Article

Acceptability of cervical cancer screening in rural Mozambique

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Abstract

In Zambézia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 101 women was undertaken in two rural communities in north-central Mozambique. We assessed a woman's willingness to be screened, knowledge about CC symptoms and treatment, and her recommendations for best methods to deliver information to other women. After the interview, we offered CC screening. Fully 86% of women accepted VIA screening when it was offered, but uptake was 100% at one clinic and only 68% at another. The cause of CC was thought to be associated with promiscuous activity (49%) and curses placed on the woman (42%). All women in one rural Mozambique clinic and two-thirds at a second clinic underwent CC screening. Knowledge about CC screening was significantly associated with uptake, suggesting educational campaigns need to be undertaken. However, educators need to be cautious about linking screening with high-risk behaviors, as women who understood the link trended toward refusing screening.

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... Care provided in cervical cancer screening programs was really appreciated by the target population. Positive perceptions of the screening program using VIA testing were reported by other studies conducted in various contexts [10][11][12][13][14]. The VIA test is a newly delivered service in health centers in Morocco, however, only few women refused to be screened (18 out of 324). ...
... The Moroccan population is not adequately informed about cancerin general; knowledge of the diseaseis still poor and confused, particularly concerning the causes, symptoms, and available treatments [15]. In another context, knowledge about cervical cancer was poor among the women who underwent the screening program [10]. However, 84 % of women declared that they knew about the cervical cancer screening program, and 85.5 % of those got the information from television, but in fact no nationwide sustained campaign with regard to cervical cancer program was done. ...
... They were reassured about the health of their cervix, and they were happy to have a free test with a quick result. No complex complaints were reported by study participants, similar to data previously reported in others studies [10][11][12]14]. Some Screened women complained of pain experienced during the insertion of the speculum; this problem could be resolved by choosing an appropriately sized speculum for each woman and putting the women at ease during VIA test procedures. ...
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Background This study aims to explore the perception and satisfaction of cervical cancer screening by Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) in Meknes-Tafilalet Region among target women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using face-to-face interviews with women, routinely attending health centers, who met the inclusion criteria. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to report data. Results A total of 324 women were included in the study. Results revealed low awareness about cervical cancer (19.6 %) and a very high acceptability of VIA screening (94.5 %). Of the 306 women screened, 99 % stated that they would recommend the VIA testing to their friends and female relatives. All those women who were screened negative expressed their intent to repeat the test every three years. Those found VIA positive affirmed they would perform confirmatory explorations. The majority (96.3 %) of the women believed that screening by VIA could save their lives; cervical cancer was a concern for 98.6 %; and only 11.6 % felt anxious about repeating the VIA test. The majority of women (98.6 %) were satisfied with the service received at the health center. Conclusions This study showed that the participants had a strong perception about cervical cancer screening and were willing to have further confirmation or future retests. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12905-015-0268-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... In Mozambique, a cervical cancer screening programme, based on the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) technique, was launched in 2009 in four provinces, and is gradually rolling out to the rest of the country [14]. Despite its recognized advantages, the limited proportion of health facilities in Mozambique currently implementing the program [15], the fact that the screening program only reaches those women who seek care at health facilities, the low acceptability of immediate treatment among confirmed positive cases [15], high turn-over of staff, and the technique´s sub-optimal specificity and sensitivity [12,14], jeopardise its success as an effective approach to reduce cervical cancer incidence country-wide. ...
... In Mozambique, a cervical cancer screening programme, based on the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) technique, was launched in 2009 in four provinces, and is gradually rolling out to the rest of the country [14]. Despite its recognized advantages, the limited proportion of health facilities in Mozambique currently implementing the program [15], the fact that the screening program only reaches those women who seek care at health facilities, the low acceptability of immediate treatment among confirmed positive cases [15], high turn-over of staff, and the technique´s sub-optimal specificity and sensitivity [12,14], jeopardise its success as an effective approach to reduce cervical cancer incidence country-wide. ...
... In Mozambique, studies exploring the acceptability of new vaccines and preventive strategies, suggest a good receptiveness at the community level [36][37][38][39]. However, little is known on the awareness and knowledge about the diseases being prevented by such vaccines, including HPV infection and cervical cancer [15]. ...
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Sub-Saharan Africa concentrates the largest burden of cervical cancer worldwide. The introduction of the HPV vaccination in this region is urgent and strategic to meet global health targets. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Mozambique prior to the first round of the HPV vaccine demonstration programme. It targeted girls aged 10-19 years old identified from schools and households. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted. A total of 1,147 adolescents were enrolled in three selected districts of the country. Most girls [84% (967/1147)] had heard of cervical cancer, while 76% believed that cervical cancer could be prevented. However only 33% (373/1144) of girls recognized having ever heard of HPV. When girls were asked whether they would accept to be vaccinated if a vaccine was available in Mozambique, 91% (1025/1130) answered positively. Girls from the HPV demonstration districts showed higher awareness on HPV and cervical cancer, and willingness to be vaccinated. This study anticipates high acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Mozambique and high awareness about cervical cancer, despite low HPV knowledge. These results highlight that targeted health education programs are critical for acceptance of new tools, and are encouraging for the reduction of cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity in Mozambique.
... • Patient awareness, knowledge or education deficiency -12 articles [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Barriers: Authors note that a lack of understanding of personal risk or insufficient cervical cancer education [36] may lead to a decreased sense of urgency to seek cervical cancer screening. ...
... Recommendations: Various methods suggested for increasing patient awareness, knowledge, and education include but are not limited to: (a) counseling sessions that incorporate educational videos [36], (b) health educators emphasizing the benefits of screening (less pain, potential protection against future cancer, and lower rates of mortality) rather than focusing on the sexual cause of the disease [34], (c) creating specific curricula targeted at men so they can help motivate and support women to increase screening utilization while improving male sentiment toward the screening [42], (d) recruiting peer educators who are at times more personable and accessible than physicians to answer follow-up questions [41], (e) using media such as the radio to build health literacy to help increase awareness and encourage women to seek out screenings or attend workshops in the area [33], and (f) implementing media-led education to increase recognition of services [36]. ...
... • Inability to pay -12 articles [33][34][35][36][37][38][40][41][42][43]45,46] Barriers: The economic burden on women and their families (real or perceived) greatly limits screening uptake. Examples of this burden include but are not limited to: the perceived cost of screening or treatment [33], travel expenses [37], lost wages because of missing work [42], and fear of hidden costs [43]. ...
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Background: Worldwide, nearly 570,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year, with 85% of new cases in low- and middle-income countries. The African continent is home to 35 of 40 countries with the highest cervical cancer mortality rates. In 2014, a partnership involving a rural region of Senegal, West Africa, was facing cervical cancer screening service sustainability barriers and began adapting regional-level policy to address implementation challenges. Objective: This manuscript reports the findings of a systematic literature review describing the implementation of decentralized cervical cancer prevention services in Africa, relevant in context to the Senegal partnership. We report barriers and policy-relevant recommendations through Levesque’s Patient-Centered Access to Healthcare Framework and discuss the impact of this information on the partnership’s approach to shaping Senegal’s regional cervical cancer screening policy. Methods: The systematic review search strategy comprised two complementary sub-searches. We conducted an initial search identifying 4272 articles, then applied inclusion criteria, and ultimately 19 studies were included. Data abstraction focused on implementation barriers categorized with the Levesque framework and by policy relevance. Results: Our findings identified specific demand-side (clients and community) and supply-side (health service-level) barriers to implementation of cervical cancer screening services. We identify the most commonly reported demand- and supply-side barriers and summarize salient policy recommendations discussed within the reviewed literature. Conclusions: Overall, there is a paucity of published literature regarding barriers to and best practices in implementation of cervical cancer screening services in rural Africa. Many articles in this literature review did describe findings with notable policy implications. The Senegal partnership has consulted this literature when faced with various similar barriers and has developed two principal initiatives to address contextual challenges. Other initiatives implementing cervical cancer visual screening services in decentralized areas may find this contextual reporting of a literature review helpful as a construct for identifying evidence for the purpose of guiding ongoing health service policy adaptation.
... Four quantitative studies that investigated enablers and barriers for CCa screening in low income countries were from three African countries namely Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe (Table 1) (Audet et al., 2012;Cunningham et al., 2015;Mupepi et al., 2011;Perng et al., 2013). These studies reported lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, CCa and CCa screening as a common barrier to screening uptake. ...
... These studies reported lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, CCa and CCa screening as a common barrier to screening uptake. Screening uptake was also lower among multiparous Mozambican women and in women who believe that CCa is caused by a curse/witchcraft (Audet et al., 2012). Zimbabwean women who were employed and financially independent were more likely to undergo screening (Mupepi et al., 2011). ...
