Researchers have explored some environmental factors influencing adolescent mobile phone addiction from different perspectives (e.g., family, school, peers). Few studies, however, have comprehensively tested these influencing factors from multiple environmental systems in a single model and analyzed the interactive effects of cumulative social-environmental risk and individual trait. Moreover, most of previous studies focused on general mobile phone addiction, but have not distinguished and compared different types of mobile phone addiction. Based on prior theoretical and empirical evidence, the present study included eleven environmental factors from family, school, and peer environments (i.e., father-child relationship, mother–child relationship, parental conflict, parental monitoring, parental phubbing, school connectedness, teacher-student relationship, classmate relationship, peer pressure, peer victimization, and deviant peer affiliation). We tested whether cumulative social-environmental risk interacted with trait mindfulness in predicting adolescent mobile phone addiction, and compared whether the interactive effect varied with different types of mobile phone addiction. A total of 1,202 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age completed the anonymous self-report survey. Results showed that cumulative social-environmental risk index positively predicted four types of mobile phone addiction (i.e., mobile social networking addiction, mobile game addiction, mobile information acquisition addiction, and mobile short-form video addiction), and the predictive effect of cumulative risk index on all four types of mobile phone addiction was stronger than that of any single environmental factor. Trait mindfulness negatively predicted these four types of mobile phone addiction. Moreover, the cumulative social-environmental risk index interacted with trait mindfulness to influence adolescent mobile phone addiction, in that the predictive effects of the cumulative social-environmental risk index on all four types of adolescent mobile phone addiction were stronger among adolescents with low levels of trait mindfulness than for those with high levels of trait mindfulness. However, the effect size of the protective role of mindfulness differed across the four types of mobile phone addiction, with the moderating effect of trait mindfulness being strongest between the cumulative social-environmental risk index and adolescent mobile short-form video addiction compared to other three types of mobile phone addiction. The findings highlight the cumulative risk effect of multiple environmental factors and the protective effect of trait mindfulness in the development of different types of adolescent mobile phone addiction. Limitations and implications are discussed.