Retinal Breaks in Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
American Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 02/2012; 153(5):868-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.10.015
Source: PubMed


To determine the frequency of peripheral iatrogenic retinal breaks in eyes undergoing small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy.
Prospective, single-center, noncomparative interventional case series.
A consecutive series of patients that underwent 23- or 25-gauge vitrectomy between July 2010 and the end of October 2010 were included in the study. We excluded patients with retinal detachment, dislocated crystalline lens from complicated cataract surgery, endophthalmitis, and previous history of eye trauma or vitrectomy. We recorded prospectively the frequency of all retinal breaks noted during surgery of patients undergoing 23- or 25-gauge vitrectomy. The indications for vitreoretinal surgery were recorded, as were the location of retinal breaks, the presence or absence of an intact posterior hyaloid, status of lens, method of retinopexy, and use of a tamponade, together with the onset of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment during the 3-month follow-up interval. Main outcome was rate of entry site breaks in small-gauge vitrectomy.
We included 184 patients in this study. The mean age was 65.6 years (SD 13.2) and 46% were male. Retinal breaks occurred in 29 patients (15.7%) but breaks in only 6 (3.2%) were deemed to be related to the sclerotomies. Entry site breaks were not linked to the gauge of the instruments, but retinal breaks were more common in 23-gauge surgeries, although this was not statistically significant. One rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurred in the postoperative period.
Entry site retinal breaks are not common in small-gauge vitrectomy.

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    ABSTRACT: AimTo report the vitreoretinal (VR) surgical case mix in the United Kingdom, the intraoperative complication rate of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and the incidence of post-vitrectomy cataract extraction.Methods Participating hospitals prospectively collected ophthalmic data using a single electronic medical record system, with automatic extraction of anonymised data to a national database. This study included the subset of 11 618 VR operations undertaken on 9619 eyes, of 8741 patients, over 8 years, from 27 sites. Surgical data included the indication for surgery, all procedure elements, and whether or not an intraoperative complication occurred. Post-vitrectomy cataract data were also analysed. The main outcome measures were a description of the indications for surgery, intraoperative PPV complication rate, and percentage of eyes undergoing post-vitrectomy cataract surgery (PVCS).ResultsThe most common indications for VR intervention were retinal breaks and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (48.5%), macular hole (9.8%), epiretinal membrane (9.6%), and diabetic eye disease (7.3%). Overall, 7.8% of PPVs had at least one intraoperative complication-the most common were iatrogenic retinal breaks (3.2%), and lens touch (1.2-1.6% of phakic eyes). PVCS occurred in 50.2, 68.7, and 74.0% of eyes at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.ConclusionVR surgery is undertaken for a wide range of conditions, but a small number of diagnoses encompass the majority of cases. Intraoperative PPV complications are not uncommon, and post-vitrectomy cataract is to be expected in most phakic eyes.Eye advance online publication, 1 March 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.12.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Eye (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of iatrogenic anterior retinal breaks in 20-G vitrectomy (PPV) with transconjunctival 23-G PPV. Methods: Retrospective, observational review study involving consecutive patients undergoing PPV in a single center in the UK during a 2-year period. Results: Sclerotomy-related entry-site breaks (ESB) were found in 50/628 (7.9 %) 20-G PPV cases and 5/296 (1.7 %) 23-G PPV eyes (p<0.0001*). Anterior non-sclerotomy iatrogenic breaks (ANSB) were present in 55/628 (8.7 %) 20-G PPV cases and 18/296 (6.1 %) 23-G PPV eyes (p=0.19). The incidence of total anterior iatrogenic breaks (ANSB + ESB) was 105/628 (16.7 %) for 20-G PPV and 23/296 (7.8 %) for 23-G PPV (p=0.002*). Univariate analysis showed that posterior vitreous detachment induction was the only risk factor significantly associated with the development of anterior retinal breaks for both 20-G and 23-G PPV. Multivariate logistic model of risk factors for development of iatrogenic retinal breaks demonstrated that 23-G PPV was the most important factor reducing the risk of anterior breaks (p<0.0001*). Conclusions: We report the largest series of patients undergoing 20-G and 23-G vitrectomy, where 23-G vitrectomy was associated with a significantly lower incidence of anterior iatrogenic retinal breaks.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to retrospectively review indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes of combined coaxial microincision cataract surgery and 23-gauge vitrectomy for posterior segment disease. The outcomes and findings of surgery in 50 patients (50 eyes) who underwent coaxial microincision cataract surgery and foldable intraocular lens implantation combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy for a variety of indications between January 2010 and March 2012. No posterior capsule tear was observed during surgery. Intraoperatively, a retinal break was found in 9 eyes (18%), which were successfully treated with laser and/or cryotherapy. Corneal suture was done in 6 eyes (12%), 5 of them left and 1 right. Sclerotomy was sutured in 2 left and 2 right eyes, respectively, a total of 4 eyes (8%). In 1 case, 23-gauge vitrectomy was converted to 20-gauge vitrectomy. The postoperative intraocular pressure (millimeters of mercury, mean ± standard deviation) was 16.7 ± 9.8. Hypotony (intraocular pressure < 9 mmHg) occurred in 9 eyes (18%). In 1 eye (2%) posterior iris synechia were observed 2 weeks after surgery, and intraocular pressure was >40 mmHg. Intraocular pressure was normalized after Nd:YAG laser iridotomy. Fibrin reaction in the anterior chamber was observed in 1 eye (2%) Day 1 after surgery. Posterior capsule opacification, which required Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, was observed in 11 eyes (22%) during the follow-up. Combined sutureless coaxial microincision cataract surgery and 23-gauge vitrectomy offers the advantages of both coaxial microincision cataract surgery (less wound leakage, good anterior chamber stability, and safety) and 23-gauge vitrectomy (decreased inflammation and faster rehabilitation after surgery).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
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