... We found more than half (53%) of the included studies (Khazaee-Pool et al., 2014;Islam et al., 2015;Islam et al., 2016;Audet et al., 2012;Fort et al., 2011;Mupepi et al., 2011;Basu et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2012;Ngugi et al., 2012;Budkaew and Chumworathayi, 2013;Ersin and Bahar, 2013;Jia et al., 2013;Lazcano-Ponce et al., 1999;Markovic et al., 2005;Marván et al., 2013;McFarland, 2003;Nwankwo et al., 2011;Paz-Soldán et al., 2011;Reis et al., 2012;Rasu et al., 2011;Sreedevi et al., 2013;Amoran and Toyobo, 2015;Çam and Gümüs, 2009;Kissal and Beser, 2011;Montazeri et al., 2003;Tuzcu and Bahar, 2015;Hassan et al., 2015;Azaiza et al., 2010) reported that lack of knowledge and a poor understanding of the role of screening for CCa and BCa, as the key barriers for screening in LMICs. Of these, eleven (36%) were assessed as being high quality (Fort et al., 2011;Islam et al., 2015;Islam et al., 2016;Mupepi et al., 2011;Basu et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2012;Jia et al., 2013;Lazcano-Ponce et al., 1999;McFarland, 2003;Hassan et al., 2015;Azaiza et al., 2010). ...
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Background Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015. This review was done in accordance with the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results 53 eligible studies, 31 CCa screening studies and 22 BCa screening studies, provided information on 81,210 participants. We found fewer studies in low-income and lower - middle - income countries than in upper - middle - income countries. Lack of knowledge about CCa and BCa, and understanding of the role of screening were the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in LMICs. Factors that are opportunities for knowledge acquisition, such as level of education, urban living, employment outside the home, facilitated CCa and BCa screening uptake in women in LMICs. Conclusions Improvements to CCa and BCa screening uptake in LMICs must be accompanied by educational interventions which aim to improve knowledge and understanding of CCa and BCa and screening to asymptomatic women. It is imperative for governments and health policy makers in LMICs to implement screening programmes, including educational interventions, to ensure the prevention and early detection of women with CCa and BCa. These programmes and policies will be an integral part of a comprehensive population-based CCa and BCa control framework in LMICs.
... Every year 5622 women are diagnosed with CC and 4061 die from the disease [8]. In 2009, the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MoH) launched the CC screening program based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in selected health facilities [5,10]. Both the rollout of the screening program and the countrywide introduction of HPV vaccination require an in-depth examination of the local perceptions regarding CC in order to best frame the interventions. ...
... One of the main limitations of this study was the inability to recruit a higher number of participants in the unlicensed drug vendors group, which led to a focus group discussion being composed of a considerably lower number of participants than is recommended [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Researchers found it hard to recruit this group because, due to the nature of their work, they are fearful of repercussions and are thus averse to speaking openly about their experience, especially with researchers that are perceived to be related to the formal health system. ...
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Background: Mozambique has one of the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in the world. Health interventions are still being conceived solely from a non-communicable disease standpoint despite that it is also a sexual and reproductive health problem. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which lay perceptions of cervical cancer align with biomedical knowledge from the standpoint of sexual and reproductive health. Methods: 10 focus group discussions were carried out with 10 target groups in Manhiça. The target groups were diverse in terms of age, sex, educational level and occupation. There were a total of 116 participants. The focus groups discussions were applied to obtain verbal information and trigger debates around beliefs and attitudes about cervical cancer as well as to explore notions of transmission and aetiology of the disease. The discussions were recorded for later transcription and analysis, following a combination of content and thematic analysis. Results: Participants were familiar with the biomedical term 'cervical cancer' but knowledge of its aetiology and transmission was limited. Cervical cancer was readily associated to sexual transmission and sexually transmitted infections, and conceived as a 'wound that does not heal'. The term 'cancer' caused confusion, as it was perceived to happen only in limbs, understood as hereditary, not transmissible and as an illness of the West. Conclusions: Lay perceptions of cervical cancer do, to a large extent, align with biomedical ones, thus, there is common ground to frame future health interventions from a sexual and reproductive health standpoint. Some misperceptions were identified which could be reduced through social behaviour change communication initiatives.
... The current finding of two third participants (62.7 %) willing to be screened for cervical cancer were lower than a study done in Nigeria (96.5 %) [38] and Mozambique (84 %) [39] and the difference might be attributed by variations in health policy on promotion of CC, variations on awareness creation using mass-media and socio-economic variations. ...
... The current study revealed as one every ten (11.5 %) participants were ever tested for CC in their life time and this is in line with a study in rural Mozambique (11 %) [39], Sokoto, Nigeria, (10 %) [40], two studies in Kenya (12.3 %) [41] and (17.5 %) [25] and HIV positive women in Lagos, Nigerian (9.4 %) [25]. The finding was higher than two studies in Ogun State, Nigeria (4.8 %) [34] and (9.5) [42] and it was lower than a study among HIV-positive women Ottawa, Ont (58 %) [23]. ...
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Background In Ethiopia, cervical cancer (CC) ranks the 2nd most frequent cancer and the country had 27.19 million women at risk of developing the disease though only 0.6 % women age 18-69 years was screened every 3 years. Nearly a quarter (22.1 %) of southern Ethiopia HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infected Women were positive for precancerous cervical cancer. Doing regular screening can prevent the disease by around half (45 %) of the cases in age of 30s and three quarter (75 %) cases in 50s and 60s.In the presence of high risk for acquiring cervical cancer among HIV patients, willingness and acceptance of the screening is low in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia thus the current study was aimed to assess willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening and its determinants among women living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method A facility based cross sectional study was conducted among HIV positive women attending HIV treatment centers in Addis Ababa. The respondents were identified using systematic random sampling method. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire and were entered in to Epi-info version 3.5.1 software and exported in to SPSS version 20 statistical package for analysis. The criterias for entering independent variables into multivariate analysis were having p-value 0.05 or less at bivariate analysis and not co-linear. Result One third (34.2 %) of participants knew cervical cancer and two third (62.7 %) were willing for the test though only a quarter (24.8 %) were accepted the test. The independent variables significantly associated with acceptance of screening were educational level, source of information, awareness for the test and preventability of the disease. Conclusion In current study willingness and acceptance of CC (cervical cancer) were low thus organizations working on cancer and HIV/AIDS should establish cervical cancer screening program and further enhance awareness creation.
... In our study, most of the nurses were not aware of risk factors for cervical cancer, or HPV. Similar to the nurses in our study, Audet et al. (2012) found that many people believed cervical cancer is caused by a curse or has a spiritual origin. ...
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Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening tools, including those that are appropriate for low resource settings, the rates of preventive cervical cancer screening remain extremely low among women in LMICS. Nurse-led education interventions have been proven to be effective at increasing participation in healthcare recommendations. However, there is a need to determine nurses' knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer prevention in order to develop effective health education interventions. Our goal was to assess Ghanaian nurses' knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer prevention. Interviews and small focus groups were conducted with 42 nurses at two hospitals in Ghana. Awareness of cervical cancer was very high among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants held negative perceptions about cervical cancer and lacked knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and prevention. The results can be used to inform the development of culturally-relevant cervical cancer education interventions targeted towards women and healthcare providers in LMICs.
... In our study, 96.5% of women offered screening for cervical cancer accepted testing. This finding was comparable with findings from studies in Kenya and Mozambique that reported acceptance rates of 87% and 86%, respectively, of cervical cancer screening using VIA technique.4849 Though level of patients’ satisfaction with the VIA screening provided was not specifically assessed in this study, in a similar study in Thailand, over 95% of women expressed satisfaction with their experience with visual inspection test.50 ...
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Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) women have a higher risk of developing invasive cervical cancer compared with uninfected women. This study aims to document programmatic experience of integrating cervical cancer screening using Visual Inspection and Acetic Acid (VIA) into HIV care as well as to describe patients' characteristics associated with positive VIA findings amongst HIV+ women. A cross-sectional study analysed routine service data collected at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cervical cancer screening services. Our program integrated screening for cervical cancer using VIA technique to HIV care and treatment services through a combination of stakeholder engagement, capacity building for health workers, creating a bi-directional referral between HIV and reproductive health (RH) services and provider initiated counselling and screening for cervical cancer. Information on patients' baseline and clinical characteristics were captured using an electronic medical records system and then exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors that influence VIA results. A total of 834 HIV+ women were offered VIA screening between April 2010 and April 2011, and 805 (96.5%) accepted it. Complete data was available for 802 (96.2%) women. The mean age at screening and first sexual contact were 32.0 (SD 6.6) and 18.8 (SD 3.5) years, respectively. VIA was positive in 52 (6.5%) women while 199 (24.8%) had a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Of the 199 who had a STI, eight (4.0%) had genital ulcer syndrome, 30 (15.1%) had lower abdominal pain syndrome and 161 (80.9%) had vaginal discharge syndrome. Presence of lower abdominal pain syndrome was found to be a significant predictor of a positive VIA result (P = 0.001). Women with lower abdominal pain syndrome appeared to be more likely (OR 47.9, 95% CI: 4.8-480.4, P = 0.001) to have a positive VIA result. The high burden of both HIV and cervical cancer in developing countries makes it a necessity for integrating services that offer early detection and treatment for both diseases. The findings from our study suggest that integrating VIA screening into the package of care offered to HIV+ women is feasible and acceptable.
... Any innovation in engaging HIV-infected women in their own care can be expected to improve follow-up for their children as well. [133][134][135] A recent review found that although there is evidence of effectiveness of interventions to improve access and adherence to cART, there is less known about major barriers and ways to address them among vulnerable groups such as women, children and adolescents [136]. ...
