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Mindfulness meditation counteracts self-control depletion

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... (2) Gender. Five studies investigated males and females [16,[35][36][37][38], but two studies just focused on males [39,40], and one just focused on females [41]; (3) Age. The age range of subjects ranged from about 13 to 43 years; (4) Mindfulness training background. ...
... One article has an experimental group with four-week mindfulness [38], but participants in the other groups did not have mindfulness experience. Two articles did not report the background of mindfulness training [35,41]. ...
... Two studies used the Stroop task to induce MF [39,40]. Other studies used demanding tasks, such as watching the video [35,36], transcribing a neutral text with conditions [16], and the mental calculation task [37]. Axelsen et al. used the AX continuous performance test (AX-CPT) to induce MF [38]. ...
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Background: There is evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) can help one to recover from mental fatigue (MF). Although the strength model of self-control explains the processes underlying MF and the model of mindfulness and de-automatization explains how mindfulness training promotes adaptive self-regulation leading to the recovery of MF, a systematic overview detailing the effects of MBI on the recovery of MF is still lacking. Thus, this systematic review aims to discuss the influences of MBI on the recovery of MF. Methods: We used five databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for articles published up to 24 September 2021, using a combination of keywords related to MBI and MF. Results: Eight articles fulfilled all the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The MBI directly attenuated MF and positively affected the recovery of psychology (attention, aggression and mind-wandering) and sports performance (handgrip, plank exercise and basketball free throw) under MF. However, the interaction did not reach statistical significance for the plank exercise. Therefore, the experience and duration of mindfulness are necessary factors for the success of MBI. Conclusions: mindfulness appears to be most related to a reduction in MF. Future research should focus on improving the methodological rigor of MBI to confirm these results and on identifying facets of mindfulness that are most effective for attenuating MF.
... η 2 = .216. Similarly, Friese et al. (2012) showed that mindfulness mitigated the effect of ego depletion on self-control such that cognitively exhausted participants who received a mindfulness intervention demonstrated significantly greater self-control than did those in the control condition, t (63) = 2.16, p = .035, d = 0.54. ...
... The mediating effect of self-regulation on the relationship between mindfulness and grit suggests that mindful athletes may become gritty in part because they are more able to inhibit impulsive actions and regulated behaviour around longer range goals. The observed relationship between mindfulness and self-regulation is in line with existing research which demonstrated a positive association between mindfulness and self-regulation in correlational and experimental designs (Canby et al., 2015;Friese et al., 2012). As mindfulness inhibits elaborative processing, individuals may be more able to acquire direct their attention to managing impulsivity and interfering thoughts (Bishop et al., 2004;Hayes et al., 1999;Shapiro et al., 2006). ...
Article
Grit is a trait which reflects perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Grit has been demonstrated to be an important factor in athletic success, but it is unclear what psychological factors contribute to an athlete’s level of grit. Therefore, we examined the associations among mindfulness, self-compassion, self-regulation, and grit in Thai national athletes. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of self-regulation in the associations between self-compassion, self-regulation, and grit. In a sample of 320 Thai national athletes, we observed that grit was positively correlated with mindfulness (r = .44, p < .001), self-compassion (r = .42, p < .001), and self-regulation (r = .51, p < .001). The findings also showed that mindfulness had positive direct and indirect associations with grit. Self-regulation had a positive and direct association with grit and also mediated the relationships between mindfulness on grit, β = 0.189 (p < .01, SE = 0.018, 95% CI: 0.038-0.112) and self-compassion on grit β = 0.319 (p < .01, SE = 0.056, 95% CI: 0.157-0.373). Self-compassion covaried with mindfulness but did not have a direct association with grit. Our findings suggested that athlete training programmes that addressed these factors were likely to be effective in promoting grit in athletes.
... A number of cognitive, emotional, social, and health-related benefits have been reported following mindfulness exercises (see Heppner & Shirk, 2018 for a review). For example, previous research reports that a brief, single-session mindfulness induction can improve executive attention (Gorman & Green, 2016), reduce the sunk cost bias (Hafenbrack, Kinias, & Barsade, 2014), counteract self-control depletion (Friese, Messner, & Schaffner, 2012), and promote emotional resilience (Arch & Craske, 2006;Erisman & Roemer, 2010). Despite these wide-ranging benefits, recent research suggests there may be downsides to inducing state mindfulness, such as blunted moral reactions (Schindler et al., 2019), false-memory susceptibility (Wilson, Mickes, Stolarz-Fantino, Evrard, & Fantino, 2015), and, of particular relevance to the present research, impaired motivation (Hafenbrack & Vohs, 2018). ...
... Moreover, in Study 2 mindfulness meditation appeared to sustain baseline levels of goal motivation approximately 20 minutes after meditating, while motivation in the rest of the conditions dropped significantly, presumably because participants were bored or fatigued. Other research suggests that inducing state mindfulness can promote emotional resilience (Arch & Craske, 2006;Erisman & Roemer, 2010) and counteract ego-depletion (Friese et al., 2012). Taken together, engaging in mindfulness exercises may help individuals regulate challenging emotions, potentially through acceptance and nonreactivity (Donald et al., 2019), and ultimately sustain motivation towards meaningful goals (Miele, Scholer, & Fujita, 2020). ...
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Recent research suggests that mindfulness meditation may impair motivation towards traditional laboratory tasks. The present research explored the effects of meditation on motivation towards personal goals and an anagram task. In Study 1 (n = 200), participants in the mindfulness condition reported greater goal motivation than those in a comparison podcast condition (due to a decrease in the podcast condition); this difference remained 10 minutes later. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences between conditions in post-manipulation anagram motivation. In Study 2 (n = 120), participants in the mindfulness condition reported greater goal motivation than those in the podcast condition; this difference remained 20 minutes later. There were no differences between conditions in anagram motivation. Furthermore, goal motivation increased from before to after meditating, whereas anagram motivation remained the same. These findings oppose the notion that meditation impairs motivation and instead suggest that meditation may offer motivational benefits for personal goal pursuit.
... According to the four components of SR, the interventions can mainly be divided into (i) standard: implementation of an intervention [58]; (ii) monitoring: biofeedback [57] and time monitoring [47]; (iii) strength: repeated exercise (cognitive or physical) [8,18,42,48,[50][51][52][59][60][61][62][63], mindfulness [53,54,64,65], nature exposure [49,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77], and recovery strategies [55,78]; (iv) motivation: autonomy-supportive [56], monetary incentives [79][80][81], and motivational instruction [82]. ...
... Regarding the recovery stage after mental exertion, several studies focused on interventions regarding mindfulness meditation [53,54,64,65], and more studies investigated exposure to nature [49,[66][67][68][69][70][71]73,74,87]. Specifically, Friese and Messner [64] explored short periods of mindfulness meditation, which improved the cognitive and physical performance of the handgrip task significantly (p < 0.05). ...
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Background: Many investigations have been performed on the effects of mental exertion that consumes self-regulatory resources and then affects physical and/or cognitive performance later on. However, the effect of manipulating self-regulation and interventions to attenuate this negative effect remains unclear. Moreover, there is continuous controversy regarding the resource model of self-regulation. Objective: We conducted a systematic review to assess the literature on manipulating self-regulation based on four ingredients (standard, monitoring, strength, and motivation) in order to counter mental exertion and improve physical and/or cognitive performance. The results provide more insight into the resource model. Method: A thorough search was conducted to extract the relevant literature from several databases, as well as Google Scholar, and the sources from the references were included as grey literature. A self-regulation intervention compared to a control condition, a physical and/or cognitive task, and a randomised controlled trial were selected. Result: A total of 39 publications were included. Regarding the four components of self-regulation, the interventions could mainly be divided into the following: (i) standard: implementation intervention; (ii) monitoring: biofeedback and time monitoring; (iii) strength: repeated exercise, mindfulness, nature exposure, and recovery strategies; (iv) motivation: autonomy-supportive and monetary incentives. The majority of the interventions led to significant improvement in subsequent self-regulatory performance. In addition, the resource model of self-regulation and attention-restoration theory were the most frequently used theories and supported relevant interventions. Conclusion: In line with the resource model, manipulating the four components of self-regulation can effectively attenuate the negative influence of mental exertion. The conservation proposed in the strength model of self-regulation was supported in the current findings to explain the role of motivation in the self-regulation process. Future studies can focus on attention as the centre of the metaphorical resource in the model.
... A number of cognitive, emotional, social, and health-related benefits have been reported following mindfulness exercises (see Heppner & Shirk, 2018 for a review). For example, previous research reports that a brief, single-session mindfulness induction can improve executive attention (Gorman & Green, 2016), reduce the sunk cost bias (Hafenbrack, Kinias, & Barsade, 2014), counteract self-control depletion (Friese, Messner, & Schaffner, 2012), and promote emotional resilience (Arch & Craske, 2006;Erisman & Roemer, 2010). Despite these wide-ranging benefits, recent research suggests there may be downsides to inducing state mindfulness, such as blunted moral reactions (Schindler et al., 2019), false-memory susceptibility (Wilson, Mickes, Stolarz-Fantino, Evrard, & Fantino, 2015), and, of particular relevance to the present research, impaired motivation (Hafenbrack & Vohs, 2018). ...
... Moreover, in Study 2 mindfulness meditation appeared to sustain baseline levels of goal motivation approximately 20 minutes after meditating, while motivation in the rest of the conditions dropped significantly, presumably because participants were bored or fatigued. Other research suggests that inducing state mindfulness can promote emotional resilience (Arch & Craske, 2006;Erisman & Roemer, 2010) and counteract ego-depletion (Friese et al., 2012). Taken together, engaging in mindfulness exercises may help individuals regulate challenging emotions, potentially through acceptance and nonreactivity (Donald et al., 2019), and ultimately sustain motivation towards meaningful goals (Miele, Scholer, & Fujita, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that mindfulness meditation may impair motivation towards traditional laboratory tasks. The present research explored the effects of meditation on motivation towards personal goals and an anagram task. In Study 1 (n = 200), participants in the mindfulness condition reported greater goal motivation than those in a comparison podcast condition (due to a decrease in the podcast condition); this difference remained 10 minutes later. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences between conditions in post‐manipulation anagram motivation. In Study 2 (n = 120), participants in the mindfulness condition reported greater goal motivation than those in the podcast condition; this difference remained 20 minutes later. There were no differences between conditions in anagram motivation. Furthermore, goal motivation increased from before to after meditating, whereas anagram motivation remained the same. These findings oppose the notion that meditation impairs motivation and instead suggest that meditation may offer motivational benefits for personal goal pursuit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Specifically, there has been exploration into the benefits of brief mindfulness practice for outcomes of emotion regulation and cognitive control, as both are skills that employ similar neural networks and have been suggested to improve following long-term interventions (Lutz et al., 2008). In a study by Friese et al. (2012), participants were invited to participate in an experimental study following a 3-day introductory meditation seminar. Participants were randomized to a self-control depletion condition (i.e., emotional suppression task) or a neutral condition. ...
