Calcium, phosphate and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a population with stable coronary heart disease
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research C070, German Cancer Research Centre, POB 10 19 49, D-69009 Heidelberg, Germany. Heart (British Cardiac Society)
(Impact Factor: 5.6).
02/2012; 98(12):926-33. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-300806
High serum calcium and phosphate levels have been linked to cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality but evidence from longitudinal studies is scarce, especially among patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease. The association between baseline calcium and phosphate and prognosis was examined in a cohort study of patients with stable coronary heart disease.
Serum calcium and phosphate were measured in a cohort of initially 1206 patients undergoing a 3 week rehabilitation programme after an acute cardiovascular event and subsequently being followed-up for 8 years. Multivariate Cox regression was employed to assess the association of quartiles and continuous levels of calcium and phosphate with secondary cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
No significant risk elevations were observed for secondary cardiovascular event incidence in models adjusted for a variety of potential confounders. High calcium levels, however, were strongly associated with mortality risk in adjusted models (HR(Q4vsQ1)=2.39 (1.22 to 4.66)). In additional multivariable analyses, the calcium/albumin ratio was predictive for all-cause mortality (HR(Q4vsQ1)=2.66 (1.35 to 5.22)) and marginally predictive for cardiovascular event incidence (HR(Q4vsQ1)=1.74 (1.00 to 3.05)).
Calcium and the ratio of calcium with albumin, its major binding protein, were strongly associated with all-cause mortality among patients with coronary heart disease. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical implications of these findings deserve further study.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "C  (2009) Tobias E. L  (2010), K. M. Fleming  (2011), Per-Anton Westerberg  (2013), C. J. Bates  (2011), Bernard  (2009) and Julie R. D  (2013) were general population. The studies by Jun-Bean (2013) , Jan-P v K  (2010), Marcello (2009) , Michael  (2013), W.-S.  (2010) and Grandi  (2012) targeted at CVD patients. While CKD patients were the main subjects in Andrew  (2013) and Bryan K  (2005) studies. "
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It is demonstrated that elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphate indicate a higher risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality in population with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains unclear whether this association exists in people with normal or preserved renal function.
Clinical trials were searched from Embase and PubMed from inception to 2013 December using the keywords “ALP”, “phosphate”, “CVD”, “mortality” and so on, and finally 24 trials with a total of 147634 patients were included in this study. Dose-response and semi-parametric meta-analyses were performed.
A linear association of serum levels of ALP and phosphate with risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CVD events and deaths was identified. The relative risk(RR)of ALP for CVD deaths was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.04). The RR of phosphate for CVD deaths and events was 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03–1.06), respectively. A non-linear association of ALP and phosphate with total mortality was identified. Compared with the reference category of ALP and phosphate, the pooled RR of ALP for total mortality was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for the high ALP group, while the RR of phosphate for total mortality was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.21–1.46) for the high phosphate group. It was observed in subgroup analysis that higher levels of serum ALP and phosphate seemed to indicate a higher mortality rate in diabetic patients and those having previous CVD. The higher total mortality rate was more obvious in the men and Asians with high ALP.
A non-linear relationship exists between serum levels of ALP and phosphate and risk of total mortality. There appears to be a positive association of serum levels of ALP/phosphate with total mortality in people with normal or preserved renal function, while the relationship between ALP and CVD is still ambiguous.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Social and economic development, improved living conditions and population ageing are the hotbed of coronary artery diseases.1 Catheter angiography has been traditionally utilized to compare the coronary artery lesions between different nations.2-4 "
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: To compare the coronary atherosclerotic plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and the risk factors of Han (in Inner Mongolia) and Mongolian coronary artery disease patients.
s: The plaques of 126 Mongolian and 269 Han patients were analyzed by 64-slice spiral CT coronary angiography. Their gender, age, height, body mass, the history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family diseases, the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were compared.
Results: The incidence of plaques (P <0.05), the proportion of plaques in the circumflex branch (P <0.05), the proportion of medium-severe lumen stenosis induced by plaques (P <0.05), and the proportion of obstructive plaque involved multi-branch (P <0.05) of the Mongolian patients were higher. The plaque compositions of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). The body mass index of the Mongolian patients was higher (P <0.05). The hypertension, diabetes, smoking history, TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: The higher incidence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and the more severe lesions of the Mongolian patients may be related to their higher body mass index.
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