Article
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Introduction Residents of Zambézia Province, Mozambique live from rural subsistence farming and fishing. The 2009 provincial HIV prevalence for adults 15–49 years was 12.6%, higher among women (15.3%) than men (8.9%). We reviewed clinical data to assess outcomes for HIV-infected children on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in a highly resource-limited setting. Methods We studied rates of 2-year mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) for children <15 years of age initiating cART between June 2006–July 2011 in 10 rural districts. National guidelines define LTFU as >60 days following last-scheduled medication pickup. Kaplan-Meier estimates to compute mortality assumed non-informative censoring. Cumulative LTFU incidence calculations treated death as a competing risk. Results Of 753 children, 29.0% (95% CI: 24.5, 33.2) were confirmed dead by 2 years and 39.0% (95% CI: 34.8, 42.9) were LTFU with unknown clinical outcomes. The cohort mortality rate was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.3, 10.4) after 90 days on cART and 19.2% (95% CI: 16.0, 22.3) after 365 days. Higher hemoglobin at cART initiation was associated with being alive and on cART at 2 years (alive: 9.3 g/dL vs. dead or LTFU: 8.3–8.4 g/dL, p<0.01). Cotrimoxazole use within 90 days of ART initiation was associated with improved 2-year outcomes Treatment was initiated late (WHO stage III/IV) among 48% of the children with WHO stage recorded in their records. Marked heterogeneity in outcomes by district was noted (p<0.001). Conclusions We found poor clinical and programmatic outcomes among children taking cART in rural Mozambique. Expanded testing, early infant diagnosis, counseling/support services, case finding, and outreach are insufficiently implemented. Our quality improvement efforts seek to better link pregnancy and HIV services, expand coverage and timeliness of infant diagnosis and treatment, and increase follow-up and adherence.
... Does the repeated screening experience encourage a willingness to make choices when the patient faces, say, the stigma of an HPV diagnosis? Does specific reference to gender power dynamics and/or patient recognition of the socio-economic political aspects of CC influence the willingness to share information (Audet et al., 2012;Zhao, 2010;Kritcharoen et al., 2005;Mishra and Graham, 2012)? Can the framework be used to increase the efficacy of health literacy and resources as reflected in the work of Bynum et al. (2013) and Helitzer et al. (2009)? ...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a three-part framework of information engagement for situated gynecological cancers. These particular cancers intertwine with medicalization of sexuality and gender power dynamics, situating information behaviors and interactions in women’s socio-health perceptions. Using Kavanagh and Broom’s feminist risk framework, the framework establishes functional and temporal parameters for sense-making and information engagement. Design/methodology/approach – This paper employs a structured, reiterative literature review with emergent thematic analysis. Nine indices from medicine, information studies, and sociology were searched using combinations of five terms on cervical cancer (CC) and 14 terms on information engagement in the title, abstract, and subject fields. Results were examined on a reiterative basis to identify emergent themes pertaining to knowledge development and information interactions. Findings – Environmentally, social stigma and gender roles inhibit information seeking; normalizing CC helps integrate medical, moral, and sexual information. Internally, living with the dichotomy between “having” a body and “being” a body requires high-trust information resources that are presented gradually. Actively, choosing to make or cede medical decision-making requires personally relevant information delivered in the form of concrete facts and explanations. Research limitations/implications – The study covers only one country. Originality/value – This study’s information framework and suggestions for future research encourage consideration of gender power dynamics, medicalization of sexuality, and autonomy in women’s health information interactions.
... Articles focusing on awareness and utilization were mostly cross-sectional studies and reported low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer screening, but generally positive attitudes [204,205]. This was supported by higher uptake (59.6-100 %) of screening among women who were offered the test as part of an intervention [71,75,84,206,207]. ...
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Background: Women living in Africa experience the highest burden of cervical cancer. Research and investment to improve vaccination, screening, and treatment efforts are critically needed. We systematically reviewed and characterized recent research within a broader public health framework to organize and assess the range of cervical cancer research in Africa. Methods: We searched online databases and the Internet for published articles and cervical cancer reports in African countries. Inclusion criteria included publication between 2004 and 2014, cervical cancer-related content pertinent to one of the four public health categories (primary, secondary, tertiary prevention or quality of life), and conducted in or specifically relevant to countries or regions within the African continent. The study design, geographic region/country, focus of research, and key findings were documented for each eligible article and summarized to illustrate the weight and research coverage in each area. Publications with more than one focus (e.g. secondary and tertiary prevention) were categorized by the primary emphasis of the paper. Research specific to HIV-infected women or focused on feasibility issues was delineated within each of the four public health categories. Results: A total of 380 research articles/reports were included. The majority (54.6 %) of cervical cancer research in Africa focused on secondary prevention (i.e., screening). The number of publication focusing on primary prevention (23.4 %), particularly HPV vaccination, increased significantly in the past decade. Research regarding the treatment of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer is emerging (17.6 %), but infrastructure and feasibility challenges in many countries have impeded efforts to provide and evaluate treatment. Studies assessing aspects of quality of life among women living with cervical cancer are severely limited (4.1 %). Across all categories, 11.3 % of publications focused on cervical cancer among HIV-infected women, while 17.1 % focused on aspects of feasibility for cervical cancer control efforts. Conclusions: Cervical cancer research in African countries has increased steadily over the past decade, but more is needed. Tertiary prevention (i.e. treatment of disease with effective medicine) and quality of life of cervical cancer survivors are two severely under-researched areas. Similarly, there are several countries in Africa with little to no research ever conducted on cervical cancer.
... [35][36][37][38] Moreover, the overall acceptance rates of HIV-positive women who were offered this screening technique varied from 86% in a study conducted in Mozambique to as much as 96.5% in a study conducted in Nigeria, thus indicating that the majority of women will accept screening for CC with VIA if proactively offered the opportunity to test. 39,40 In addition, a multicenter study conducted in sub-Saharan Africa has found that the majority of HIV-infected VIApositive women were eligible to promptly undergo treatment with cryotherapy, thus further supporting the efficacy of this primary screening method. 35 The VIA-based "screen-andtreat" strategy embodied in an HIV service platform has been implemented in Zambia in 2006 and has ever since provided CC screening service to over 100,000 women. ...
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Cervical cancer (CC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death and a major public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. This heavy burden parallels that of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which increases the risk of developing CC. Despite the progressive reduction of HIV prevalence in the past decade, the CC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain high. The heterogeneity of the distribution of the two diseases in the African continent, together with the different availability of human and material resources, stands in the way of finding an appropriate screening strategy. The lack of high-quality evidence on the prevention of CC for HIV-positive women, which is necessary for the implementation of efficient screening and treatment strategies, results in the absence of a clearly defined program, which is responsible for the low screening uptake and high mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By taking advantage of the HIV-positive women’s frequent access to health facilities, one way to increase the CC screening coverage rates would be by providing integrated HIV and screening services within the same infrastructure. With the increasing availability of cost-effective methods, screening is becoming more and more available to women who have limited access to health care. Moreover, the introduction of point-of-care technologies for human papillomavirus testing and the subsequent implementation of screen-and-treat strategies, by reducing the number of clinical appointments and, in the long term, the loss to follow-up rates, open up new opportunities for all women, regardless of their HIV status. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the different screening practices for CC in order to help define one that is adapted to the resources and necessities of HIV-positive women living in middle-to-low income countries.
... Huchko et al. [14] revealed positive attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among HIV positive women in Kenya while Audet et al. [15] found that 84% of rural women in Mozambique were willing to undergo cervical cancer screening. ...
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Background Kenya like other developing countries is low in resource setting and is facing a number of challenges in the management of cervical cancer. This study documents opportunities and challenges encountered in managing cervical cancer from the health care workers’ perspectives. A qualitative study was conducted among cervical cancer managers who were defined as nurses and doctors involved in operational level management of cervical cancer. The respondents were drawn from four provincial hospitals and the only two main National public referral hospitals in Kenya. Twenty one [21] nurse managers and twelve [12] medical doctors were interviewed using a standardized interview guide. The responses were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and the content analyzed in emerging themes. Findings Four themes were identified. Patient related challenges included a large number of patients, presenting in the late stage of disease, low levels of knowledge on cancer of the cervix, low levels of screening and a poor attitude towards screening procedure. Individual health care providers identified a lack of specialised training, difficulty in disclosure of diagnosis to patients, a poor attitude towards cervical cancer screening procedure and a poor attitude towards cervical cancer patients. Health facilities were lacking in infrastructure and medical supplies. Some managers felt ill-equipped in technological skills while the majority lacked access to the internet. Mobile phones were identified as having great potential for improving the management of cervical cancer in Kenya. Conclusion Kenya faces a myriad of challenges in the management of cervical cancer. The peculiar negative attitude towards screening procedure and the negative attitude of some managers towards cervical cancer patients need urgent attention. The potential use of mobile phones in cervical cancer management should be explored.
... During our study, only 30% of HIV+ve offered free screening, accepted testing unlike in prior study by Odafe et al., (2013), who reported that 96.5% acceptance rate, similar with findings from studies in Kenya and Mozambique that reported acceptance rates of 87% and 86%, respectively, of cervical cancer screening using VIA technique, (Huchko et al., 2011;Audet et al., 2012). Nonetheless screening for cervical cancer in Nigeria remains poor, (Dim et al., 2009), this was also found in our research were uptake of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine among the participants were very low. ...
