II with PEEP; group III received right thoracotomy with ZEEP and group IV with PEEP. We changed positions to supine, LLD (left lateral decubitus) and RLD (right lateral decubitus) in random order after thoracotomy. PaO2 was decreased after thoracotomy and higher in RLD after left thoracotomy and in LLD after right thoracotomy. PaO2 in groups II and IV was higher than in groups I and III if with the same position. In group I and III, PaCO2 was increased after thoracotomy and was higher in LLD after left thoracotomy and in RLD after right thoracotomy. In groups II and IV, there were no PaCO2 changes in different positions after thoracotomy. Lung compliance (Crs) was decreased after thoracotomy in groups I and III and highest in RLD after left thoracotomy and in LLD after right thoracotomy. In groups II and IV, there were no changes in Crs regardless of the different positions. There were significant changes with regards to pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics and Crs after thoracotomy. The best position was non-operated lung lowermost Applying PEEP attenuates the positional effects.
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ABSTRACT: This prospective audit of appendicitis at a busy regional hospital reviews the spectrum and outcome of acute appendicitis in rural and peri-urban South Africa. We conducted a prospective audit from September 2010 to September 2011 at Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Over the year under review, a total of 200 patients with a provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis were operated on at Edendale Hospital. There were 128 males (64 %) in this cohort. The mean duration of illness prior to seeking medical attention was 3.7 days. Surgical access was by a midline laparotomy in 62.5 % and by a Lanz incision in 35.5 %. Two percent of patients underwent a laparoscopic appendicectomy. The operative findings were as follows: macroscopic inflammation of the appendix without perforation in 35.5 % (71/200) and perforation of the appendix in 57 % (114/200). Of the perforated appendices, 44 % (51/114) were associated with localised intra-abdominal contamination and 55 % (63/114) had generalised four-quadrant soiling. Thirty percent (60/200) required temporary abdominal closure (TAC) with planned repeat operation. Major complications included hospital-acquired pneumonia in 12.5 % (25/200), wound dehiscence in 7 % (14/200), and renal failure in 3 % (6/200). Postoperatively 89.5 % (179/200) were admitted directly to the general wards, while 11 % (21/200) required admission to the intensive care unit. The overall mortality rate was 2 % (4/200). The incidence of acute appendicitis amongst African patients seems to be increasing. Although it is still lower than the reported incidence amongst patients in the developed world, it is a common emergency that places a significant burden on the South African health service. The disease presents late and is associated with a high incidence of perforation which translates into significant morbidity and even mortality.
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