... Results showed that the meditation group performed as well as the nondepletion group on the attention task, whereas participants randomized to the depletion condition without meditation displayed poorer performance. Accordingly, brief meditation may restore the ability for sustained attention following resource depletion (Friese et al., 2012). A brief 15-min mindfulness practice has also been found to partially moderate provoked aggression following resource depletion (Yusainy & Lawrence, 2015). ...
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Objectives: The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of a brief mindfulness practice on perceived stress and sustained attention, and to determine whether priming the benefits of mindfulness meditation enhances this effect. Methods: Two hundred and twenty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a control condition (CC), a meditation condition (MC), or a priming + meditation condition (PMC). Baseline and post-treatment measures included subjective stress ratings on a visual analog scale (VAS) and performance on a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), determined by reaction time coefficient of variability (RTCV) and three measures of accuracy: correct responses, errors of commission, and errors of omission. Results: Repeated measures analyses revealed that both the MC and the PMC displayed a decline in perceived stress relative to the CC. Analyses further revelated that the MC and PMC displayed fewer errors of omission relative to the CC. However, only the PMC displayed better performance relative to the CC with respect to total correct response and errors of commission. There were no significant between-group differences for RTCV. Conclusions: These findings are novel and provide a foundation to further investigate the effect of priming on mindfulness engagement and its potential benefits. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12671-022-01913-8.
... Studies reported significant changes on multiple aspects of mental health among inmates who have been subjected to mindfulness-based interventions, such as stress coping, hostility, self-esteem, and self-management (Himelstein et al., 2012;Samuelson et al., 2007). In addition, some studies reported that MBI effectively regulates anger (Borders et al., 2010), enhances self-control (Friese et al., 2012), and reduces aggression. Later, mindfulnessbased interventions have been applied to reduce aggression in students (Clark, 2020;Franco et al., 2016). ...
... The level of self-control is significantly negatively correlated with criminal behavior and aggressive behavior (Denson et al., 2012;Evans et al., 1997). In addition, previous studies reported a close relationship between mindfulness and self-control (Black et al., 2011;Canby et al., 2015;Friese et al., 2012). Bishop et al. (2004) reported that control of attention and awareness of the present in the concept of mindfulness both require self-control. ...
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This study aims to analyse the effect and mechanism of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on aggression in adolescents. A total of 80 high school students (51.25% boys; Mage = 15.89 years, SD = 0.53 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40). The intervention group received a mindfulness-based intervention for eight weeks, whereas the control group took the original curriculum as usual. Students completed measures of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and Self-Control Scale (SAS) at baseline and post-intervention. The results showed that the intervention group and the control group showed no significant differences in the studied parameters at baseline. Repeated measures ANOVA for mindfulness, emotion dysregulation, self-control, aggression, and its facets showed significant differences over time (pre-test and post-test) × group (intervention group and control group). A model designed based on structural equation model (SEM) analysis revealed full mediation, and showed a good fit for analyzed data [χ2/df = 1.47, RMSEA (95%CI) = 0.77, CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.927, GFI = 0.913 SRMR = 0.067]. The SEM showed that change in the levels of mindfulness, emotion dysregulation and self-control played complete mediating roles in reducing aggression levels during the intervention period. MBI could indirectly affect aggression through five pathways. In conclusion, this MBI can help students reduce emotion dysregulation and aggression as well as can increase individual levels of mindfulness and self-control. Nevertheless, both MBI and change in the level of mindfulness do not directly affect adolescents’ aggression. However, MBI can reduce the aggression of adolescents by reducing emotion dysregulation and through the improvement of self-control.
... Therefore, they were more likely to be emotionally stable and selfcontrolled (Hölzel et al., 2008). In addition, studies on the effect of mindfulness on an individual's performance have found that mindfulness plays a significant role in self-control (Friese et al., 2012;Van de Veer et al., 2016). Compared with automatic or habitual smartphone use, the instrumental use of a smartphone to aid in the completion of a work or study task usually requires more cognitive resources, more working memory capacity and more logical thinking, which are the functions of CBC from the reflective system. ...
... People with high ability of mindfulness can clearly observe their thoughts drifting before they automatically react to them. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness can reduce mind-wandering (Friese et al., 2012), but there has been a lack of exploration into its internal mechanism. Based on dual-system theory, we found mindfulness increased the function of the reflective system and reduced the function of the impulsive system simultaneously, thereby decreasing the impulsive system's overriding of the reflective system. ...
Article
Cyberloafing is a prevalent phenomenon in organisations that may cause serious problems. In previous studies, cyberloafing has been studied as planned and intentional behaviour. Interestingly, we have observed that cyberloafing frequently happens when employees use smartphones to assist with work tasks, but they may not necessarily intend to engage in this activity. We distinguish between active and passive cyberloafing and focus on studying the latter. Based on dual-systems theory, we introduce the construct of mindfulness in the exploration of the antecedences and internal mechanism of passive cyberloafing. We conducted a research survey with employees who use smartphones to assist with work tasks and collected 474 valid questionnaires to examine our research model. The results showed that dual systems are associated with cyberloafing by influencing mind-wandering, and mindfulness significantly decreased mind-wandering when using a smartphone. This study analyses cyberloafing from an innovative neuroscience perspective and contributes to the literature by proposing a new classification of cyberloafing behaviour, reveals the internal mechanism of how dual systems impact an individual’s behaviour, and introduces mindfulness as an antecedent factor of dual systems.
... However, evidence for this notion is relatively scarce. Prior laboratory research has shown that practicing mindfulness was not only associated with relaxation (Rosch, 2007) but could also with replenishing cognitive resources (Friese et al., 2012). However, only two laboratory research projects compared the cognitive costs associated with reappraisal and mindfulness: First, participants in a mindfulness and reappraisal condition in a laboratory experiment involving the Stroop task reported significantly lower momentary levels of sadness compared to the control condition (Keng et al., 2013). ...
... In contrast, the implementation of mindfulness was mentally less taxing and even decreased feelings of exhaustion. These daily life findings match to past laboratory studies' findings that acceptance is less effortful to implement than reappraisal (Troy et al., 2018) and may even help to restore cognitive resources (Friese et al., 2012). Thus, future research may not only focus on the benefits associated with ER strategies but also acknowledge their costs, which are important aspects of ER in daily life. ...
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Reappraisal and mindfulness represent two fundamentally different ways of dealing with one’s emotions: Whereas reappraisal aims at changing one’s thoughts and emotions, mindfulness is aimed at not changing, but appreciating them. Despite this difference, prior research has shown that both are similarly associated with short-term benefits and trait-level correlates. However, research on the spontaneous use of reappraisal and mindfulness in daily life found that mindfulness is more effective in decreasing negative affect than reappraisal. The spontaneous use of reappraisal may be less effective than mindfulness in daily life given that it is more cognitively taxing. Therefore, we assumed in the present research that the increased costs (i.e., feeling exhausted) of spontaneously endorsing reappraisal compared to mindfulness can explain why reappraisal is less effective in regulating negative affect than mindfulness. In two experience sampling studies (N = 125 and N = 179), we found evidence for different costs and benefits of reappraisal compared to mindfulness. Regarding short-term benefits, endorsing reappraisal was significantly associated with increases in positive affect, whereas endorsing the mindfulness component acceptance was significantly associated with decreases in negative affect. Regarding short-term costs, we found that endorsing reappraisal was more exhausting, and that reappraisal was selected less often than mindfulness in daily life. Finally, acceptance was associated more strongly with trait level indicators of well-being than reappraisal, which may be explained by the reduced costs of endorsing acceptance compared to reappraisal. Our results demonstrate the importance of assessing both the benefits and costs of emotion regulation in daily life.
... The finding that the brief MM induction increased attention, albeit non-significantly, is consistent with other studies which employed brief MM inductions ranging from five minutes (Friese et al., 2012) to 10 min (Norris et al., 2018) and 20 min (Wenk-Sormaz, 2005). The current study also supports other studies which found that attention levels increased after longer sessions of MM ranging from four days (Zeidan, Johnson, et al., 2010) to eight weeks (Jha et al., 2007). ...
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This study investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness meditation induction on trait mindfulness, and its components, mind-wandering, and negative affect, in comparison to control conditions. Fifty-five non-meditators (M = 48 years, SD = 16 years; 62% female) completed pre- and post-intervention measures of trait mindfulness, negative affect, and both state and trait mind-wandering. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three 15 min intervention conditions: brief mindfulness meditation (MM) induction, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR; active control), or viewing a Ted Talk video (passive control). There were non-significant increases in trait mindfulness and its components, non-significant decreases in mind-wandering and negative affect, and the groups did not differ significantly from each other. However, medium and large within-group effect sizes were found for attention and non-judging, respectively with other effect sizes being either small or negligible. Time x condition interaction effect sizes were medium for trait mindfulness, acceptance, and non-judging, and small or negligible for all others. The 15-min brief mindfulness meditation induction was insufficient to produce statistically significant changes in trait mindfulness, attention, non-judging, mind-wandering or negative affect. Although the time x condition interaction for acceptance was significant, this relates to increases in the MM group in comparison to decreases in the control conditions, which needs further investigation. The medium within-group effect size for attention suggests that longer mindfulness meditation inductions may result in larger increased levels of attention. Larger samples are recommended for future studies, with longitudinal designs to determine any lasting beneficial impacts.
... Instead, it is human habits to respond to dispositions by environment automatically, or human precedes actions that reflect much of his everyday life (Ericson et al., 2014). The conception of mindfulness is also associated with improved self-control (Friese et al., 2012), which may be helpful in situations where individuals/consumers are needed to choose between sustainable and persuasive unsustainable behaviors (Milne et al., 2020). Therefore, mindfulness decreases automaticity and encourages compassion, enhanced self-control, and pro-environmental values, this metal training can also promote the transformation of pro-environmental consumers' intentions into sustainable behavior (Dhandra, 2019). ...
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Collaborative consumption proposes fruitful avenues to achieve profitability and ensure environmental sustainability, becoming a paramount global concern. In the current study, the purpose is to investigate and pick up the constructs of mindful consumption, ego-involvement, and social norms and determine the primary motivations for Chinese consumers to act sustainably. To investigate the moderating role of platform trust and the mediating role of impulsive buying tendency among the relationships of mindful consumption, ego-involvement, and social norms regarding buying second-hand clothing consumption intentions. PLS-SEM statistical approach has been used to investigate the model relationships by incorporating a two-step approach through the SmartPLS3 statistical package. Online survey methodology was adopted to collect data from Chinese buyers of second-hand clothing of Xian Yu and Zhuan Zhuan online platforms. The study has proved the significant impact of mindful consumption, ego-involvement, and social norms on buying intentions of second-hand clothing. Furthermore, the study also supported the moderating role of platform trust and mediating role of impulsive buying tendency. Although the moderating and mediating impact remain insignificant on mindful consumption, as perceived. Theoretical and practical implications are given in accordance with the study.