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Objective: Evaluation of prevalence and risk factors of cervical dysplasia among Human Immunodeficiency Virus sero-positive (HIV+ve) females on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending HIV clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Southeastern, Nigeria. Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic and risk factors data. Cervical specimens were collected from 105 HIV +ve females on HAART and 104 HIV seronegative (HIV-ve) females. Pap smears were collected using cytobrush and Ayre's spatula in a secluded place. Smears were made on slides and placed in 95% ethyl alcohol for conventional Pap staining and the cytobrush washed into the preservative containers for later Immunocytochemistry staining. Blood samples were used for HIV screening. Immunocytochemistry activity using anti-P16INK4A was carried out on the Pap smears that were positive for cervical dysplasia. Results: Pap staining showed prevalence of cervical dysplasia among HIV+ve on HAART 19.05%, (ASCUS 14.29%, LSIL 3.81%, HSIL 0.95%) whereas HIV-ve was 6.73%, p = 0.008. Only the HSIL 0.95% was positive for P16INK4A. Odds ratios at 95% Confident Interval of the risk factors of cervical dysplasia were thus; HIV+ve, 3.26 (1.31-8.09), education less than secondary school 3.23 (1.25-8.37), polygamy 3.23 (1.25-8.37), smoking 1.36 (0.15-12.10), married 2.08 (0.43-2.31), grand multi gravidity 1.72 (0.72-4.11), grand multi parity 1.54 (0.66-3.61), positive history of sexually transmitted diseases 2.49 (1.06-5.80). Uptake of cervical cancer screening was low in both study groups, 7 (6.7%) among HIV+ve on HAART and 14 (13.5%) among HIV-ve females, P = 0.102. Conclusion: HAART had cytoprotective effect against cervical dysplasia in HIV+ve females, by reducing progression of ASCUS to LSIL, HSIL and cervical cancer. Progression from normal to ASCUS increased which could be due to latency or/and prolonged persistent high risk HPV and HIV infections, of the most sexually active age group before diagnosed of HIV.
... In this study, more than half of the respondents volunteered for cervical screening, but only 17.1% of women accepted the screening. is finding was in line with the result in Addis Ababa 24.8% [15]; however, it was lowest from studies conducted in Nigeria (79.8%) and rural Mozambique (86%) [11,25]. e possible explanation for this variation might be due to the difference in study settings, study participants, and health policy of the countries. ...
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Background: Cervical cancer is a global health problem. It is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and it is the most frequent form and the leading cause of cancer mortality among Ethiopian women. Cervical cancer screening can reduce at least 50% of cervical cancer deaths. In Ethiopia, practice of cervical cancer screening is below 1%. Hence, this study aimed at assessing cervical cancer screening acceptance and determinant factors among women in Dabat district of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Dabat district in Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. The multistage sampling method was used to recruit 790 women from the selected rural and urban kebeles. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis method was employed to determine factors significantly associated with the acceptance of cervical cancer screening with a 95% CI at p value <0.05. Results: The overall awareness of cervical cancer screening was 12.1% (95% CI: 9.6, 14.5), and 17.1% (95% CI 14.4, 19.8) of them accepted the screening. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having knowledge about cervical cancer (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.8), parity women who had more children (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.5) and those who perceived the severity of the disease (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.3-3.1)) were statistically significant factors for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Conclusions: Most of the women had poor awareness and acceptance of cervical cancer screening. The findings also revealed that women of multiparous, knowledge about cervical cancer, and perceived the disease as severe were shown to be significant factors of acceptance for cervical cancer screening. Hence, continuous health education and appropriate counseling to women should be performed.
... In these studies, implementation science contributed significantly or was the primary focus in the development of the research questions. Various methodologies may be used, such as participatory research, mixed methods, or observational studies, but implementation variables are either primary outcomes or independent variables Examples: Effectiveness implementation trials, participatory research, Mixed methods or quasi-experimental studies evaluating changes in delivery or acceptability, Observational studies with implementation as secondary factors or focused on adaptation, learning, and program scaling Principally, those contexts include in-depth perspectives on acceptability and community perceptions [53], community education and mobilization [30,59] including radio messaging [41], community-focused or mobile screening [30,58], detail on training community health workers [50], client tracking [59], maintenance of human capacity [59], task sharing [65], and quality control [70]. These findings are accessible and highly applicable to the existing programs struggling with substantial challenges as well as to institutions that are prioritizing the new implementation of cervical cancer screening services.A large study in 130 rural communities in Guangdong Province, China [69] employs sound Dissemination and Implementation research methods. ...
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PurposeCervical cancer disproportionately burdens low-resource populations where access to quality screening services is limited. A greater understanding of sustainable approaches to implement cervical cancer screening services is needed.Methods We conducted a systematized literature review of evaluations from cervical cancer screening programs implemented in resource-limited settings globally that included a formal evaluation and intention of program sustainment over time. We categorized the included studies using the continuum of implementation research framework which categorizes studies progressively from “implementation light” to more implementation intensive.ResultsFifty-one of 13,330 initially identified papers were reviewed with most study sites in low-resource settings of middle-income countries (94.1%) ,while 9.8% were in low-income countries. Across all studies, visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (58.8%) was the most prevalent screening method followed by cytology testing (39.2%). Demand-side (client and community) considerations were reported in 86.3% of the articles, while 68.6% focused scientific inquiry on the supply side (health service). Eighteen articles (35.3%) were categorized as “Informing Scale-up” along the continuum of implementation research.Conclusions The number of cervical cancer screening implementation reports is limited globally, especially in low-income countries. The 18 papers we classified as Informing Scale-up provide critical insights for developing programs relevant to implementation outcomes. We recommend that program managers report lessons learnt to build collective implementation knowledge for cervical cancer screening services, globally.
... Every year 5,622 women are diagnosed with CC and 4,061 die from the disease (8). In 2009, the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MoH) launched the CC screening program based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in selected health facilities (5,10). Both the rollout of the screening program and the countrywide introduction of HPV vaccination require an in-depth examination of the local perceptions regarding CC in order to best frame the interventions. ...
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Background Mozambique has one of the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in the world. Health interventions are still being conceived from a non-communicable disease standpoint despite it being a sexual and reproductive health concern. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which lay perceptions of cervical cancer align with biomedical knowledge from the standpoint of sexual and reproductive health. Methods 10 FGD were carried out with 10 target groups in Manhiça. The target groups were diverse and ranged from of adolescent girls to informal drug vendors. There were a total of 116 participants. The FGD were used to obtain verbal information and trigger debates around beliefs and attitudes about cervical cancer as well as to explore notions of transmission and aetiology of the disease. The discussions were recorded for later transcription and analysis, following a combination of content and thematic analysis. Results Participants were familiar with the biomedical term ‘cervical cancer’ but knowledge of its aetiology and transmission was limited. Cervical cancer was readily associated to sexual transmission and sexually transmitted infections, and conceived as a ‘wound that doesn’t heal’. The term ‘cancer’ caused confusion, as it was perceived to happen only in limbs, understood as hereditary, not transmissible and as an illness of the West. Conclusions Lay perceptions of cervical cancer do to a large extent align with biomedical ones, thus, there is common ground to frame future health interventions from a sexual and reproductive health standpoint.
... Moreover, a study of African American women found that health-care providers were influential through providing information on the importance of routine screening [36]. A qualitative study in Mozambique found that health educators should emphasize the benefits of screening (less pain, potential protection against future cancer, and lower rates of mortality) rather than focusing on the sexual cause of cervical cancer [37]. Health-care providers hence play a crucial role in advocating for cervical cancer screening and positive selfexperience could increase their willingness and understanding of cervical cancer screening. ...
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Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Ghanaian women and screening coverage is low. ACCESSING is a cross-sectional study investigating human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence via self-sampling in rural communities of the North Tongu district in Ghana. Female health-care providers (HCPs) were invited to self-collect a cervicovaginal sample with a commercial sampler in order to acquaint themselves with the sampling method. Objective This study set out to explore female HCPs’ perceptions, advocacy for, and implications of self-sampling with the aim of enhancing self-sampling acceptability in the targeted screening population. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used, consisting of (a) a survey among 52 female HCPs working in a district hospital and (b) 10 one-to-one semi-structured interviews with purposefully sampled HCPs. Results The quantitative analysis of the survey (n = 52) showed that, among HCPs who took the sample themselves (50/52), all found it ‘Easy’ or ‘Very Easy’ and felt ‘Very Comfortable’ or ‘Comfortable’. 82.7% indicated that they would undertake screening more often, and 98.1% indicated they would prefer self-sampling, if cervical cancer risk is as reliably determined as by clinician-directed cytobrush sampling. All interview participants (n = 10) indicated that they appreciated the program and would recommend the screening to their patients and/or family members and neighbours. Common reasons for preferring self-sampling were less (anticipated) pain compared to speculum examination and more privacy. Conclusions Self-sampling for cervical cancer screening is highly acceptable to female HCPs. Setting up a workplace screening program that entails the option of self-sampling could create greater awareness and positive attitudes among HCPs to educating their patients, families, and neighbours on cervical cancer risks and motivate HCPs to advocate for women’s participation in screening.
... These studies have indicated high levels of awareness among study participants about cervical cancer, its signs, symptoms and prevention [21,22], despite the low uptake of screening services. These studies further report several factors associated with cervical cancer screening, these include; age [23], social economic status [23], source of information [10], type of place of residence [24], knowledge about CC and CC screening [18,20,25]. Studies that used implementation science approach suggest that evidence on determinants of cervical cancer screening plays a significant role in informing effective interventions [26,27]. ...
