Manipulation of triose phosphate/phosphate translocator and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the key components in photosynthetic sucrose synthesis, enhances the source capacity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Photosynth Res
Plant Metabolism Research Center and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea. Photosynthesis Research
(Impact Factor: 3.5).
02/2012; 111(3):261-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11120-012-9720-2
Photoassimilated carbons are converted to sucrose in green plant leaves and distributed to non-phototropic tissues to provide carbon and energy. In photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis, the chloroplast envelope triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cFBPase) are key components in photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis. The simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase was utilized to increase the source capacity of Arabidopsis. The TPT and cFBPase overexpression lines exhibited enhanced growth with larger rosette sizes and increased fresh weights compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase resulted in enhanced photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation rates in moderate and elevated light conditions. During the phototropic period, the soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) levels in the leaves of these transgenic lines were also higher than those of the WT plants. These results suggest that the simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase enhances source capacity and consequently leads to growth enhancement in transgenic plants.
Available from: Frank Ludewig
- "By this, tpt mutants and antisense plants manage to grow normally without any aberrant phenotype. Overexpression of the TPT was performed in tobacco using the Flaveria trinervia
TPT gene (Häusler et al., 2000) and in Arabidopsis using the endogenous gene (Cho et al., 2012) with only minor effects. When a cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (cFBPase) was simultaneously overexpressed, Arabidopsis plants were larger and exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity (Cho et al., 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters.
Available from: Karin Köhl
- "Antisense repression of cFBPase reduced sucrose synthesis in Arabidopsis  and potato . When cFBPase is overexpressed together with the triose phosphate/phosphate transporter, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates are enhanced and glucose levels increased compared to the wildtype . The increased expression of both FBPase genes in tolerant rice cultivars under stress is counterintuitive, as the enzymes are crucial parts of competing pathways. "
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ABSTRACT: Rice provides about half of the calories consumed in Asian countries, but its productivity is often reduced by drought, especially when grown under rain-fed conditions. Cultivars with increased drought tolerance have been bred over centuries. Slow selection for drought tolerance on the basis of phenotypic traits may be accelerated by using molecular markers identified through expression and metabolic profiling. Previously, we identified 46 candidate genes with significant genotype × environment interaction in an expression profiling study on four cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These potential markers and in addition GC-MS quantified metabolites were tested in 21 cultivars from both indica and japonica background that varied in drought tolerance. Leaf blades were sampled from this population of cultivars grown under control or long-term drought condition and subjected to expression analysis by qRT-PCR and metabolite profiling. Under drought stress, metabolite levels correlated mainly negatively with performance parameters, but eight metabolites correlated positively. For 28 genes, a significant correlation between expression level and performance under drought was confirmed. Negative correlations were predominant. Among those with significant positive correlation was the gene coding for a cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This enzyme catalyzes a highly regulated step in C-metabolism. The metabolic and transcript marker candidates for drought tolerance were identified in a highly diverse population of cultivars. Thus, these markers may be used to select for tolerance in a wide range of rice germplasms.
Available from: Elie Maza
- "Another translocator, phosphoenolpyruvate phosphate translocator (Solyc03g112870), has been identified that delivers the energy-rich glycolytic intermediate phosphoenolpyruvate into the plastids (Fischer et al., 1997). In addition, a triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (Solyc10g008980) has also been encountered that participates in Suc biosynthesis (Cho et al., 2012). The sum of the three translocators decreases very lightly during plastid transition (Fig. 11), indicating that the machinery for provision of energy and precursors remained in place to allow the synthesis of fatty acids and Suc within the plastid. "
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ABSTRACT: A comparative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plastids at three stages of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening (mature-green, breaker, red). Stringent curation and processing of the data from three independent replicates identified 1,932 proteins among which 1,529 were quantified by spectral counting. The quantification procedures have been subsequently validated by immunoblot analysis of six proteins representative of distinct metabolic or regulatory pathways. Among the main features of the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition revealed by the study, chromoplastogenesis appears to be associated with major metabolic shifts: (1) strong decrease in abundance of proteins of light reactions (photosynthesis, Calvin cycle, photorespiration) and carbohydrate metabolism (starch synthesis/degradation), mostly between breaker and red stages and (2) increase in terpenoid biosynthesis (including carotenoids) and stress-response proteins (ascorbate-glutathione cycle, abiotic stress, redox, heat shock). These metabolic shifts are preceded by the accumulation of plastid-encoded acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase D proteins accounting for the generation of a storage matrix that will accumulate carotenoids. Of particular note is the high abundance of proteins involved in providing energy and in metabolites import. Structural differentiation of the chromoplast is characterized by a sharp and continuous decrease of thylakoid proteins whereas envelope and stroma proteins remain remarkably stable. This is coincident with the disruption of the machinery for thylakoids and photosystem biogenesis (vesicular trafficking, provision of material for thylakoid biosynthesis, photosystems assembly) and the loss of the plastid division machinery. Altogether, the data provide new insights on the chromoplast differentiation process while enriching our knowledge of the plant plastid proteome.
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