... However, the mindfulness literature suggests that being mindful in the present moment may increase "self-control". 19,48 Perhaps mindfulness and future-oriented thinking might both improve discounting decisions, but via different mechanisms: mindfulness might decrease delay discounting via nonjudgemental attention to the present (reducing the impact of the present bodily needs and/or urges on decisions regarding the future), while futureoriented thinking might decrease discounting via imagining the future self (making decisions for the benefit of the future self). 48 Future work exploring individualized response to these interventions is warranted. ...
Article
Pain interventions typically include effortful exercise and long-term treatment – i.e., short-term costs (effort) with delayed benefit (improved pain/function). Thus, understanding if long-term pain influences decision-making in context of delays and effort is essential given clear relevance to treatment uptake/adherence. We evaluated delay and effort attitudes in those experiencing chronic pain (N=391) and in pain-free controls (N=263). Additionally, we investigated the role of bodily sensation awareness/interpretation as potential contributing factors to altered decision-making. Volunteers completed three discounting questionnaires, assessing the influence of temporal delays (gains, losses) and effort on devaluation of monetary outcomes. Individuals with chronic pain had more short-sighted decisions for monetary gains, but not losses, and decreased willingness to undertake effort for monetary gains than the No Pain group. The Pain group had higher bodily sensation awareness and while this related to higher impulsivity, delay and effort discounting, neither awareness nor interpretation of bodily sensations interacted with pain levels or explained group differences in discounting behaviour. These findings suggest that impaired delay and effort-based discounting is present in people with chronic pain, and that this may be driven by pain-induced changes, but not pain-induced enhancements in bodily sensation awareness/interpretation. Exploring the utility of interventions targeting discounting behaviour is warranted. Data availability: Study materials are available here: https://osf.io/zexm7/?view_only=c9848597361c41808c612874da6f33b7. Perspective: People with chronic pain make more short-sighted decisions (prefer less reward sooner) and decreased willingness to undertake effort (prefer less reward with little effort) for monetary gains than people without pain. Interventions targeting discounting behaviour may help improve both uptake and adherence for evidence-based, effortful treatments, such as exercise.
... Finally, in relation to the dominance dimension, compared to the CG, children in the MEG were found to present a lower sense of independence or control of the situation during the workshops. Mindfulness has been associated with positive effects on adult self-regulation (Friese et al. 2012;Papies et al. 2015), but few studies have explicitly tested its influence on this domain in children. The results obtained by de Tomas et al. (2020) showed similar effects on the MEG after a brief mindful induction, where children felt more unpleasant and less independent Statistically significant results are shown in italics Mindfulness throughout the workshop compared to the participants of the CG. ...
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Objectives Mindfulness has been associated with many psychological and physiological benefits and recently it has begun to consider the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on healthy eating habits through mindful eating. However, studies conducted with children subjected to mindfulness-based eating sessions in groups and related to healthy eating are very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different sessions of mindful eating could affect food intake and eating behaviour in children.MethodsA between-subject experiment was conducted during 1 month with 8–9-year-old children. Mindful eating group (MEG) received three mindfulness-based eating sessions. The control group (CG) received three nutritional education sessions. During these sessions, the kids fulfilled different questionnaires about food habits and mindful eating state. The final session consisted of an ad libitum mid-morning snack with healthy and unhealthy choices. Caloric intake and food choices were recorded after the session, as well as different validated questionnaires to measure other variables such as satiety and liking.ResultsDuring the snack buffet, the MEG showed significantly lower food intake and energy intake compared to CG (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Regarding food choices, unhealthy food intake and unhealthy caloric consumption were significantly lower in MEG, compared to CG (p = 0.03, in both cases).Conclusions Our findings suggest the effectiveness of mindfulness-based eating sessions to reduce caloric intake and promote the election of healthier dietary food choices in child population.
... As a result, they are able to respond to any given situation with intention and purpose, as opposed to being at the mercy of their thoughts and feelings. This affords them self-regulation and self-control (Friese et al., 2012). ...
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Problem: Depression is spreading rapidly worldwide. It has been forecasted to become the leading cause of disability worldwide by 2030, despite significant efforts and in-vestments made to treat it. This menace has been exacerbated by the current COVID-19 pandemic which has triggered psychological distress and a surge in experiences of emptiness, sadness, and loss of meaning in life. Meaninglessness is one of the biggest threats of our times and is associated with depression and suicide. Gap: Existential psychotherapy has been neglected by researchers and remains misunderstood by the new generation of clinicians as an integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of depression, despite being one of the longest-established forms of psycho-therapy. Objective: To address the above gap, recommendations, and emerging risks. Methodology: Review of theoretical and empirical findings, and autoethnography taking a scientist-practitioner stance. Results: A comprehensive, practical, integrated, flexible, and evidence-based model for the prevention and treatment of depression, and other internalizing disorders. Utility: This model will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, students of psychology, and the wider public. Conclusion/Recommendations: The model can be used to promote preventative factors in youth development, develop protective factors in high-risk populations with vulnerability to depression, and treat individuals experiencing depression or other internalizing disorders.
... These results are in line with empirical findings regarding the positive relationship between mindfulness and self-regulation capacities such as self-control (Friese et al., 2012), emotion regulation (Leyland et al., 2018), and executive functioning (Teper et al., 2013), which in turn have been found to negatively correlate with abusive supervisor behavior. Pundt and Schwarzbeck (2018) found leader-rated self-control to be negatively related to abusive supervision. ...
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This chapter provides an overview of research on dispositional supervisor characteristics as well as specific individual-level antecedents, correlates, boundary conditions, and processes of supervisors who display hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors towards their followers (i.e., abusive supervision). More specifically, empirical research findings on the relationships between specific supervisor characteristics and subordinate-rated perceptions of abusive supervisor behaviors are summarized and critically discussed. To better understand what contributes to abusive supervision, the moderating role of follower characteristics and the greater organizational context are taken into account as well. The chapter closes with an integrated process model of abusive supervision, an outlook, and suggestions for future research.
... Self-control refers to the ability to override or change one's inner responses, as well as to interrupt undesired behavioral tendencies and refrain from acting on them, which is widely regarded as a capacity to adapt the self so as to live happier and healthier lives (Tangney et al., 2004). Mindfulness can be viewed as a nonjudgmental and nonreactive awareness of experiences and the surrounding environment, and thus facilitates emotion and attention regulation and reduces the depletion of cognitive resources, which are crucial aspects of the self-control process (Friese et al., 2012). Mindfulness involves self-regulation, particularly of automatic or reactive autopilot tendencies of the mind (Bahl et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose Ethical consumption is an integral component for the sustainable development in the world and is especially challenging in the Western consumer society. This research demonstrates that mindfulness, a Buddhism-based notion, is associated with two related and distinctive approaches of ethical consumption: refinement and reduction. It examines the psychological mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness on these two approaches of ethical consumption. Design/methodology/approach Self-report data were collected through an online survey with consumers from western societies ( N = 523). Findings The findings show (1) that the significance of mindfulness on both approaches of ethical consumption and (2) that the contrast between the different mechanisms underlying them. Specifically, the mindfulness–consumption refinement link is fully mediated by connectedness-to-nature whereas the mindfulness–consumption reduction link is fully mediated by connectedness-to-nature and self-control. A series of supplementary studies further confirmed the proposed model. Research limitations/implications It demonstrates the multifaceted and complex nature of ethical consumption, which is positively associated with mindfulness but through distinctive psychological mechanisms. Practical implications The multifaceted and complex nature of ethical consumption and its underlying drivers need special attention. Mindfulness can be an effective means to boost ethical consumption behavior. Meanwhile, nurturing the sense of connectedness to nature and self-control capability facilitates the path-through of the positive impacts of mindfulness Social implications The findings can be adopted to enhance the effectiveness of mindfulness practice in promoting ethical consumption towards achieving the Sustainable Consumption goal, especially in the West. Originality/value The paper makes original contribution by conceptualizing two interrelated and distinctive approaches of ethical consumption and shows how mindfulness promotes both through different mediating pathways. Overall, this study paints a clearer picture how mindfulness relates to ethical consumption.
... A number of studies have found effects on executive function, including self-control ( [20][21][22][23]). Because of its potential effect on stress, mindfulness practice could also affect risk and time preferences via its effect on stress. ...
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In this paper, we evaluate the effects of a psychological training, called Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on stress and risk and time preferences. MBSR is a well-known psychological technique, which is believed to improve self-control and reduce stress. We conduct the experiment with 139 participants, half of whom receive the MBSR training, while the other half are asked to watch a documentary series, both over 4 consecutive weeks. Using a range of self-reported and physiological measures (such as cortisol measures), we find evidence that mindfulness training reduces perceived stress, but we only find weak evidence of effects on risk and inter-temporal attitudes.
... 69 It also may help improve social and ecological sustainability, by improving individuals' subjective well-being and benign connection with others, the society and the nature. 70 Loneliness and social isolation are an increasing public health concern, especially during COVID-19 and for older adults. Some preliminary studies indicated that mindfulness training might have positive effect in mitigating loneliness. ...
Article
Introduction: This is an overall review on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Sources of data: We identified studies in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Web of Science and Google Scholar using keywords including 'mindfulness', 'meditation', and 'review', 'meta-analysis' or their variations. Areas of agreement: MBIs are effective for improving many biopsychosocial conditions, including depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, addiction, psychosis, pain, hypertension, weight control, cancer-related symptoms and prosocial behaviours. It is found to be beneficial in the healthcare settings, in schools and workplace but further research is warranted to look into its efficacy on different problems. MBIs are relatively safe, but ethical aspects should be considered. Mechanisms are suggested in both empirical and neurophysiological findings. Cost-effectiveness is found in treating some health conditions. Areas of controversy: Inconclusive or only preliminary evidence on the effects of MBIs on PTSD, ADHD, ASD, eating disorders, loneliness and physical symptoms of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and respiratory conditions. Furthermore, some beneficial effects are not confirmed in subgroup populations. Cost-effectiveness is yet to confirm for many health conditions and populations. Growing points: Many mindfulness systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate low quality of included studies, hence high-quality studies with adequate sample size and longer follow-up period are needed. Areas timely for developing research: More research is needed on online mindfulness trainings and interventions to improve biopsychosocial health during the COVID-19 pandemic; Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of MBIs integrating both empirical and neurophysiological findings; Long-term compliance and effects of MBIs; and development of mindfulness plus (mindfulness+) or personalized mindfulness programs to elevate the effectiveness for different purposes.
... Therefore, self-control is another factor protecting against Internet addiction. Numerous researchers have reported that mindfulness is positively related to the level of self-control [25][26][27]. Thus, mindfulness may prevent Internet addiction symptoms through increasing self-control. ...