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Uganda’s cervical cancer age standardized incidence rate is four times the global estimate. Although Uganda’s ministry of health recommends screening for women aged 25–49 years, the screening remains low even in the most developed region (Central Uganda) of the country. This study examined the demographic, social, and economic predictors of cervical cancer screening in Central Uganda with the aim of informing targeted interventions to improve screening. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in Wakiso and Nakasongola districts in Central Uganda. A total of 845 women age 25–49 years participated in the study. Data were analyzed at bivariate and multivariate levels to examine the predictors of CC (cervical cancer) screening. Only 1 in 5 women (20.6%) had ever screened for cervical cancer. Our multivariate logistic regression model indicated that wealth index, source of information, and knowledge about CC and CC screening were significantly associated with cervical cancer screening. The odds of cervical cancer screening were higher among rich women compared with poor women [AOR = 1.93 (95%CI: 1.06–3.42), p = 0.031)], receiving information from health providers compared with radios [AOR = 4.14 (95%CI: 2.65–6.48), p<0.001, and being more knowledgeable compared with being less knowledgeable about CC and CC screening [AOR = 2.46 (95%CI: 1.49–3.37), p<0.001)]. Overall cervical cancer screening uptake in central Uganda was found to be low. The findings of the study indicate that women from a wealthy background, who had been sensitized by health workers and with high knowledge about CC and CC screening had higher odds of having ever screened compared with their counterparts. Efforts to increase uptake of screening must address disparities in access to resources and knowledge.
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Objectives: Evaluate the cervical cancer prevention programme in Roboré as an example of a remote rural area of Bolivia, and identify its main strengths and weaknesses in order to formulate recommendations. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study using a combination of methods: analysis of indicators related to screening coverage, treatment opportunities, and vaccination coverage during 2018 and 2019; questionnaire to users of the screening programme on their knowledge, attitudes and practices; questionnaire to professionals involved in the screening programme about the strengths and weaknesses of the programme. Results: Screening coverage was low (41-46%) in the last 2 years, as was the opportunity for treatment (13-16.7%). Vaccine coverage was high (92-98%). After interviewing 82 users, it was shown that a greater knowledge of cervical cancer is associated with a higher level of education and a higher frequency of cytologies. Women have a positive attitude towards vaccination despite poor knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccine. Health professionals report having committed but limited staff, lack of infrastructure and the need to increase awareness campaigns. Conclusions: We recommend increasing the number of awareness campaigns and mobile screening strategies, having separate offices to carry out cytologies, increasing the staff in charge of the programme and improving the follow-up of women.
Article
Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Mozambique, reflecting the high prevalence of both human papillomavirus and HIV infections. A national screening program for cervical cancer was started in 2009, using the visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy, targeting women aged 30-55 years. We aimed to estimate the self-reported prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake in Mozambique. A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the women aged 15-64 years (n=1888) was carried out in 2014/2015 following the WHO-Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. The prevalence of screening uptake using visual inspection with acetic acid or cervical cytology, at least once in a lifetime, was 3.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2-4.1]; the prevalence was the lowest in the center region (1.4%) and the highest in the capital city of Maputo (11.1%). Among women aged 30-55 years, the prevalence was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.3-5.2) and the factors independently associated with a greater frequency of screening uptake were education (≥8 schooling years vs. none: prevalence ratio=5.57, 95% CI: 1.34-23.16) and use of oral contraceptives (prevalence ratio=2.33, 95% CI: 1.05-5.15). This was the first national Mozambican survey on cervical cancer screening uptake ever carried out and it showed a very low prevalence of screening, even in the more urban and affluent areas. There is an urgent need to raise public awareness of cervical cancer screening and to increase the number of screening units and trained personnel throughout the country.
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Context In the face of rising mortality rates from cervical cancer (CC) among women of reproductive age, a nationwide screening program based on visual inspection with acetic acid was introduced in Mozambique in 2009. Objective The objective of the study is to examine the impact of per capita income on the effectiveness of school-based health education programs to promote the utilization of CC screening services. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2013 involving 105 women randomly selected from households of different economic backgrounds. Marginal effect estimates derived from a logit model were used to explore the patterns in the effectiveness of school-based health education to promote CC screening uptake according to household per capita income, based on purchasing power parity. Results We found a CC screening uptake of 16.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7%–24.6%) even though 64.6% (95% CI, 54.2%–74.1%) of women had heard of it. There are important economic differentials in the effectiveness of school-based health education to influence women's decision to receive CC screening. Among women with primary school or less, the probability of accessing CC screening services increases with increasing income (P < 0.05). However, income significantly reduces the effect that school-based health education has on the probability of screening uptake among those women with more than 7 years of educational attainment (P = 0.02). Conclusion These results show that CC screening programs in resource-constrained settings need approaches tailored to different segments of women with respect to education and income to achieve equitable improvement in the levels of screening uptake.
Article
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to death and disability worldwide. Nearly 80% of the deaths in 2010 occurred in low- and middle-income countries, which have experienced rapid population aging, urbanization, rise in smoking, and changes in diet and activity. Yet the health systems of low- and middle-income countries, historically oriented to infectious disease and often severely underfunded, are poorly prepared for the challenge of caring for people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease. We have discussed how primary care can be redesigned to tackle the challenge of NCDs in resource-constrained countries. We suggest that four changes will be required: integration of services, innovative service delivery, a focus on patients and communities, and adoption of new technologies for communication.
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Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in nearly all U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island Jurisdictions (USAPIJ); however, most jurisdictions are financially and geographically limited in their capacity to deliver routine screening. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 72 health care providers from five of the six USAPIJ in 2011 to assess knowledge, beliefs, practices, and perceived barriers regarding routine cervical cancer screening. We compared the responses of providers from jurisdictions that were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) with those that were not funded. Results: Most providers reported cervical cancer prevention as a priority in their clinical practices (90.3%) and use the Papanicolaou test for screening (86.1%). Many providers reported knowledge of screening guidelines (76.4%); however, more than half reported that annual screening is most effective (56.9%). Providers in non-NBCCEDP-funded jurisdictions reported greater acceptance of visual inspection with acetic acid (93.9%) and self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing (48.5%) compared with NBCCEDP-funded jurisdictions (15.4% and 30.8% respectively). Providers from non-NBCCEDP-funded jurisdictions reported inadequate technological resources for screening women (42.4%), and approximately 25% of providers in both groups believed that screening was cost-prohibitive. Conclusion: Although cervical cancer screening is a priority in clinical practice, beliefs about annual screening, costs associated with screening, and varying levels of support for alternative screening tests pose barriers to providers throughout the USAPIJ. Further exploration of using evidence-based, lower cost, and sustainable screening technologies is warranted in addition to emphasizing timely follow-up of all positive cases.
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BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Women living with Human Immunodeficiency virus are at higher risk of acquire cervical cancer. Despite the importance of screening, the proportion of willingness for screening among these women is low in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of willingness for cervical cancer screening and its associated factors among women living with HIV. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 14 to May 8, 2018. 341 women were selected by using systematic sampling method among adult HIV positive women attending treatment at Jinka General Hospital. The data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the presence and the strength of association between dependent and independent variables by using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The status of willingness for cervical cancer screening was 56.9% (95%CI; 51.6%, 62.1%). Women aged 40 years and above (AOR=2.58; 95% CI = 1.21-5.45), having two or less number of children (AOR=2.49; 95% CI =1.3-4.78), having awareness about cervical cancer screening (AOR = 4.85; 95% CI = 2.56-9.17), high perceived susceptibility (AOR=5.02;95%CI=2.74-9.18) and low perceived barrier (AOR=9.87; 95% CI = 5.34-18.31) were found to increase willingness for cervical cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study has important indications which call for a wide ranged public health approach directed to cervical cancer and its screening among HIV-positive women. The willingness, knowledge and awareness for cervical cancer screening is low. This calls for the need to create awareness and educate HIV-positive women about the availability of screening and usefulness of utilizing the screening service by using different mass media. Being young , having two or fewer number of living children, awareness about cervical cancer screening, perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers were predictors of willingness for cervical cancer screening.
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HIV is treated as a chronic disease, but high lost-to-follow-up rates and poor adherence to medication result in higher mortality, morbidity, and viral mutation. Within 18 clinical sites in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique, patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy has been sub-optimal. To better understand barriers to adherence, we conducted 18 community and clinic focus groups in six rural districts. We interviewed 76 women and 88 men, of whom 124 were community participants (CP; 60 women, 64 men) and 40 were health care workers (HCW; 16 women, 24 men) who provide care for those living with HIV. While there was some consensus, both CP and HCW provided complementary insights. CP focus groups noted a lack of confidentiality and poor treatment by hospital staff (42% CP vs. 0% HCW), doubt as to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (75% CP vs. 0% HCW), and sharing medications with family members (66% CP vs. 0%HCW). Men expressed a greater concern about poor treatment by HCW than women (83% men vs. 0% women). Health care workers blamed patient preference for traditional medicine (42% CP vs. 100% HCW) and the side effects of medication for poor adherence (8% CP vs. 83% CHW). Perspectives of CP and HCW likely reflect differing sociocultural and educational backgrounds. Health care workers must understand community perspectives on causes of suboptimal adherence as a first step toward effective intervention.
