Estimation of tamoxifen metabolite concentrations in the blood of breast cancer patients through CYP2D6 genotype activity score

Department of Laboratory Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.94). 02/2012; 133(2):677-83. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-012-1963-2
Source: PubMed


Tamoxifen, a prodrug used for adjuvant breast cancer therapy, requires conversion to the active metabolite endoxifen through CYP 2D6. We aimed to construct an algorithm to predict endoxifen concentrations based on a patient’s CYP 2D6 genotype, demographic factors, and co-medication use. Eighty-eight women enrolled in the UCSF TamGen II study and 81 women enrolled in a prospective study at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute were included in this analysis. All the women had been on tamoxifen for at least 3 months before blood collection. Demographic information included the patient’s age, race/ethnicity, body mass index (where available), and self-reported and measured medications and herbals that affect 2D6 activity. DNA was extracted and genotyped for 2D6 (Amplichip, Roche Diagnostics). An activity score was calculated based on genotypes and adjusted for use of medications known to inhibit 2D6. Serum was tested for tamoxifen and metabolite concentrations and for the presence of drugs by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were computed for age, body mass index, ethnicity, and adjusted activity score to predict tamoxifen metabolite concentrations in the training data-set of UCSF patients, and the resulting algorithm was validated in the Dana-Farber patients. For the training set, the correlation coefficient (r2) for log endoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen:endoxifen ratio to activity score, age, and race, were 0.520 and 0.659, respectively; 0.324 and 0.567 for the validation; and 0.396 and 0.615 for both the datasets combined. An algorithm that incorporates genotype and demographic variables can be used to predict endoxifen concentrations for women on tamoxifen therapy. If endoxifen levels are confirmed to be predictive of tamoxifen benefit, then this algorithm may be helpful to determine which women warrant endoxifen testing.

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    • "Tamoxifen, a first-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator with a triphenylethylene structure is widely used for adjuvant breast cancer therapy. [1] [2] It fights certain types of breast cancer, called hormone response or estrogen positive breast cancer, by blocking the effects of the hormone estrogen in the body. This prevents the growth of the types of breast cancer cells that require estrogen for growth and survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, tamoxifen metabolic profiles were investigated carefully. Tamoxifen was administered to two healthy male volunteers and one female patient suffering from breast cancer. Urinary extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry using full scan and targeted MS/MS techniques with accurate mass measurement. Chromatographic peaks for potential metabolites were selected by using the theoretical [M + H]+ as precursor ion in full-scan experiment and m/z 72, 58 or 44 as characteristic product ions for N,N-dimethyl, N-desmethyl and N,N-didesmethyl metabolites in targeted MS/MS experiment, respectively. Tamoxifen and 37 metabolites were detected in extraction study samples. Chemical structures of seven unreported metabolites were elucidated particularly on the basis of fragmentation patterns observed for these metabolites. Several metabolic pathways containing mono- and di-hydroxylation, methoxylation, N-desmethylation, N,N-didesmethylation, oxidation and combinations were suggested. All the metabolites were detected in the urine samples up to 1 week. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen significantly reduces breast cancer recurrence and mortality in estrogen receptor positive disease. CYP2D6 is the main enzyme involved in the activation of the prodrug tamoxifen into the anti-estrogen endoxifen. Endoxifen is thought to be a main determinant for clinical efficacy in breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. As the large interindividual variation in endoxifen levels is only partly explained by CYP2D6 genotype, we explored the use of the (13)C-dextromethorphan breath test (DM-BT) for phenotyping CYP2D6 and to predict serum steady-state endoxifen levels as a marker for clinical outcome in breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. Methods: In 65 patients with early breast cancer using tamoxifen, CYP2D6 phenotype was assessed by DM-BT. CYP2D6 genotype using Amplichip and serum steady-state levels of endoxifen were determined. Genotype was translated into the gene activity score and into ultrarapid, extensive, heterozygous extensive, intermediate or poor metabolizer CYP2D6 predicted phenotype. Results: CYP2D6 phenotype determined by the DM-BT explained variation in serum steady-state endoxifen levels for 47.5% (R(2) = 0.475, p < 0.001). Positive and negative predictive values for a recently suggested threshold serum level of endoxifen (5.97 ng/mL) for breast cancer recurrence rate were 100 and 90%, respectively, for both CYP2D6 phenotype by DM-BT (delta-over-baseline at t = 50 min (DOB(50)) values of 0.7-0.9) and genotype (CYP2D6 gene activity score of 1.0). Conclusion: DM-BT might be, along with CYP2D6 genotyping, of value in selection of individualized endocrine therapy in patients with early breast cancer, especially when concomitant use of CYP2D6 inhibiting medication alters the phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer intervention strategies have been increasingly focused on developing therapies that are personalized and tailored to each individual's unique genetic profile. Evolving understanding of the metabolism and pharmacogenomics of tamoxifen, an early example of targeted therapy for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, has created decision-making challenges for healthcare providers and their patients. This article reviews the pharmacology of tamoxifen, the genetics and physiology of the CYP2D6 enzyme system that has important effects on tamoxifen metabolism, and subset data analyses from large controlled, clinical trials that cast new light on previously held beliefs about the utility of CYP2D6 genotyping for predicting tamoxifen effectiveness and improved breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
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