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Mindfulness training can reduce Internet addiction and promote sustainable development, but the possible mediators of this impact have not been thoroughly explored. This study explored the mediating roles of self-control and maladaptive cognitions in the association between mindfulness and Internet addiction to fill this gap. Altogether, 771 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.87 years, SD = 0.78 years) were surveyed about their mindfulness, self-control, maladaptive cognitions, and Internet addiction. The confirmed model presented a good model fit and revealed that (i) mindfulness, self-control, maladaptive cognitions, and Internet addiction were significantly correlated; (ii) mindfulness had indirect negative effects on Internet addiction, mediated by self-control; (iii) mindfulness had an indirect negative impact on Internet addiction, mediated by the path of self-control to maladaptive cognitions; and (iv) this dual-path mediation model might apply to male and female adolescents. The results of the present study suggest that both self-control and maladaptive cognitions are key factors in the association between mindfulness and Internet addiction.
... It consisted of 19 different modules based on research on mentalization, mindfulness, parent management training, improving self-control, self-efficacy, cognitive behavior therapy, and social learning theory. These techniques have been found to be effective in improving engagement in health behaviors and reducing symptoms and negative behaviors in clinical groups [21]. The control group received standard care. ...
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On 11 March 2020, a lockdown to limit the spread of COVID-19 was implemented in Denmark. The pandemic and the lockdown might have caused stress, depression, and anxiety in new mothers. Individuals with high resilience to stress may have been less affected. This study aimed to investigate if changes in perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and resilience from the second trimester until two months postpartum were different before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Denmark in spring 2020. Pregnant women enrolled in an ongoing feasibility study completed an online questionnaire measuring perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and resilience in the second trimester and two months postpartum. Changes in scores between women completing the two-month postpartum questionnaire before (n = 26) or during (n = 47) the COVID-19 pandemic were calculated. No statistically significant differences in changes from baseline to follow-up between pre- and during-pandemic groups in Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS), or the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were found. Adjusted differences in group means were as follows: PSS: 0.70 (CI—2.45; 3.85); DASS Stress: 0.76 (CI—3.59; 2.08); DASS Anxiety: 0.47 (CI—0.84; 1.77); DASS Depression: 0.88 (CI—0.95; 2.71); and CD-RISC: 1.19 (CI—3.16; 5.54). In conclusion, we did not find significant differences in the development of stress, depression, anxiety, or resilience before or during the Danish COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020.
... However, the current study did not demonstrate the significant differences between the yoga group and the physical exercise group on psychological wellbeing and sleep after the 12 weeks of intervention. Self-control has shown a buffering impact [8] on the risk factors among persons with substance abuse disorder, the result of the current study is in line with previous studies shown foster self-control following yoga [25], and exercise [26]. Enhancement of mindfulness following yoga but not with exercise, may be due to the emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during training, and the importance given to the holding of postures which differentiates yoga practices from physical exercises [27]. ...
Article
Objectives Substance use disorder is a pattern of recurrent use of illicit substances that leads to severe psychosocial imbalance and recurrent relapse. The study was to evaluate the efficacy of a yoga-based intervention as an add-on in enhancing psychological wellbeing, compared with physical exercise among substance abusers. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 96 male participants with substance use disorder from a residential rehabilitation treatment center, Kathmandu, Nepal, were randomly allocated into two groups namely the yoga group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.18 ± 6.43) and the physical exercise group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.02 ± 5.02). The participants in the yoga group attended the 90 min yoga sessions for 12 weeks (six days per week) whereas the physical exercise group attended exercise sessions for the same duration. Above mentioned interventions were in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. The study measured the Self-Control, Anxiety, Depression, Sleep parameters, and Mindfulness at the baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results A significant enhancement in self-control was observed in both the yoga (p<0.033, d =0.33) and the exercise group (p<0.038, d =0.32). Yoga group showed significant improvement in mindfulness score (p<0.017, d =0.37), whereas exercise group did not show any significant changes in mindfulness (p<0.169, d =0.21). The depression and anxiety scores reduced significantly in both yoga (p<0.044, d =0.31; p<0.025, d =0.35 resp.) and exercise (p<0.032, d =0.34. p<0.039, d =0.32. resp.) group. Furthermore, significant reduction was seen in sleep disturbance after yoga (p<0.001, d =0.52) and exercise (p<0.001, d =0.78) intervention. The sleep – somnolence score reduced significantly only in yoga group ( p <0.020 , d = 0.36). The magnitude of improvement was higher in the yoga group than physical exercise group on self-control, mindfulness, depression, anxiety and some sleep parameters, however the between group differences could not reach to the level of significance. Conclusions The 12 week yoga intervention did not appear to be significantly more effective than the 12 week physical exercise program on psychological wellbeing in male participants with substance use disorder. However, greater improvement in psychological wellbeing was observed within the yoga group. In future, a multi-centric study with robust design, larger sample size and longer follow-up is required to conform the present results and to find out the difference between the impacts of yoga and physical exercise on psychological wellbeing in substance abusers.
... 24 Further possibilities to increase state self-control capacity and to reduce the probability of ego depletion include implementation intentions (Webb & Sheeran, 2003), mindfulness meditation (Friese, Messner, & Schaffner, 2012); positive affect (Tice, Baumeister, Shmueli, & Muraven, 2007), self-affirmation (Schmeichel & Vohs, 2009), and personal prayers (Friese & Wänke, 2014). 25 For example, Diefendorff et al. (2000) reported an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.56 for AOP-SOP. ...
Article
Self-control and self-regulation can be seen as core aspects of adaptive human behavior, which are studied, largely in parallel, in the field of social, health, personality, cognitive, and developmental psychology. This review tries to firstly bring and review the different research directions together and shows the importance of self-control and self-regulation for present and future success in life by focusing on the marshmallow experiment, different self-control and self-regulation measurements like trait and state self-control, executive functions, heart rate variability, personality, and theories which combine control capacity and control motivation to predict self-control. Moreover, also the associations between different self-control and self-regulation variables are in the focus of this review.
... In line with both suggestions evidence suggests that self-regulatory strength can be restored after depletion. Physical exercise and training (Diamond & Lee, 2011), rest (Baumeister et al., 2007), and mindfulness meditation (Friese, Messner, & Schaffner, 2012) can not only bring people's selfregulatory strength back to prior levels but may also facilitate the maintenance of self-regulatory strength after having been depleted. Some research even suggests that improving self-control in one domain may generalize to other domains (Berkman, 2016), yet research with greater statistical power and studies examining the mechanisms for such generalization effects would be promising. ...
... In practical terms, the current findings identify several leverage points to reduce adolescents' negative risk-taking behavior. First, schools and families can train and cultivate adolescents' self-control ability, for example, via mindfulness training [47]. Second, parents and educators should coach and guide adolescents to set goals and encourage them to use prevention strategies to maintain existing consequences and ongoing efforts [48]. ...
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Negative risk-taking behaviors refer to voluntary behaviors that lead to more harm than good. Low self-control is a crucial predictor of adolescents' negative risk-taking behavior, but its internal mechanisms require further exploration. To reveal the working process underlying the association between self-control and adolescents' negative risk-taking behaviors, we investigated the mediation of regulatory focus and the moderation of sense of power. A total of 2018 students (37.6% males) from two universities in Guangzhou, China, participated in a survey that investigated their self-control, negative risk-taking behavior, regulatory focus and sense of power. The results revealed that after controlling for the adolescents' sex and their parents' educational level, prevention focus partially mediated the association between self-control and negative risk-taking behavior. Moreover, sense of power moderated the association between self-control and prevention focus. Furthermore, the association between self-control and negative risk-taking behavior through prevention focus was stronger among adolescents with a high sense of power than among those with a low sense of power. Therefore, our findings suggest that regulatory focus and sense of power might be the mechanisms that explain how self-control is related to negative risk-taking behavior. These results thus provide a foundation for the prevention of and intervention in adolescents' negative risk-taking behavior.
... Meditation is a meditation technique used in yoga, with its emphasis on mindfulness and mental management, and the ultimate goal of which is to lead one to a state of liberation (Ryu and Jung, 2014). Neuroscientists have found that if you meditate regularly, you not only become good at it but also improve your self-control, self-knowledge, attention, stress management, and the ability to resist impulses (Friese et al., 2012). However, beginners often have difficulty concentrating when practicing meditation, resulting in poor training results. ...
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To study whether Tai Chi (TC) practice can improve the brain connectivity of the prefrontal lobe of college students, the positive psychological capital questionnaires and resting EEG signals were acquired from 50 college students including 25 TC practitioners and 25 demographically matched TC healthy controls. The results showed that the score of the positive psychological capital questionnaire of the TC group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the node degree of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of both groups was positively correlated with the score of the positive psychological capital questionnaire. In addition, the response time of the TC group under auditory stimulation was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and there was a significant positive correlation between response time and its characteristic path length, and a significant negative correlation with global efficiency. Meanwhile, during the selected range of sparsity, the difference in global network parameters between two groups is significant in the alpha band. Under all single sparsity, the clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency of the TC group have a higher trend, while the characteristic path length tended to be shorter. In the analysis of the local characteristics of the resting brain functional network, it was found that the node degree of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of the TC group was higher, and the difference was significant in some nodes. These results all point to the fact that TC practice has a certain impact on specific brain areas of the brain.
... In fact, earlier (page 135) I argued that it is meaningful to say that ultimately, it is the input data that controls us. I gave the example of a meditation 14 (Friese et al., 2012;MacKenzie and Baumeister, 2015). Such learning has earlier been well-documented on a more general level in the work on self-control (Rueda et al., 2004;Baumeister et al., 2007). ...
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This book uses the modern theory of artificial intelligence (AI) to understand human suffering or mental pain. Both humans and sophisticated AI agents process information about the world in order to achieve goals and obtain rewards, which is why AI can be used as a model of the human brain and mind. This book intends to make the theory accessible to a relatively general audience, requiring only some relevant scientific background. The book starts with the assumption that suffering is mainly caused by frustration. Frustration means the failure of an agent (whether AI or human) to achieve a goal or a reward it wanted or expected. Frustration is inevitable because of the overwhelming complexity of the world, limited computational resources, and scarcity of good data. In particular, such limitations imply that an agent acting in the real world must cope with uncontrollability, unpredictability, and uncertainty, which all lead to frustration. Fundamental in such modelling is the idea of learning, or adaptation to the environment. While AI uses machine learning, humans and animals adapt by a combination of evolutionary mechanisms and ordinary learning. Even frustration is fundamentally an error signal that the system uses for learning. This book explores various aspects and limitations of learning algorithms and their implications regarding suffering. At the end of the book, the computational theory is used to derive various interventions or training methods that will reduce suffering in humans. The amount of frustration is expressed by a simple equation which indicates how it can be reduced. The ensuing interventions are very similar to those proposed by Buddhist and Stoic philosophy, and include mindfulness meditation. Therefore, this book can be interpreted as an exposition of a computational theory justifying why such philosophies and meditation reduce human suffering.