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To estimate the incremental costs of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy at cervical cancer screening facilities in Ghana; to explore determinants of costs through modelling; and to estimate national scale-up and annual programme costs. Resource-use data were collected at four out of six active VIA screening centres, and unit costs were ascertained to estimate the costs per woman of VIA and cryotherapy. Modelling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the influence of observed differences between screening facilities on estimated costs and to calculate national costs. Incremental economic costs per woman screened with VIA ranged from 4.93 US$ to 14.75 US$, and costs of cryotherapy were between 47.26 US$ and 84.48 US$ at surveyed facilities. Under base case assumptions, our model estimated the costs of VIA to be 6.12 US$ per woman and those of cryotherapy to be 27.96 US$. Sensitivity analysis showed that the number of women screened per provider and treated per facility was the most important determinants of costs. National annual programme costs were estimated to be between 0.6 and 4.0 million US$ depending on assumed coverage and adopted screening strategy.   When choosing between different cervical cancer prevention strategies, the feasibility of increasing uptake to achieve economies of scale should be a major concern.
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Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear.Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographic parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We aimed to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic status and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude.Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledge. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vice versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level). Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1%) had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the cancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice.Discussion: The educated ones had more appropriate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones. As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more information. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice. Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, practice is not much influenced by attitude.
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There is scant information on whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositivity has an influence on the outcome of treatment of precancerous cervical lesions using cryotherapy. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities detectable by visual inspection and cervical lesions diagnosed by colposcopy according to HIV serostatus and described the outcomes of cryotherapy treatment. Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy. Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75%) returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5%) women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL), 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years) compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer.Of the 608 women, 103 (16%) were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4). Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) used as a sole method for cervical cancer screening would entail significant false positive results. HIV seropositivity was associated with a higher prevalence of inflammatory cervical lesions. In view of the small numbers and the relatively short follow up time of 3 months, we could not make an emphatic conclusion about the effect of HIV serostatus on cryotherapy treatment outcome.
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Mozambique has severe resource constraints, yet with international partnerships, the nation has placed over 145,000 HIV- infected persons on antiretroviral therapies (ART) through May 2009. HIV clinical services are provided at .215 clinical venues in all 11 of Mozambique’s provinces. Friends in Global Health (FGH), affiliated with Vanderbilt University in the United States (US), is a locally licensed non-governmental organization (NGO) working exclusively in small city and rural venues in Zambézia Province whose population reaches approximately 4 million persons. Our approach to clinical capacity building is based on: 1) technical assistance to national health system facilities to implement ART clinical services at the district level, 2) human capacity development, and 3) health system strengthening. Challenges in this setting are daunting, including: 1) human resource constraints, 2) infrastructure limitations, 3) centralized care for large populations spread out over large distances, 4) continued high social stigma related to HIV, 5) limited livelihood options in rural areas and 6) limited educational opportunities in rural areas. Sustainability in rural Mozambique will depend on transitioning services from emergency foreign partners to local authorities and continued funding. It will also require “wrap-around” programs that help build economic capacity with agricultural, educational, and commercial initiatives. Sustainability is undermined by serious health manpower and infrastructure limitations. Recent U.S. government pronouncements suggest that the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief will support concurrent community and business development. FGH, with its Mozambican government counterparts, see the evolution of an emergency response to a sustainable chronic disease management program as an essential and logical step. We have presented six key challenges that are essential to address in rural Mozambique
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In southern Mozambique, the "traditional" notion of personhood is constructed through a process, as an outcome of diachronic and synchronic social relations that encompass kin and other peers, including spirits. Both person and body are thought of as elements traversed and determined by these relations, which include the gender relations whose complementarity finds expression in alliances and the production of descendants. In this system of agnatic kinship, descent is possible through women, who produce the male and female persons. Because of women's structural position, they may be suspected of fostering deconstruction of the person as well, with diseases providing the objective data that ground such a charge. To a certain degree, HIV/AIDS has been experienced in terms of this sociocultural arrangement, which defines disease as the result of action by social subjects that jeopardizes the person, placing women in the vulnerable position of being seen as the producers of disease. This has defined the ways in which people experience both the epidemic as well as STD/HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment messages and public policies.
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Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, and south and south-east Asia. Frequently repeated cytology screening programmes--either organized or opportunistic--have led to a large decline in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in developed countries. In contrast, cervical cancer remains largely uncontrolled in high-risk developing countries because of ineffective or no screening. This article briefly reviews the experience from existing screening and research initiatives in developing countries. Substantial costs are involved in providing the infrastructure, manpower, consumables, follow-up and surveillance for both organized and opportunistic screening programmes for cervical cancer. Owing to their limited health care resources, developing countries cannot afford the models of frequently repeated screening of women over a wide age range that are used in developed countries. Many low-income developing countries, including most in sub-Saharan Africa, have neither the resources nor the capacity for their health services to organize and sustain any kind of screening programme. Middle-income developing countries, which currently provide inefficient screening, should reorganize their programmes in the light of experiences from other countries and lessons from their past failures. Middle-income countries intending to organize a new screening programme should start first in a limited geographical area, before considering any expansion. It is also more realistic and effective to target the screening on high-risk women once or twice in their lifetime using a highly sensitive test, with an emphasis on high coverage (>80%) of the targeted population. Efforts to organize an effective screening programme in these developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the needed manpower, and elaborate surveillance mechanisms for screening, investigating, treating, and following up the targeted women. The findings from the large body of research on various screening approaches carried out in developing countries and from the available managerial guidelines should be taken into account when reorganizing existing programmes and when considering new screening initiatives.
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The recent explosive proliferation of African Independent Churches (AICs) in central Mozambique coincided with rapid growth of economic disparity in the 1990s produced by privatization, cuts in government services, and arrival of foreign aid promoted by Mozambique's World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program. Drawing on ethnographic research in the city of Chimoio, this article argues that growing inequality has led to declining social cohesion, heightened individual competition, fear of interpersonal violence, and intensified conflict between spouses in poor families. This perilous social environment finds expression in heightened fears of witchcraft, sorcery, and avenging spirits, which are often blamed in Shona ideology for reproductive health problems. Many women with sick children or suffering from infertility turn to AICs for treatment because traditional healers are increasingly viewed as dangerous and too expensive. The AICs invoke the "Holy Spirit" to exercise malevolent agents and then provide a community of mutual aid and ongoing protection against spirit threats.
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Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results.
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To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in whole cervical cone specimens with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In addition, to evaluate the relation between the presence of CIN lesions and HPV infection and the expression of Ki-67, p53, cytokeratins, Gp230 glycoprotein, and simple mucin-type carbohydrates. Cervical cone specimens from five patients with CIN were studied. For each specimen, serial sections encompassing the whole cone were collected (52 samples). HPV infection and HPV types were detected by the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay. The expression of Ki-67, p53, cytokeratins, Gp230, and simple mucin-type carbohydrates was examined immunohistochemically. All cases showed high risk HPV types, namely types 16, 33, 35, and 58. Four of the five patients were infected by multiple viral types. HPV-58 was always seen in CIN III, whereas HPV-35 was more frequent in CIN I. The expression of Ki-67 and p53 was higher in CIN III lesions. The expression of cytokeratins 8 and 17 showed complete or almost complete overlap with CIN III. Altered expression of Gp230, Tn, and sialyl-T was often seen in all grades of CIN. When whole cervical cone specimens are evaluated the rate of multiple HPV infection is very high. The expression of cytokeratins 8 and 17 is a useful marker of CIN III.
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To assess Mexican physicians' knowledge about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer and their opinions and practices related to screening, managing, and counselling women on these topics.Methodology: In August 2002 we surveyed 1206 general practitioners (GPs) and obstetricians-gynaecologists (Ob-Gyns) working in a nationally representative sample of public and private facilities in urban Mexico. Eligible physicians completed a self administered questionnaire. We conducted a weighted analysis and used chi(2) tests to compare GPs and Ob-Gyns on outcome variables. 76% of recruited physicians responded to the survey. 43% of Ob-Gyns had performed a hysterectomy in the last year to treat a case of CIN I or II. With respect to HPV, while 80% of respondents identified the virus as the principal cause of cervical cancer, many lacked detailed knowledge about this association. Ob-Gyns were more likely than GPs to have heard about specific oncogenic strains of HPV (p<0.001). Nearly all respondents thought that women should be informed that HPV causes cervical cancer; nevertheless, physicians believed that positioning cervical cancer as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) could cause problems in partner relationships (60%), confusion (40%), and unnecessary anxiety among women (32%). Mexican physicians support patient education on the HPV-cervical cancer link. However, findings suggest the need to present clear messages to women (emphasising, for example, that only certain types of HPV are oncogenic), to consider the conflicts such information might create for couples, and to further educate physicians about this topic and about overall cervical cancer screening and treatment protocols.
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This article builds a bridge between cultural research and clinical practice by applying insights from an ethnographic study of cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru, to a cervical cancer focused cultural assessment tool and teaching guide for use with immigrant patients. This application is grounded in Campinha-Bacote's model of cultural competency. Ethnographic research is recommended as a source of knowledge from which insights can be drawn to build assessment skill in cross-cultural clinical encounters-insights into asking the right questions.
