Thymoquinone ameliorates the immunological and histological changes induced by exposure to imidacloprid insecticide

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.29). 02/2012; 37(1):1-11. DOI: 10.2131/jts.37.1
Source: PubMed


Previous studies have shown that thymoquinone (TQ) exerts protective effects in some models of pesticide-induced immunotoxicity. However, no data exist regarding its possible modulatory effect during imidacloprid (IC)-induced toxicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of TQ on IC-induced immunotoxicity. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups of twenty animals each. The control group was given distilled water orally, while the IC-treated group was orally administered 0.01 LD(50 )(0.21 mg/kg body weight) of IC insecticide daily for 28 days. The animals in the third group (IC/TQ group) received the same IC dose as the IC-treated group for 28 days in addition to an intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection of TQ (1 mg/kg) once every 7 days. We found that IC induced significant increases (P < 0.05) in total leukocyte counts, total immunoglobulins (Igs) (especially IgGs), the hemagglutination of antibodies, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to the control group. In contrast, significant decreases (P < 0.05) in phagocytic activity, chemokine expression and chemotaxis were observed in the IC-treated group, as were severe histopathological lesions in the liver, spleen and thymus. Notably, TQ supplementation ameliorated the biochemical, histopathological, and immunological changes induced by IC by increasing phagocytic activity, chemokinesis, chemotaxis, immunoglobulin levels, and the hemagglutination of antibodies, as well as by decreasing hepatic enzymes and serum MDA levels. Taken together, our data reveal the benefits of TQ supplementation for ameliorating IC toxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and enhancing immune efficiency.

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    • "Once it is absorbed from the intestine to the blood, TQ triggers multiple signaling pathways on different organs. We recently demonstrated that TQ ameliorates the immunological and histological changes induced by exposure to imidacloprid insecticide [33]. Our present data demonstrated that TQ ameliorated the aberrant hydroperoxide and ROS levels in pups born to DD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Epidemiological studies have shown that the offspring of mothers who experience diabetes mellitus during pregnancy are seven times more likely to develop health complications than the offspring of mothers who do not suffer from diabetes during pregnancy. The present study was designed to investigate whether supplementation of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant mice with thymoquinone (TQ) during pregnancy and lactation improves the risk of developing diabetic complications acquired by their offspring. Methods Three groups of pregnant female mice were used: non-diabetic control dams (CD), diabetic dams (DD), and diabetic dams supplemented with TQ (DD + TQ) during pregnancy and lactation (n = 10 female mice in each group). Results Our data demonstrated a marked decrease in the number of neonates born to DD, and these neonates showed a marked increase in their mean body weight (macrosomic pups) compared to those born to CD and DD + TQ. The induction of diabetes during pregnancy and lactation resulted in macrosomic pups with several postpartum complications, such as a marked increase in their levels of blood glucose, free radicals, plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), and lipids, and a tendency toward abnormal obesity compared to the offspring of CD. By contrast, macrosomic offspring born to DD exhibited a marked reduction in plasma cytokine levels (IL-2, -4 and -7), an obvious reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, decreased proliferation of superantigen (SEB)-stimulated lymphocytes and aberrant AKT phosphorylation. Interestingly, the supplementation of DD with TQ during pregnancy and lactation had an obvious and significant effect on the number and mean body weight of neonates. Furthermore, TQ significantly restored the levels of blood glucose, insulin, free radicals, plasma cytokines, and lipids as well as lymphocyte proliferation in the offspring. Conclusions Our data suggest that the nutritional supplementation of DD with the natural antioxidant TQ during pregnancy and lactation protects their offspring from developing diabetic complications and preserves an efficient lymphocyte immune response later in life.
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