... An interesting caveat of the findings reported by Turner et al. (2010) was that positive mood resulted in lower intake among participants who reported that they were able to regulate their eating, whereas it increased consumption for those who reported that they were unable to regulate their eating. Given that brief mindfulness inductions have been shown to lead to greater self-control (Friese et al., 2012), it is possible that the combination of maintained positive affect and increased feelings of self-control induced by mindfulness caused participants in the experimental group to eat less than those in the control group. Clearly, more research is needed to further understand the mechanisms involved in the relationship between mindfulness, positive affect, and food intake. ...
Article
With rates of overweight and obesity rising worldwide, it is important to examine psychological factors associated with food intake. Previous research has shown that mindfulness may serve as a protective factor against overconsumption of food. Some studies have posited that mindfulness addresses unhealthy eating by promoting the increased awareness of, and decreased responsiveness to, internal emotional cues. The present study investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness induction on positive and negative affect and subsequent energy intake in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 126). After exposure to a negative mood induction, 63 participants were randomly assigned to a brief mindfulness intervention, while the remaining participants listened to a news article. Subsequently all participants were offered healthful and unhealthful snack foods. Although there was not a significant between-group difference in intake, a multiple mediation model indicated that positive affect, but not negative affect, significantly mediated the association between condition and food intake. Relative to controls, those in the experimental condition reported higher positive affect after the mindfulness induction, which in turn reduced their energy intake. Further exploratory analyses indicated that positive affect in the experimental group was associated with reduced consumption of unhealthful food. These findings provide insight into how mindfulness-based interventions may target unhealthy eating behaviors.
... The measuring results of intrinsic motivation in the present study were consistent with the research concerning goal persistence. Furthermore, research on how to offset self-control consumption found that engaging in a consumptive task, linking the task with an economic reward (Boksem et al., 2006), or giving participants an immediate reward (Friese et al., 2012;Derrick, 2013) could significantly improve participants' selfcontrol level in subsequent tasks. Therefore, we could conclude that delivering rewards on time is an effective way to improve people's interest in some tasks as well as to motivate the persistence of engaging in activities. ...
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Researchers have conducted many studies on the relationship between external rewards and intrinsic motivation. A recent study showed that, compared with delayed rewards, rewards delivered immediately after the experiment enhanced the participants’ intrinsic motivation. However, this study did not rule out the possibility of a misattribution effect of extrinsic motivation. The present research conducted three studies to explore whether immediate rewards actually enhance intrinsic motivation. To rule out the interference of the misattribution effect of extrinsic motivation, according to the different characteristics of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation, Study 1 and Study 2 improved the prior experimental paradigm, and the results indicated that the intrinsic motivation of participants who received extra rewards immediately after completing experimental tasks was stronger than that of participants who received the delayed extra reward. Furthermore, to rule out the potential interference of temporal discounting, Study 3 introduced a new variable—reward magnitude. The results showed that the delivery time of the extra reward had an independent effect on intrinsic motivation and that the immediacy of the extra reward could enhance intrinsic motivation. In all, the three studies strongly demonstrated that immediate external extra rewards could truly enhance intrinsic motivation.
... Importantly, to the extent that mindful individuals avoid the typical drop in state self-esteem following negative feedback, they should also experience less self-regulatory depletion. In line with this view, mindfulness meditation predicts enhanced self-regulation (Tang et al., 2015), including lower self-regulatory depletion (Friese et al., 2012). Making state self-esteem less contingent on external events and experiences therefore may be a largely unexplored pathway by which mindfulness meditation may stabilize self-regulation. ...
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Objectives Receiving feedback is vital to learning and job performance, but this can provoke undesirable psychological responses, including loss of self-esteem and self-regulatory depletion. While mindfulness can attenuate responses to self-threats, it is unknown if this occurs following self-esteem threats, including negative feedback. This experimental study investigates a proposed moderated mediation model of how brief mindfulness meditation may attenuate these psychological responses to negative feedback. Methods The proposed model was tested through a randomized 2 × 2 factor experiment with a sample of undergraduate students (N = 163). Participants completed a performance task (the Remote Associates Test), followed by an audio guided mindfulness induction (mindfulness meditation v. mind-wandering active control). After receiving randomized performance feedback, either negative or positive feedback, participants reported their state self-esteem and self-regulatory depletion. We modeled feedback as predicting self-regulatory depletion through self-esteem, and brief mindfulness meditation moderating the relationship between feedback and self-esteem, and through this influencing the indirect relationship of feedback and self-regulatory depletion. Results Findings provided support for the proposed moderated mediation model. Inducing mindfulness via brief meditation weakened the relationship between negative feedback and decreased self-esteem, thus contributing to lower self-regulatory depletion. Conclusions The results provide evidence that inducing mindfulness through meditation attenuates psychological responses to negative feedback, including loss of state self-esteem and self-regulatory depletion. This adds to understanding of the intersection of mindfulness practice, the self, and practice in educational and workplace domains.
... Again, the faster solution times for correct solutions during the second assessment speak against this point. Additionally, it has been shown that brief mindfulness interventions such as the one we used in the present study can prevent mental fatigue effects (Friese et al., 2012). In light of these findings, we find it unlikely-and particularly so for participants in the mindfulness condition-that mental fatigue effects have cancelled out incubation effects in our study. ...
Article
Incubation periods may be beneficial for insight problem solving either because they allow to mentally disengage from incorrect solution attempts or because they provide additional opportunities to rethink a problem. We investigated whether incubation periods either filled with an easy stimulus-response task, which does not require much attention, a more difficult stimulus-response task, or a mindfulness intervention, which should both require higher sustained-attention levels, differently affect problem solving. Results showed no difference in solution rates and frequencies of Aha! Experiences between the stimulus-response-task groups, which generally thought more, and the mindfulness group, which generally thought less about yet unsolved problems during the incubation period. Results did not change when individual differences in working-memory capacity and trait mind-wandering were controlled for. These findings suggest that short incubation periods may not be overly beneficial for insight problem solving, independent of whether they allow to periodically redirect attention to pending problems or not.
... As known, meditation had good effectiveness in improving people self-control. 32,33,34 Self-control itself in Islam served as benchmarks of person in running order of Allah and avoided His prohibitions. 35 Therapy dhikr of asmaul husna which was as an intervention in this study consisted of material about self-control, the relationship between self-control and alcohol abuse, as well as materials about the dhikr. ...
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This research was conducted aiming to find out whether Asmaul Husna dhikr could be using a treatment to enhance self-control among alcohol abusers. There were 18 alcohol abusers age between 18 to 40 years old as subject divided into two groups. The research used quasi-experimental method with nonrandomized pretest-posttest-control group design, comparing the conditions before and after treatment between two groups. Self-control was measured by The Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) adapted from Tangney, Baumister, and Boone (2004) scale, which self-discipline, deliberate, healthy habits, work ethic and reliability as self-control aspects. The experimental group participated in asmaul husna dhikr activities for about 2 weeks. The result showed significant differences in self-control score between experimental group and control group, by its significant level showing p = 0.001 (p < 0.05). Thus, asmaul husna dhikr could be an effective treatment for enhancing self-control among alcohol abusers.
... Based on the organism-environment interaction model (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998) and existing research on the protective role of mindfulness, the present study confirmed that cumulative social-environmental risks and trait mindfulness could jointly influence adolescent mobile phone addiction. The underlying mechanisms of the protective role of mindfulness may involve enhancing emotion regulation (Guendelman et al., 2017;Roemer et al., 2015), improving cognitive reappraisal (Garland et al., 2015;Troy et al., 2013), and increasing self-control (Elkins-Brown et al., 2017;Friese et al., 2012). Firstly, the emotional regulation model of mindfulness suggests that treating experiences objectively and with non-judgmental acceptance allows individuals to get rid of emotional valence at the point of generation of emotions, so that individuals do not fall into an automatic evaluation process that leads to habitual negative reactions (Chambers et al., 2009). ...
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Researchers have explored some environmental factors influencing adolescent mobile phone addiction from different perspectives (e.g., family, school, peers). Few studies, however, have comprehensively tested these influencing factors from multiple environmental systems in a single model and analyzed the interactive effects of cumulative social-environmental risk and individual trait. Moreover, most of previous studies focused on general mobile phone addiction, but have not distinguished and compared different types of mobile phone addiction. Based on prior theoretical and empirical evidence, the present study included eleven environmental factors from family, school, and peer environments (i.e., father-child relationship, mother–child relationship, parental conflict, parental monitoring, parental phubbing, school connectedness, teacher-student relationship, classmate relationship, peer pressure, peer victimization, and deviant peer affiliation). We tested whether cumulative social-environmental risk interacted with trait mindfulness in predicting adolescent mobile phone addiction, and compared whether the interactive effect varied with different types of mobile phone addiction. A total of 1,202 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age completed the anonymous self-report survey. Results showed that cumulative social-environmental risk index positively predicted four types of mobile phone addiction (i.e., mobile social networking addiction, mobile game addiction, mobile information acquisition addiction, and mobile short-form video addiction), and the predictive effect of cumulative risk index on all four types of mobile phone addiction was stronger than that of any single environmental factor. Trait mindfulness negatively predicted these four types of mobile phone addiction. Moreover, the cumulative social-environmental risk index interacted with trait mindfulness to influence adolescent mobile phone addiction, in that the predictive effects of the cumulative social-environmental risk index on all four types of adolescent mobile phone addiction were stronger among adolescents with low levels of trait mindfulness than for those with high levels of trait mindfulness. However, the effect size of the protective role of mindfulness differed across the four types of mobile phone addiction, with the moderating effect of trait mindfulness being strongest between the cumulative social-environmental risk index and adolescent mobile short-form video addiction compared to other three types of mobile phone addiction. The findings highlight the cumulative risk effect of multiple environmental factors and the protective effect of trait mindfulness in the development of different types of adolescent mobile phone addiction. Limitations and implications are discussed.
... Given these ideas, we expect that, compared to a mindful mindset at work, a work self-compassionate mindset may have more extensive effects on self-regulation at work because it influences both resources and motivation simultaneously. Whereas existing work suggests that mindfulness may reduce depletion (e.g., Friese et al., 2012;Mackenzie & Baumeister, 2015), ...
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The work environment is fraught with complex demands, hardships, and challenges, highlighting the need to approach work with self‐compassion each day. We propose that work self‐compassion—a mindset of kindness, gentleness, and care toward oneself as an employee—may generate the resources and motivation needed for self‐regulation at work. Drawing from integrated self‐control theory (ISCT) and theory on self‐compassion, we suggest that on days when employees hold a work self‐compassionate mindset, they will exhibit greater work performance and wellbeing via enhanced resource capacity and motivation. In an experimental experience sampling study, we found that a work self‐compassionate mindset reduced depletion and increased work self‐esteem and thereby heightened daily work engagement and daily resilience. Consequently, employees made greater goal progress at work and experienced higher meaning in life. In a supplemental study, we show that state self‐compassion at work is associated with unique variance in work outcomes beyond compassion received from coworkers. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for self‐compassion in organizational contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... In their study, Milne et al. (2020) noted that mindfulness is associated with self-regulation driven by self-conscious emotions such as guilt and pride, which determines sustainable behavior, enlarging self-esteem. Mindfulness influences self-control by deliberately regulating self-conscious emotions that may enhance their self-esteem and pride and minimize guilt for the good of themselves and others related to environmental and sustainable behavior (Friese et al., 2012). Studies in cognitive processing suggest that some intended behaviors follow automatic thought that does not require awareness or intention (Brown et al., 2013;Hakan et al., 2017). ...