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The rate of invasive cervical cancer in US Hispanic women is nearly doubled that of non-Hispanics. Using in-depth interviews and content/grade level analysis of educational materials, this study explores the relevance of cervical cancer education materials to the needs of Mexican immigrant women. It also addresses health literacy issues that create barriers to learning. Findings show aspects of language, content, reading level, structure, and visual images in 22 cervical cancer pamphlets from 11 health care sites in a Midwest city were not relevant to the learning needs or health literacy levels of local Mexican immigrant women. Further research is recommended to establish an evidence base regarding optimal presentation of key elements of the cervical cancer educational message for Mexican immigrant women.
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Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques), attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Response rate was 92% (285). Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.
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This paper gives a sociological and anthropological insight into the rural women's perceptions and understanding of cervical symptomatology, screening and cancer. Qualitative data was collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with women and health personnel. Quantitative data was obtained through questionnaires administered to 356 women from Mutoko and Shurugwi districts. The study revealed that cervical cancer is a disease that is of concern among health practitioners and women. 95.78% of the interviewed women had never gone for screening and had little knowledge about the various aspects of the disease in terms of causes, prevention and treatment. The study made four recommendations: the need for national screening policy and programme to be put in place, health education to women about cervical cancer, use of VIA in low resource settings and sensitisation of women about the availability of screening facilities in the districts where programmes are in place.
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Cervical cancer is often the most common cancer among women in developing countries, yet current screening efforts have not been effective in reducing incidence and mortality rates in these settings. In an effort to increase knowledge about screening participation in low-resource settings, this study sought to identify key factors affecting women's participation in a cervical screening program in north central Peru. We studied women who were exposed to various health promotion educational activities and compared a total of 156 women who sought screening between July 2001 and October 2003 with 155 women who did not. Results from logistic regression identified four significant predictors of screening: higher relative wealth, knowing other screened women, seeking care from a health facility when sick and satisfaction with services at the health facility. When we restricted our analysis to women who had experienced screening in the past, two additional predictors emerged: having a husband who was supportive of screening participation and attending an awareness-raising session. These results have important programmatic value for tailoring outreach efforts for women and indicate that different strategies may be required to best reach women who have never been screened.
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Cervical cancer is almost completely preventable, yet it is the second most prevalent cancer amongst women in South Africa. KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in particular has a high mortality rate of cervical cancer and 1: 40 women die from cancer of the cervix. Therefore, in 1997 a cervical screening policy and programme was implemented in the province. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of selected aspects of the Provincial cervical screening programme in selected Primary Health Care (PHC) clinics in Ilembe Region, KZN. Results indicated that there was a lack of resources needed for implementing the programme in rural clinics compared to urban clinics. However, all clinics in the study had an adequate supply of the drugs needed for the treatment of abnormal smears. On reviewing the records, the researcher noted that most of the results indicated that smears had adequate cells needed for analysis. However, the results indicated that there was a problem with follow-up of clients with abnormal smears. Feedback to the clinics from the referral hospital regarding the outcome of the visit was inadequate. The results indicated that the mechanisms of record keeping were inadequate. Therefore, the above results indicate that problems exist at the selected PHC clinics that may result in ineffective implementation of the cervical screening programme.
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Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires high uptake and for cervical cancer, minimal loss to follow up. Uganda has poor indicators of reproductive health (RH) services uptake; 10% postnatal care attendance, 23% contraceptive prevalence, and 38% skilled attendance at delivery. For antenatal attendance, attendance to one visit is 90%, but less than 50% for completion of care, i.e. three or more visits. We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers). We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake. Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context. Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas) and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic issues dictate the perceived reluctance by men to participate in women's reproductive health issues; men in this community are, however, potential willing partners if appropriately informed. Health planners should address the loss of confidence in current health care units, as well as consider use of other cervical cancer screening delivery systems such as mobile clinics/camps.
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The growing AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is placing an increased strain on health systems, which are experiencing steadily rising patient loads. Health care systems are tackling the barriers to serving large populations in scaled-up operations. One of the most significant challenges in this effort is securing the health care workforce to deliver care in settings where the manpower is already in short supply. We have produced a demand-driven staffing model using simple spreadsheet technology, based on treatment protocols for HIV-positive patients that adhere to Mozambican guidelines. The model can be adjusted for the volumes of patients at differing stages of their disease, varying provider productivity, proportion who are pregnant, attrition rates, and other variables. Our model projects the need for health workers using three different kinds of goals: 1) the number of patients to be placed on anti-retroviral therapy (ART), 2) the number of HIV-positive patients to be enrolled for treatment, and 3) the number of patients to be enrolled in a treatment facility per month. We propose three scenarios, depending on numbers of patients enrolled. In the first scenario, we start with 8000 patients on ART and increase that number to 58,000 at the end of three years (those were the goals for the country of Mozambique). This would require thirteen clinicians and just over ten nurses by the end of the first year, and 67 clinicians and 47 nurses at the end of the third year. In a second scenario, we start with 34,000 patients enrolled for care (not all of them on ART), and increase to 94,000 by the end of the third year, requiring a growth in clinician staff from 18 to 28. In a third scenario, we start a new clinic and enroll 200 new patients per month for three years, requiring 1.2 clinicians in year 1 and 2.2 by the end of year 3. Other clinician types in the model include nurses, social workers, pharmacists, phlebotomists, and peer counsellors. This planning tool could lead to more realistic and appropriate estimates of workforce levels required to provide high-quality HIV care in a low-resource settings.
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Emmanuela Gakidou and colleagues find that coverage of cervical cancer screening in developing countries is on average 19% compared to 63% in developed countries.
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With the re-launch of Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, a special section called "New Doctorial Cancer Research" is introduced. Here, we provide new Ph.Ds. with the opportunity to present themselves and their work, preferentially followed by a commentary of a senior scientist with knowledge of the study, and as such, attention is also drawn to the work of the research group. In the current issue of CRO we present six new Ph.Ds. Keep this opportunity in mind when new Ph.Ds. have fulfilled their dissertations. Instructions for submission to the "New Doctorial Cancer Research" section can be found in the general Instructions to Authors of CRO (www.begellhouse.com).
Article
To assess women's willingness to collect their own samples for HPV testing as the first part of a screening program for cervical cancer in Uganda. In March and April 2010, trained assistants from Kisenyi interviewed 300 women aged 30 to 65 years who lived and/or worked in this community. Descriptive data and multivariate modeling were used to identify the predictors of the women's willingness to collect their own cervical samples. More than 80% of the 300 participants were willing to collect their own samples. In multivariate modeling, factors positively associated with this willingness were agreement to let outreach workers deliver the necessary swab at their homes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-9.18) and willingness to undergo a pelvic examination if the sample was abnormal (AOR, 3.91; 95% CI,1.03-14.90). Factors negatively associated were embarrassment at collecting the sample at home where they lacked privacy (AOR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.29) and concern of not collecting the sample properly (AOR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.05-0.3). Self-collection is an option in impoverished settings in Africa. To improve acceptability, women should be taught how to properly collect their own cervical sample and encouraged to find ways to make the collection less embarrassing.
Article
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the developing world. Conventional cytology-based cervical cancer screening programs have been largely ineffectual at reducing the cervical cancer burden in low-resource settings. In response, alternative strategies have been tested, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-based testing. This manuscript reviews literature addressing the programmatic approaches to implementing cervical cancer screening programs in low-resource settings, highlighting the challenges, barriers, and successes related to the use of cytology, VIA, and HPV-DNA based screening programs.
Article
Even in the era of highly effective human papillomavirus (HPV) prophylactic vaccines, substantial reduction in worldwide cervical cancer mortality will only be realized if effective early detection and treatment of the millions of women already infected and the millions who may not receive vaccination in the next decade can be broadly implemented through sustainable cervical cancer screening programs. Effective programs must meet three targets: (i) at least 70% of the targeted population should be screened at least once in a lifetime, (ii) screening assays and diagnostic tests must be reproducible and sufficiently sensitive and specific for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions (i.e., CIN21), and (iii) effective treatment must be provided. We review the evidence that HPV DNA screening from swabs collected by the women in their home or village is sufficiently sound for consideration as a primary screening strategy in the developing world, with sensitivity and specificity for detection of CIN21 as good or better than Pap smear cytology and VIA. A key feature of a self-collected HPV testing strategy (SC-HPV) is the move of the primary screening activities from the clinic to the community. Efforts to increase the affordability and availability of HPV DNA tests, community education and awareness, development of strong partnerships between community advocacy groups, health care centers and regional or local laboratories, and resource appropriate strategies to identify and treat screen-positive women should now be prioritized to ensure successful public health translation of the technologic advancements in cervical cancer prevention.
Article
The purpose of the study was to explore if cervical cancer information presented in a non-stigmatizing manner could promote screening in women living in a resource poor environment in Tshwane, South Africa. An exploratory, contextual, quantitative door-to-door survey was conducted. The sampling method was convenience (n = 105). Structured interviews were used to gather self-reported data. Chi-square tests were used for secondary data analyses. The study provided evidence that presenting information on cervical cancer in a non-stigmatizing manner based on the theme of self protection promoted cervical screening. The study further provided evidence that women preferred a cervical cancer message that does not focus on the sexual risk factors of this disease. More than a third of the sample preferring a message introducing cervical cancer as a sexually transmitted infection (n = 32) were of the opinion that this message were stigmatizing, blameful and displayed misunderstanding of their lives. Cervical cancer screening is indeed not simple. The screening rate not only in South Africa but many other countries serves as proof. It can therefore not be afforded to add to the barriers by presenting information on cervical cancer in a way perceived as stigmatizing and blameful. Presenting information in way that women prefer might not only promote cervical screening, but might motivate them in such a way that they are screened.