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Second-hand clothing (SHC) benefits society by reducing the wastage of natural resources. Research in the purchase of second-hand clothing is a debated topic. It is not yet clear whether caring for self, community, and nature drives the purchase of second-hand clothing. This study unpacks the intervening factors that drive second-hand clothing purchases underpinning attitude-intention and self-determination theories. The primary purpose is to examine the direct relationship between a) mindful consumption, b) ego-involvement, c) social norms on second-hand clothing purchase intention of young consumers. The mediation of ego-involvement and social norm is examined on the above relationship. A total of 314 usable questionnaires following the convenience and purposive snowball sampling techniques were gathered from China. The structural equation model (SEM) two-step approach analyzed the data. SmartPLS3 statistical package used to run the measurement and structural model analyses. IPMA analysis confirms mindful consumption as an important factor; hence ego-involvement drives the performance of the stated relationship. Ego-involvement mediates the relationship between mindful consumption and second-hand clothing purchase. This study bridges the unanswered questions and highlights the importance of mindful consumption, an essential driver of consumer behavior. Managers are encouraged to promote mindful consumption values in marketing communication to drive sustainability.
... Coping styles might impact clinical communication ability as mediating variables. Individuals with high resilience tend to adopt PC. [24,25] It had demonstrated that trait resilience was negatively related with negative-affect coping (-0.47), and positively correlated to positive-acceptance coping (0.21). [26] Coping strategies are postulated to be a personal factor that increases resiliency. ...
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To prove the positive association between resilience and clinical communication ability among Chinese nursing students, and to determine whether coping styles play a mediating role in the relationship between them.Four hundred and seventy-one nursing students from a traditional Chinese Medical university were enrolled in this study. They completed some questionnaires, which included the Chinese Version of the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale Chinese Version, and Clinical Communication Ability Scale. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyses the relationships between coping styles, resilience, and clinical communication ability.Resilience was positively associated with clinical communication ability (P < .01). Coping styles which included positive coping and negative coping both significantly affected clinical communication ability (P < .01) and intermediated the relationship between resilience and clinical communication ability (P < .01).Resilience is positively related to clinical communication ability among Chinese nursing students, and coping styles intermediated the relationship between them, which may provide scientific evidence to aid in developing intervention strategies to improve interpersonal skills.
Article
Objective: Because of fast-growing interest in the applications of mindfulness to promote well-being and mental health, there are field-wide efforts to better understand how mindfulness training works and thereby to optimize its delivery. Key to these efforts is the role of home practice in mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) outcomes. Despite its centrality in MBIs, recent reviews have documented limited and mixed effects of home practice on MBI outcomes. However, methodological issues regarding monitoring and quantifying home practice and focus on cumulative or additive effects may limit our understanding of it. Temporally proximate, more transient, and contextually circumscribed effects of mindfulness mediation practice have not been examined. Methods: We applied intensive experience sampling to measure daily practice and levels of targeted proximal outcomes (state mindfulness, decentering, emotional valance, and arousal) of training over the course of a 21-day MBI among a community-based sample of 82 meditation-naive adults. Results: Despite intensive experience sampling, we found no evidence of cumulative or additive effects of total mindfulness meditation practice on outcomes at postintervention for mindfulness, decentering, emotional valence, or emotional arousal. However, we found that that daily dose of mindfulness meditation home practice significantly predicted same-day levels of state mindfulness (B = 0.004, SE = 0.001, t = 3.17, p = .000, f2 = 0.24), decentering (B = 0.004, SE = 0.001, t = 2.757, p = .006, f2 = 0.05), and emotional valence (B = 0.006, SE = 0.003, t = 2.015, p = .044, f2 = 0.01) but not daily levels of emotional arousal. Daily dose-response practice effects did not carry over to next-day levels of monitored outcomes. Conclusions: Findings show that effects of daily home mindfulness meditation practice dose on state mindfulness, decentering, and positive emotion are reliable but transient and time-limited. Findings are discussed with respect to the proposed daily dose-response hypothesis of mindfulness meditation practice.
Article
Objectives The exertion of self-control has been associated with impaired performance on subsequent physical tasks also requiring self-control. However, the effect in well-trained individuals, and of nutritional intervention strategies to reduce the impact of self-control exertion are unknown. This study, therefore, explored the effect of self-control exertion on endurance performance, and pacing strategies, in well-trained individuals. A further aim was to examine the potential for a caffeine mouth rinse to attenuate any decrements in performance due to self-control exertion. Method Following familiarization, fifteen trained male cyclists completed four simulated 10 km cycling time-trials on a cycle ergometer. Prior to each time-trial, participants completed a congruent Stroop task, or an incongruent Stroop task, to manipulate self-control. They also received either a caffeine (containing 40 mg of dissolved caffeine) or placebo mouth-rinse prior to, and every 2 km during, the cycling time-trial. The participants' performance time, subjective measures (perceived pain, motivation, task importance, and RPE), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were recorded throughout the time-trials. Data were analysed using three-way (self-control*caffeine*split time) repeated measures ANOVA. Results There was no effect of self-control or caffeine on overall 10 km performance time (all p > 0.05). However, following self-control exertion, split time was significantly slower at 3 km (p = 0.031) and 5 km (p = 0.034), and tended to be slower at 1 km (p = 0.088) and 7 km (p = 0.078). There was no effect of the caffeine mouth rinse, nor did this interact with self-control, to affect split times (all p > 0.05). Prior self-control exertion and a caffeine mouth rinse did not influence perceptions of pain, motivation, and task importance in well-trained individuals (all p > 0.05). Conclusions Findings suggest that prior self-control exertion affects self-regulatory pacing strategies during the first 7 km of a 10 km cycling time-trial, in well-trained individuals. However, caffeine mouth rinsing does not attenuate the effects of self-control exertion on subsequent endurance performance.
Article
Employees’ responses to work demands are crucially related to their occupational well‐being. The present study aimed to identify Big Five personality profiles of working adults and examine their connection to two central responses to work stress: work engagement and burnout. Four latent personality profiles emerged (i.e., overcontroller, undercontroller, reserved, and resilient) and, in line with Block(2002) self‐regulation theory, related differently to burnout and engagement. Specifically, both under‐ and overcontrollers experienced higher burnout and lower engagement whereas resilients experienced higher engagement and lower burnout. Reserved profile members were low in both. The results suggest that management of healthy, engaged workers may be aided by consideration of personality profiles and that Block’s self‐regulation theory may be a useful framework for connecting personality to occupational well‐being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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For the past 30 years, the use of mindfulness meditation (MM) has become increasingly popular as a cognitive strategy in therapies for impulse control and behavioral or emotion regulation for a variety of mental health problems. However, evidence of its effectiveness, as well as its associated autonomic and neurophysiological mechanism of action, has been limited. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the behavioral, autonomic, and neurophysiological effects of MM on impulsivity. Fifty-two articles from 2008 to 2021 were included in the analysis. The results of three separated meta-analyses revealed that MM significantly reduced human behavioral impulsivity (hedge’s g = -0.52 [95% CI -0.64 -0.40], Z = -8.65, p < 0.0001), regulated activities of the autonomic nervous system by reducing salivary or blood cortisol, salivation of food craving, galvanic skin response, and salivary immunoglobulin A (hedge’s g = -0.59 [-0.95 -0.24], Z = -3.26, p = 0.001), and produced significant amplitude reduction in event-related potentials related to impulsivity including N200, ERN, and P300 (hedge’s g = -0.78 [-1.06 -0.50], Z = -5.44, p < 0.0001). Our findings indicated that MM is effective in promoting human impulse control from the behavioral, autonomic, and neurophysiological perspectives. Moreover, MM is a suitable cognitive strategy for all ages and can be used for a variety of mental health problems including the improvement of aggression, addictions, and executive functions.
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Background An increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of meditation, showing performance enhancement in a variety of sports fields, but few attempts have been made to derive outcomes based on evidence from the preexisting groundwork. The present study empirically reviews reports on meditation in athletes to investigate (a) the efficacy of these interventions in augmenting athletic attainment, (b) the methodological quality of studies (risk of bias), and (c) a possible conceptual framework for how meditation affects athletes’ performance. Methods A systematic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (Ovid Medline(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline(R)); EMBASE; EBSCO; CINAHL; SPORTDiscuss; and SCOPUS from June 16, 2019 to July 18, 2019. All studies published were screened and included if they met the eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. The available evidence was summarized. Results Our initial search returned a total of 734 articles. After screening abstracts and full texts, 6 studies were included. Participants reported changes that might be considered positively in sports events after experiencing planned intervention. However, in the methodological quality assessment measured in seven domains of Cochrane criteria, the risk of bias of each study was generally high. Discussion From the results derived, the theoretical insights of imagery, relaxation and self-talk, which can catalyze the development of a new form of meditation program, were obtained. However, given methodological defects of RCTs, further precisely designed RCTs are needed.
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Information technology addicts often exhibit a high rate of relapse, which reflects the failure of previous recovery approaches. However, research on relapse to information technology addiction has been largely neglected, and few means have been developed to address this issue. To fill this research gap, this study identifies essential factors for preventing relapse to information technology addiction with a self-regulation perspective. A longitudinal online survey is conducted. The results show that mindfulness and self-control contribute to reduced urges, which, in turn, prevent relapse. This study provides useful insights by expanding our understandings of relapse to information technology addiction.
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The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown have been widely recognized as traumatic events that pose threats to psychological well-being. Recent studies reported that during such traumatic events, women tend to be at greater risk than men for developing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies reported that a mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol (MBSR) provides useful skills for dealing with traumatic events. In our study, a sample of Italian females received an 8-week MBSR course plus 6 weeks of video support for meditation practice during the first total lockdown in Italy. We assessed the participants with questionnaires before and after this period to investigate their mindfulness skills, psychological well-being, post-traumatic growth, and psychological flexibility. After the intervention, the meditators group reported improvement in measures associated with self-acceptance, purpose in life, and relation to others compared to the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that participants with greater mindfulness scores showed high levels of psychological flexibility, which in turn was positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. We concluded that the MBSR could support psychological well-being, at least in female subjects, even during an unpredictable adverse event, such as the COVID-19 lockdown, by reinforcing key psychological aspects.