Article
Within the time from January 1984 to March 1987 209 patients with female genital neoplasms have been treated in the Hospital Central Maputo in People's Republic of Moçambique. There were nearly 85% cervical carcinomas and about 15% of chorion-carcinomas. Only two cases (0.9%) were endometrial cancers. 80% of the cervical carcinomas were diagnosed in stage III and IV. 31 cases had been operated on radically by abdominal route. Further epidemiological dates are published.
Article
A large proportion of women in most developing countries, particularly in rural areas, have never had cervical cancer screening. This paper reports the effect of a cervical cancer screening programme using a mobile unit on changes in knowledge and use of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening among rural Thai women. Health education and collection of Pap smears were carried out by the mobile unit throughout the 54 rural villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, between January and February 1993. To determine the extent of changes, we compared the results of two interview surveys of women 18-65 years old in the villages selected by systematic sampling for each survey, first in January 1991 and then in January 1994. A total of 1603 and 1369 women participated in each survey respectively. The proportion of women who knew of the Pap smear test increased from 20.8% in the first survey sample to 57.3% in the second survey sample. The proportion of those who had even been screened increased from 19.9% in the first survey sample to 58.1% in the second survey sample. These increases were observed solely among ever-married women and there were no significant changes among single women, most of whom remained unscreened. Of ever-married women, the magnitude of increase was highest in the age group 25-34 years, and declined with increasing age. Greater efforts should be made to encourage the use of screening among the older women. The use of mobile units may be helpful for rapid achievement of higher screening coverage in rural areas, where existing screening services cannot effectively cover the female population at risk.
Article
This study of traditional healers and formal health workers determined their knowledge and practices in the field of HIV/AIDS and examined their training needs and attitudes to collaboration, in preparation for planning joint training workshops. Several misconceptions concerning symptoms and transmission of HIV disease were found in both groups, particularly among traditional healers. Twenty healers (51%) and four formal health workers (15%) claimed a cure existed for AIDS. The majority of traditional healers interviewed expressed difficulties discussing a diagnosis of HIV directly with patients, mainly due to fear of the patient becoming depressed and suicidal. Most interviewees wanted more training--the majority of traditional healers in recognizing symptoms of HIV/AIDS and their treatment, and the majority of formal health workers in HIV counselling. Most were interested in supplying condoms. Almost all healers and half of the formal health workers were keen to collaborate in training and patient care. The study indicates that there is willingness amongst Zambian traditional healers and formal health workers to collaborate in training and patient care in the field of HIV/AIDS. As well as covering symptoms, transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS, training should aim to increase ability to openly discuss HIV with patients, which many traditional healers and some formal health workers find difficult. Involving traditional healers in supplying condoms may improve acceptability and availability, particularly in rural areas.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe critical elements of women-centered care within the context of providing cervical screening to three ethnocultural groups in Canada: Asian, South Asian and First Nations. Data for this collective case study included open-ended interviews with purposive samples of women and key informants from each target group. Following thematic analysis, cross-case analysis was completed by comparing and contrasting issues and contextual factors influencing women's and providers' experiences. Cervical screening services for each group were shaped by attention to ethnocultural values, women's desire for thorough explanations, and the importance of a comfortable setting. While participation rates varied across clinics, women were positive about their experiences in obtaining cervical screening. Some women's expectations that they could address a range of health concerns with female health providers at the clinics were stymied by structural barriers that prevented staff from addressing issues beyond those directly related to cervical screening. Cross-case analysis revealed three key elements of women-centered care: respectful and culturally appropriate interactions between women and health providers, the importance of providing acceptable alternatives for women, and the need for comprehensive health services. While the establishment of Pap test clinics for ethnocultural groups has the potential to enhance participation in cervical screening, changes in health policy and the structure of health services are required for existing programs to fully implement the elements of women-centered health care identified in this study. Other models of providing health care to women in ethnocultural groups, including the use of clinics staffed by nurse practitioners, should be evaluated.
Article
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death for middle-aged women in the developing world, yet it is almost completely preventable, if precancerous lesions are identified and treated in a timely manner. Cervical cancer screening based on cytologic examination is largely unavailable in developing countries or made available to a small, select group of women in private facilities, maternal child health sites, or family-planning clinics, missing the age groups at highest risk for precancerous lesions. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) can be used to screen women. It can be done by nurses or midwives with appropriate training. Although still under investigation, research results show that VIA is simple, accurate, cost-effective, and acceptable to most women. This article reviews the natural history of cervical cancer and important aspects to consider related to cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The VIA technique is described in detail.
Article
The distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in cervical cancers is essential for design and evaluation of HPV type-specific vaccines. To follow up on a previous report that HPV types 35 and 58 were the dominant HPV types in cervical neoplasia in Mozambique, the HPV types in a consecutive case series of 74 invasive cervical cancers in Mozambique were determined. The most common worldwide major oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 were present in 69 % of cervical cancers, suggesting that a vaccine targeting HPV-16 and -18 would have a substantial impact on cervical cancer also in Mozambique.
Article
Estimates of the worldwide incidence, mortality and prevalence of 26 cancers in the year 2002 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The results are presented here in summary form, including the geographic variation between 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 10.9 million new cases, 6.7 million deaths, and 24.6 million persons alive with cancer (within three years of diagnosis). The most commonly diagnosed cancers are lung (1.35 million), breast (1.15 million), and colorectal (1 million); the most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.18 million deaths), stomach cancer (700,000 deaths), and liver cancer (598,000 deaths). The most prevalent cancer in the world is breast cancer (4.4 million survivors up to 5 years following diagnosis). There are striking variations in the risk of different cancers by geographic area. Most of the international variation is due to exposure to known or suspected risk factors related to lifestyle or environment, and provides a clear challenge to prevention.
Article
The Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) came together in 1999 to answer key research questions and to advocate for greater global and national interest in reducing the heavy burden of morbidity and mortality caused by this preventable disease. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests have been shown to be viable alternatives to traditional cytology. ACCP experience confirmed that cryotherapy is a safe and effective method that is acceptable to women and can be delivered by a range of health providers, including nonphysicians. Programs can maximize coverage by accommodating local needs and involving community leaders and women in planning and implementation. Advocacy efforts have led to significant policy changes and galvanized support for cervical cancer prevention. Despite the prospect of new HPV vaccines, screening will be needed for at least the next 30-40 years. Our experience has shown that with creativity, flexibility, and well-focused use of resources, the inequitable burden of cervical cancer borne by women in poor countries can be sharply reduced.
Article
This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.
Article
Knowledge about the burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is very limited. We collected cervical samples from 262 women from the general population and 241 tumor samples from women with invasive cervical cancer in Mozambique and tested them for HPV genotyping by the SPF(10)-LiPA(25) PCR system. Among the 195 women without cervical abnormalities by cytology HPV prevalence was 75.9%. In this group of women, the most frequently identified HPV types among HPV-positive women were in descending order of frequency: HPV51 (23.6%), HPV35 (19.6%), HPV18 (14.2%), HPV31 (13.5%) and HPV52 (12.8%). In women with cervical cancer HPV DNA detection was 100%. The type-specific distribution of the most frequent types in descending order of frequency was: HPV16 (47.0%), HPV18 (31.3%), HPV51 (14.8%), HPV52 (14.3%), HPV45 (12.6%), HPV35 (10.4%), HPV33 (4.8%) and HPV31 (2.6%). HPVs 16/18 and HPVs 16/18/31/45 were detected in 71.7% and 80.9% of cervical cancer tissue, respectively. While HPVs 51 and 35 were the two most common types in cytologically normal women in Mozambique, HPVs 16 and 18 remained the two most frequently identified types in cervical cancer. The introduction of an efficacious HPV 16/18 vaccine could potentially prevent the occurrence of 72% of cervical cancer cases and up to 81% of the cases if full cross-protection against HPVs 31 and 45 is assumed.
Article
Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. There is limited data on breast and cervical cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes of nurses in Turkey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge and attitude of nurses on risk factors of the breast and cervical cancer as well as screening programmes such as breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination, mammography (MMG) and papanicolaou (pap) smear test. In total, 125 out of 160 nurses participated in the study (overall response rate was 80.6%). The risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer was generally well known, except for early menarche (23.2%) and late menopause (28.8%). For cervical cancer, the correct risk factors mostly indicated by the nurses were early age at first sexual intercourse (56%), smoking (76%), multiple sexual partners (71.2%). As for screening methods, it was believed that BSE was a beneficial method to identify the early breast changes (84.8%) and MMG was able to detect the cancer without a palpable mass (57.6%). Little was known about the fact that women should begin cervical cancer screening approximately 3 years after the onset of sexual intercourse (23.2%) and if repeated pap smear test were normal, it could be done every 2-3 years. Most of the nurses considered that MMG decreases the mortality in breast cancer (65.6%) and also believed that pap smear test decreases the mortality in cervical cancer (75.2%). Despite high level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and screening methods, inadequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening method were found among nurses.
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