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The current study aimed to explore the impact of a school-based mindfulness intervention on bullying behaviors among teenagers. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which the experimental group ( n = 92) received mindfulness intervention, and the control group ( n = 97) did not. The measured outcomes included: bullying behavior, self-control, and trait mindfulness. The results were as follows: (1) the post-test scores of trait mindfulness and self-control in the experimental group significantly increased ( p < 0.01) while the scores of bullying behavior significantly decreased ( p < 0.01); (2) trait mindfulness was positively associated with self-control (r = 0.13 to 0.63, p < 0.05), whereas trait mindfulness and self-control were both negatively associated with bullying behavior (r = −0.38 to −0.13, p < 0.05); and (3) the mediating effect of self-control accounted for 50% of the overall effect of trait mindfulness on bullying behavior. These findings demonstrated that the school-based mindfulness intervention distinctly improves trait mindfulness and self-control and reduces bullying behavior among teenagers. Moreover, self-control plays a mediating role between trait mindfulness and bullying behavior.
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As schools are increasingly tasked with improving student outcomes related to both academic and social and emotional wellbeing, digital interventions are becoming utilized as viable tools for successful outcomes. This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of a culturally responsive, art‐based mindfulness intervention called L.A.U.G.H.® (Let Art Unleash Great Happiness), in a diverse sample of 243 elementary school students. Using an iPad app, students practiced mindful breathing and created digital art in their classrooms. The app also measured students' moods, school connectedness, and joy of learning. The study design was a one‐group repeated measure intervention design where ratings were compared between Weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12 of the intervention. Results indicated that L.A.U.G.H.® time improved and increased students’ moods, School Connectedness, and Joy of Learning over time. Race played a significant role in how students rated their feelings about school, with significant effects that emerged among Black/African American and Asian American/Pacific Islander students. Both groups began with the lowest ratings of school connectedness and demonstrated significant improvements by Week 8. This study revealed results from a digital mindfulness intervention and highlighted the importance of a nuanced study of differential impacts of such interventions among diverse students. L.A.U.G.H.® (Let Art Unleash Great Happiness) time increased students’ moods, School Connectedness, and Joy of Learning over time. L.A.U.G.H.® (Let Art Unleash Great Happiness) time increased students’ moods, School Connectedness, and Joy of Learning over time. Black students and Asian students began with significantly lower ratings of school connectedness that increased significantly through 8 weeks. Black students and Asian students began with significantly lower ratings of school connectedness that increased significantly through 8 weeks.
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Present study aimed to investigate the effect of mindfulness protocol on anxiety, self-efficacy and performance of male shooters. The present study was a semi-experimental with design two groups of pretest-posttest with control group. Of all male shooters in Gorgan, in 2012, 30 shooters ranged in age from 19 to 30 years, randomly assigned to two groups of 15. The training program included six sessions of 75-90 minutes of Mindfulness / Control, and the state-competitive anxiety inventory, general self-efficacy and performance scale in shooting were used for evaluation, and data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance. The results showed that the intervention of mindfulness reduced anxiety and increased self-efficacy and its components (desire to initiate behavior, desire to expand the effort, encounter obstacles) and improve exercise performance. According to the findings of this study, mindfulness interventions are one of the effective methods for improving athletes' performance
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Background Attentiveness during class is critical for learning. Teachers have strategies to promote active engagement and active learning, yet little control over students’ baseline level of alertness and focus upon arriving to class. Objective To evaluate the effect of pre-lecture cognitive exercise on attention and learning in lectures. Method In Experiment 1, college students ( n = 28) in Introductory Psychology participated in a brief battery of complex cancellation tasks prior to a subset of lectures. Effectiveness measures included course exams and post-study student surveys. Experiment 2 replicated the first in a subsequent class ( n = 35) with the same instructor and the addition of post-lecture quizzes. Results In both experiments, students performed higher on exam content from post-exercise lectures relative to control lectures. No effect was observed on post-lecture quizzes. On post-study surveys, students reported improved attentiveness to lecture after cognitive calisthenics. Conclusion Pre-lecture cognitive activity appears to benefit student attention and learning in lectures. Teaching Implications With so many students arriving to class either distracted or sleepy, the inclusion of a brief pre-lecture cognitive exercise program may be an engaging and effective method for optimizing student attentiveness and learning in lecture-based courses.
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Giftedness has been determined by many important researchers, defining the main characteristics of gifted individuals and the consisting traits of this notion. Factors that contribute for giftedness to emerge and develop further, are the ones of cognitive and metacognitive abilities, which are supported by the executive functions of the brain. Furthermore, another component of giftedness is the notion of consciousness, in the way of someone being aware of the level that he/she belongs to, e.g. on Βlooms taxonomy of knowledge, or on Drigas & Pappas taxonomy, and his/her endeavour to transcede from one level to the upper one. This survey has been conducted in order to investigate the relation between the notions of metacognition and consciousness, the interaction between them and its contribution to the rise and evolvement of giftedness. The results showed that the above notions are interrelated in a triancle relation.
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This protocol describes a study that will test the effectiveness of a 7-week non-clinical digital coaching intervention to promote self-control. The goal of the coaching is to support and guide people who are willing and motivated to improve their self-control with the help of the smartphone application MindHike. The coaching is based on a process model of self-control and aims to target five groups of self-control strategies. The goal of the study is to examine the effectiveness of the digital coaching intervention. A single-arm study design with pre-test, post-test and 2-month follow-up assessments and process assessments will be used to evaluate the 7-week digital coaching intervention. The digital coaching includes 49 daily lessons that are organized along 7 weekly core themes. Study participants will be at least 150 adults aged 18 years and older who are willing and motivated to improve their self-control using the MindHike application. This is the first study testing the effectiveness of a digital coaching intervention to promote self-control. Given that this approach proves effective, it could be easily implemented in various non-clinical settings such as education, health, relationship, and work, and in clinical settings. Due to its digital low-threshold character, it could also reach large numbers of people.
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According to the limited strength model (Muraven, Tice & Baumeister, 1998), exerting self-control causes ego depletion: a depletion of cognitive resources resulting in poorer performance on later self-control tasks. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive effect of self-awareness on self-control performance. The present study examined whether the occurrence of ego depletion can be circumvented by increasing self-awareness. Initially depleted participants who received a neutral prime exhibited the classic ego depletion pattern: their performance on a subsequent physical self-control task decreased significantly. In contrast, no decrease in performance was observed for depleted participants who were exposed to a self-awareness prime. The latter group performed equally well compared to low depleted participants.
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Self-control is a central function of the self and an important key to success in life. The exertion of self-control appears to depend on a limited resource. Just as a muscle gets tired from exertion, acts of self-control cause short-term impairments (ego depletion) in subsequent self-control, even on unrelated tasks. Research has supported the strength model in the domains of eating, drinking, spending, sexuality, intelligent thought, making choices, and interpersonal behavior. Motivational or framing factors can temporarily block the deleterious effects of being in a state of ego depletion. Blood glucose is an important component of the energy.
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The depletion effect occurs when individuals who exert self&hyphen;control in a previous task (i.e., depleted individuals) exhibit less self&hyphen;control on a subsequent task relative to individuals who did not previously exert self&hyphen;control. This article presents two experiments that implicate construal levels to understand the processes underlying depletion effects in the context of consumer health. At low&hyphen;level construals, individuals rely on resource accessibility cues (e.g., feelings of tiredness) to determine self&hyphen;control. Hence, they exert less self&hyphen;control only when they assess themselves as depleted, manifesting the depletion effect. High&hyphen;level construals reduce the resource focus and enhance a goal focus, which diminishes and even reverses the depletion effect.
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Female undergraduates were assigned to one of three groups, two involving regulatory training and one not. Training participants performed for 2weeks tasks that required strong behavioral restraint (Strong Training) or weak behavioral restraint (Weak Training). Later, they took part in (1) a laboratory session in which they performed tasks with inhibitory components, and (2) a follow-up week in which they provided health behavior reports and used designated dental supplies. No Training participants took part only in the session and follow-up week. As expected, laboratory performance was improved for Strong- relative to No Training participants, with performance for Weak Training participants falling in between. Also as expected, Strong Training participants used more floss in the follow-up week than did the No Training participants, with floss for Weak Training participants falling between. Contrary to expectation, Strong Training participants used less toothpaste and reported having brushed less than the No Training participants. In addition, Strong Training participants evinced exaggerated—rather than diminished—cardiovascular responses during the laboratory tasks. The performance and floss use data support the suggestion that inhibitory system strength can be increased through use. The brushing and cardiovascular findings may be interpretable in inhibitory strength terms.
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Cultivation of mindfulness, the nonjudgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment, produces beneficial effects on well-being and ameliorates psychiatric and stress-related symptoms. Mindfulness meditation has therefore increasingly been incorporated into psychotherapeutic interventions. Although the number of publications in the field has sharply increased over the last two decades, there is a paucity of theoretical reviews that integrate the existing literature into a comprehensive theoretical framework. In this article, we explore several components through which mindfulness meditation exerts its effects: (a) attention regulation, (b) body awareness, (c) emotion regulation (including reappraisal and exposure, extinction, and reconsolidation), and (d) change in perspective on the self. Recent empirical research, including practitioners' self-reports and experimental data, provides evidence supporting these mechanisms. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies have begun to explore the neuroscientific processes underlying these components. Evidence suggests that mindfulness practice is associated with neuroplastic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network, and default mode network structures. The authors suggest that the mechanisms described here work synergistically, establishing a process of enhanced self-regulation. Differentiating between these components seems useful to guide future basic research and to specifically target areas of development in the treatment of psychological disorders. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
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We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being.
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Interpersonal provocation is a common and robust antecedent to aggression. Four studies identified angry rumination and reduced self-control as mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. Following provocation, participants demonstrated decreased self-control on an unpleasant task relative to a control condition (Study 1). When provoked, rumination reduced self-control and increased aggression. This effect was mediated by reduced self-control capacity (Study 2). State rumination following provocation, but not anger per se, mediated the effect of trait rumination on aggression (Study 3). Bolstering self-regulatory resources by consuming a glucose beverage improved performance on a measure of inhibitory control following rumination (Study 4). These findings suggest that rumination following an anger-inducing provocation reduces self-control and increases aggression. Bolstering self-regulatory resources may reduce this adverse effect.
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According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.
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Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote functioning is enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness intervention in a laboratory setting on emotional experiences and regulation in response to distressing, positive, and affectively mixed film clips. Although there were no condition (mindfulness vs. control) effects on reports of emotional response or difficulties in regulation after the distressing film clip, participants in the mindfulness condition reported significantly greater positive affect in response to the positive film. Additionally, participants in the mindfulness condition reported more adaptive regulation (approaching significance, medium to large effect size) in response to the affectively mixed clip and significantly less negative affect immediately after this clip, although not after a recovery period. No significant differences emerged between conditions on physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate) throughout the study.
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We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on working memory capacity (WMC) and affective experience. WMC is used in managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet, persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals, may deplete WMC and lead to cognitive failures and emotional disturbances. We hypothesized that MT may mitigate these deleterious effects by bolstering WMC. We recruited 2 military cohorts during the high-stress predeployment interval and provided MT to 1 (MT, n = 31) but not the other group (military control group, MC, n = 17). The MT group attended an 8-week MT course and logged the amount of out-of-class time spent practicing formal MT exercises. The operation span task was used to index WMC at 2 testing sessions before and after the MT course. Although WMC remained stable over time in civilians (n = 12), it degraded in the MC group. In the MT group, WMC decreased over time in those with low MT practice time, but increased in those with high practice time. Higher MT practice time also corresponded to lower levels of negative affect and higher levels of positive affect (indexed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). The relationship between practice time and negative, but not positive, affect was mediated by WMC, indicating that MT-related improvements in WMC may support some but not all of MT's salutary effects. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that sufficient MT practice may protect against functional impairments associated with high-stress contexts.
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Research suggests that rumination increases anger and aggression. Mindfulness, or present-focused and intentional awareness, may counteract rumination. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the relations between mindfulness, rumination, and aggression. In a pair of studies, we found a pattern of correlations consistent with rumination partially mediating a causal link between mindfulness and hostility, anger, and verbal aggression. The pattern was not consistent with rumination mediating the association between mindfulness and physical aggression. Although it is impossible with the current nonexperimental data to test causal mediation, these correlations support the idea that mindfulness could reduce rumination, which in turn could reduce aggression. These results suggest that longitudinal work and experimental manipulations mindfulness would be worthwhile approaches for further study of rumination and aggression. We discuss possible implications of these results.
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Research has established that acts of self-control deplete a resource required for subsequent self-control tasks. The present investigation revealed that a psychological intervention-self-affirmation-facilitates self-control when the resource has been depleted. Experiments 1 and 2 found beneficial effects of self-affirmation on self-control in a depleted state. Experiments 3 and 4 suggested that self-affirmation improves self-control by promoting higher levels (vs. lower levels) of mental construal. Self-affirmation therefore holds promise as a mental strategy that reduces the likelihood of self-control failure.
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There are now a substantial number of controlled trials investigating the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). This meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of ACT relative to waiting lists, psychological placebos, treatment as usual, and established therapies. A comprehensive literature search produced 18 randomized controlled trials (n = 917) that were included in the final analyses. Effect size was computed with Hedges's g which can be interpreted with Cohen's convention of small (0.2), medium (0.5), and large (0.8) effects. There was a clear overall advantage of ACT compared to control conditions (effect size = 0.42). The average ACT-treated participant was more improved than 66% of the participants in the control conditions. Analyzed separately ACT was superior to waiting lists and psychological placebos (effect size = 0.68) and treatment as usual (effect size = 0.42). However, ACT was not significantly more effective than established treatments (effect size = 0.18, p = 0.13). Also, ACT was not superior to control conditions for the distress problems (anxiety/depression: effect size = 0.03, p = 0.84). The results reveal that ACT is more effective than control conditions for several problem domains, but there is no evidence yet that ACT is more effective than established treatments.
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This research investigated impulse buying as resulting from the depletion of a common-but limited-resource that governs self-control. In three investigations, participants' self-regulatory resources were depleted or not; later, impulsive spending responses were measured. Participants whose resources were depleted, relative to participants whose resources were not depleted, felt stronger urges to buy, were willing to spend more, and actually did spend more money in unanticipated buying situations. Participants having depleted resources reported being influenced equally by affective and cognitive factors and purchased products that were high on each factor at equal rates. Hence, self-regulatory resource availability predicts whether people can resist impulse buying temptations. (c) 2007 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment 1, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolates subsequently quit faster on unsolvable puzzles than people who had not had to exert self-control over eating. In Experiment 2, making a meaningful personal choice to perform attitude-relevant behavior caused a similar decrement in persistence. In Experiment 3, suppressing emotion led to a subsequent drop in performance of solvable anagrams. In Experiment 4, an initial task requiring high self-regulation made people more passive (i.e., more prone to favor the passive-response option). These results suggest that the self's capacity for active volition is limited and that a range of seemingly different, unrelated acts share a common resource.
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A 2-system framework is proposed for understanding the processes that enable--and undermine--self-control or "willpower" as exemplified in the delay of gratification paradigm. A cool, cognitive "know" system and a hot, emotional "go" system are postulated. The cool system is cognitive, emotionally neutral, contemplative, flexible, integrated, coherent, spatiotemporal, slow, episodic, and strategic. It is the seat of self-regulation and self-control. The hot system is the basis of emotionality, fears as well as passions--impulsive and reflexive--initially controlled by innate releasing stimuli (and, thus, literally under "stimulus control"): it is fundamental for emotional (classical) conditioning and undermines efforts at self-control. The balance between the hot and cool systems is determined by stress, developmental level, and the individual's self-regulatory dynamics. The interactions between these systems allow explanation of findings on willpower from 3 decades of research.
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Some complex thinking requires active guidance by the self, but simpler mental activities do not. Depletion of the self's regulatory resources should therefore impair the former and not the latter. Resource depletion was manipulated by having some participants initially regulate attention (Studies 1 and 3) or emotion (Study 2). As compared with no-regulation participants who did not perform such exercises, depleted participants performed worse at logic and reasoning (Study 1), cognitive extrapolation (Study 2), and a test of thoughtful reading comprehension (Study 3). The same manipulations failed to cause decrements on a test of general knowledge (Study 2) or on memorization and recall of nonsense syllables (Study 3). Successful performance at complex thinking may therefore rely on limited regulatory resources.
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Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The program, nonreligious and nonesoteric, is based upon a systematic procedure to develop enhanced awareness of moment-to-moment experience of perceptible mental processes. The approach assumes that greater awareness will provide more veridical perception, reduce negative affect and improve vitality and coping. In the last two decades, a number of research reports appeared that seem to support many of these claims. We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies of health-related studies related to MBSR. Sixty-four empirical studies were found, but only 20 reports met criteria of acceptable quality or relevance to be included in the meta-analysis. Reports were excluded due to (1) insufficient information about interventions, (2) poor quantitative health evaluation, (3) inadequate statistical analysis, (4) mindfulness not being the central component of intervention, or (5) the setting of intervention or sample composition deviating too widely from the health-related MBSR program. Acceptable studies covered a wide spectrum of clinical populations (e.g., pain, cancer, heart disease, depression, and anxiety), as well as stressed nonclinical groups. Both controlled and observational investigations were included. Standardized measures of physical and mental well-being constituted the dependent variables of the analysis. Overall, both controlled and uncontrolled studies showed similar effect sizes of approximately 0.5 (P<.0001) with homogeneity of distribution. Although derived from a relatively small number of studies, these results suggest that MBSR may help a broad range of individuals to cope with their clinical and nonclinical problems.
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A self-report inventory for the assessment of mindfulness skills was developed, and its psychometric characteristics and relationships with other constructs were examined. Participants included three samples of undergraduate students and a sample of outpatients with borderline personality disorder Based on discussions of mindfulness in the current literature, four mindfulness skills were specified: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment. Scales designed to measure each skill were developed and evaluated. Results showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and a clear factor structure. Most expected relationships with other constructs were significant. Findings suggest that mindfulness skills are differentially related to aspects of personality and mental health, including neuroticism, psychological symptoms, emotional intelligence, alexithymia, experiential avoidance, dissociation, and absorption.
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Six experiments showed that being excluded or rejected caused decrements in self-regulation. In Experiment 1, participants who were led to anticipate a lonely future life were less able to make themselves consume a healthy but bad-tasting beverage. In Experiment 2, some participants were told that no one else in their group wanted to work with them, and these participants later ate more cookies than other participants. In Experiment 3, excluded participants quit sooner on a frustrating task. In Experiments 4-6, exclusion led to impairment of attention regulation as measured with a dichotic listening task. Experiments 5 and 6 further showed that decrements in self-regulation can be eliminated by offering a cash incentive or increasing self-awareness. Thus, rejected people are capable of self-regulation but are normally disinclined to make the effort.
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Research on executive functioning and on self-regulation have each identified a critical resource that is central to that domain and is susceptible to depletion. In addition, studies have shown that self-regulation tasks and executive-functioning tasks interact with each other, suggesting that they may share resources. Other research has focused specifically on restoring what we propose is the shared resource between self-regulation and executive functioning. Utilizing a theory-based natural environment intervention, these studies have found improvements in executive-functioning performance and self-regulation effectiveness, suggesting that the natural environment intervention restores this shared resource. © The Author(s) 2010.
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Interest in mindfulness and its enhancement has burgeoned in recent years. In this article, we discuss in detail the nature of mindfulness and its relation to other, established theories of attention and awareness in day-to-day life. We then examine theory and evidence for the role of mindfulness in curtailing negative functioning and enhancing positive outcomes in several important life domains, including mental health, physical health, behavioral regulation, and interpersonal relationships. The processes through which mindfulness is theorized to have its beneficial effects are then discussed, along with proposed directions for theoretical development and empirical research.
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Two experiments investigated how people replenish the self's limited regulatory resource after it is depleted by self-control exertion. Specifically, in Experiment 1, when depleted participants received a 10-minute period between regulatory tasks, their subsequent performance equaled non-depleted participants. In Experiment 2, inducing participants to relax between self-regulation tasks reduced the typical depletion effects. Thus, these findings suggest that replenishment of the self's depleted resources occurs given the occurrence of favorable conditions.
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In "Losing Control," the authors provide a single reference source with comprehensive information on general patterns of self-regulation failure across contexts, research findings on specific self-control disorders, and commentary on the clinical and social aspects of self-regulation failure. Self-control is discussed in relation to what the "self" is, and the cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors that impinge on one's ability to control one's "self." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Author's Note: This article benefited greatly from the many improvements in organization, expression, and content made by Rachel Kaplan, and the many suggestions concerning consistency, clarity, and accuracy made by Terry Hartig. Thanks also to the SESAME group for providing a supportive environment for exploring many of the themes discussed here. The project was funded, in part, by USDA Forest Service, North Central Experiment Station, Urban Forestry Unit Co-operative Agreements. Abstract An analysis of the underlying similarities between the Eastern meditation tradition and attention restoration theory (ART) provides a basis for an expanded framework for studying directed attention. The focus of the analysis is the active role the individual can play in the preservation and recovery of the directed attention capacity. Two complementary strategies are presented which can help individuals more effectively manage their attentional resource. One strategy involves avoiding unnecessary costs in terms of expenditure of directed attention. The other involves enhancing the effect of restorative opportunities. Both strategies are hypothesized to be more effective if one gains generic knowledge, self knowledge and specific skills. The interplay between a more active form of mental involvement and the more passive approach of meditation appear to have far-reaching ramifications for managing directed attention. Research on mental restoration has focused on the role of the environment, and especially the natural environment. Such settings have been shown to reduce both stress and directed attention fatigue (DAF) (Hartig & Evans, 1993). Far less emphasis, however, has been placed on the possibility of active participation by the individual in need of recovery. A major purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of this mostly neglected component of the restorative process.