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Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages), and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils), remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha) and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical) climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal) hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.
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... However, it should be recognized that the success of wetland restoration for odonates, as with other taxa, may strongly depend on land-use history and distances to potential sources of colonists (Krieger et al., 2019). There can often be substantial variation in the rate at which physical, biotic, and ecosystem functional properties of wetlands recover-it may take decades for restoration sites to resemble natural wetlands (Beadle et al., 2015), and in many cases recovery may never be complete (Beadle et al., 2015;Moreno-Mateos et al., 2012). Pond restoration is increasingly approached from a network perspective or thinking in terms of a whole pondscape (Hill et al., 2018). ...
... Considering the enormous costs and sometimes limited success of restoration, even at small scales (Moreno-Mateos et al., 2012;Szalkiewicz et al., 2018), the protection of remaining habitat, wherever possible, should be the priority for odonates and other taxa of the freshwater realm (Simaika et al., 2021). However, the widespread and intensifying degradation of freshwater ecosystems means that extensive ongoing ecological restoration is also needed to help safeguard freshwater biodiversity, now and into the future. ...
Chapter
Anthropogenic impacts on freshwater ecosystems are so extensive that conservation efforts can no longer focus solely on protecting pristine or near-natural sites. Ecological restoration tries to replace, mitigate, or recover losses and damages to biodiversity, habitats, and ecosystems. Restoration also aims to create novel habitats and ecosystems that are more resilient to human impacts. Odonates are relatively easy to survey and play important basic and applied ecological roles in aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems, and are therefore a key target for restoring freshwater biodiversity and ecological networks. Many odonate species are sensitive to environmental changes and can be used as indicators of restoration progress or success. Species may also be translocated to accelerate natural colonization and augment populations. Restoration actions are likely to increase globally during the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030), providing an opportune time to promote a broader restorative culture around odonates.
... Si la question porte sur la mesure dans laquelle l'intégrité écologique a été restaurée, la meilleure pratique consistera à échantillonner et à comparer les indicateurs d'intégrité (voir Sélection des variables indicatrices) dans les zones où les mesures auront été appliquées, après leur application, par rapport à un modèle de référence (voir Encadré 5). 34,60 Un suivi de l'efficacité est important pour suivre les progrès réalisés vers un objectif, mais ne permettra pas de déterminer si, ou dans quelle mesure, les activités de restauration ont été directement responsables de la réalisation de cet objectif. En d'autres termes, ce type de suivi ne pourra pas être utilisé pour déterminer si les mesures mises en oeuvre ont provoqué le résultat observé. ...
Book
Recent global initiatives in ecosystem restoration offer an unprecedented opportunity to improve biodiversity conservation and human health and well-being. Ecosystems form a core component of biodiversity. They provide humans with multiple benefits – a stable climate and breathable air; water, food and materials; and protection from disaster and disease. Ecosystem restoration, as defined by the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, includes a range of management interventions that aim to reduce impacts on and assist in the recovery of ecosystems that have been damaged, degraded or destroyed. This Guide promotes the application of the science of ecosystem risk assessment, which involves measuring the risk of ecosystem collapse, in ecosystem restoration. It explores how the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems and ecosystem restoration can be jointly deployed to reduce risk of ecosystem collapse.
... Si la pregunta se refiere al grado en que se ha restaurado la integridad ecológica, la mejor práctica consistirá en muestrear y comparar indicadores de integridad (véase Seleccionar las variables indicadoras) en las áreas tratadas, después del tratamiento, con un modelo de referencia (véase Recuadro 5). 34,60 El monitoreo de la eficacia es importante para rastrear los progresos realizados hacia los objetivos, pero no permite determinar si, o en qué medida, las actividades de restauración fueron directamente responsables de lograr el objetivo. En otras palabras, este tipo de monitoreo no se podrá utilizar para determinar si el tratamiento resultó en el resultado observado. ...
Book
Recent global initiatives in ecosystem restoration offer an unprecedented opportunity to improve biodiversity conservation and human health and well-being. Ecosystems form a core component of biodiversity. They provide humans with multiple benefits – a stable climate and breathable air; water, food and materials; and protection from disaster and disease. Ecosystem restoration, as defined by the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, includes a range of management interventions that aim to reduce impacts on and assist in the recovery of ecosystems that have been damaged, degraded or destroyed. This Guide promotes the application of the science of ecosystem risk assessment, which involves measuring the risk of ecosystem collapse, in ecosystem restoration. It explores how the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems and ecosystem restoration can be jointly deployed to reduce risk of ecosystem collapse.
... Ecosystems provide many essential resources for human well-being and sustainable development of socio-economy, and provide strong support for the harmonious development of human society (Hu et al. 2017). Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems, and play a key role in improving water quality, maintaining ecosystem stability, and protecting biodiversity Moreno-Mateos et al. 2012). In the past few decades, the rapid reduction and degradation of wetlands under the dual effects of global warming and development plunder have become a global phenomenon, Wetland ecosystems have become one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world . ...
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Wetland ecosystems have been seriously degraded by human activities and natural factors, and its restoration and coordinated development depend on long-term effective cooperation between the government and investors and providers. From the perspective of vulnerability of wetland ecosystem construction, this paper takes the government and investors, providers as the research object and propose a wetland ecosystem cooperation network, the article considers the “Matthew effect” of network connection and relationship cost, and uses the method of the evolutionary game on complex networks to construct the cooperative game model of wetland ecosystems. This research finds that (1) the vulnerability of wetland ecosystem varies greatly in different development stages, especially when the government subsidy coefficient for providers is reduced to 0.3, the vulnerability index is instead smaller. (2) The cooperative strategy adopted by investors can produce synergistic effect, which plays a major role in the healthy function of wetland ecosystem. (3) When the government subsidy coefficient for investors reaches 0.8, wetland ecosystem vulnerability shows a significant downward trend; when the provider loss coefficient reaches 0.8, wetland ecosystem vulnerability is significantly reduced and system stability is significantly enhanced. Thus, when the government actively promotes cooperation by adopting appropriate subsidies and regulation for investors and providers, the willingness of investors and providers to cooperate rapidly converges to 1, wetland ecosystem in vulnerability is at the lowest level. Finally, the findings combined with the numerical simulation analysis indicates that the importance of investors cooperating with the government in taking cooperative strategies actively, showing that stakeholder behavioral strategies can improve wetland ecosystem vulnerability. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the cooperation of wetland ecosystem stakeholders and a new direction for effectively reducing the vulnerability of wetland ecosystems and building efficient and benign wetland ecosystems in practice, which is of far-reaching significance for promoting wetland conservation management and an important reference value for wetland conservation planning, governance and improving the level of wetland conservation management.
... Hydrological variability including the timing, magnitude, frequency, and duration of inundation is a key determinant of wetland diversity and functions (Zedler, 2000;Moreno-Mateos et al., 2012). Many studies also report that soil nutrients influence seed germination and wetland plant distribution (Ardón et al., 2010;Duff et al., 2009). ...
Article
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... Regardless of how sustainable agricultural land use change is, one cannot deny the fact that such land use changes also surge fertilizer and pesticide use, agricultural water consumption, above-ground vegetation and associated management practices, which can have significant and enduring effects on physicochemical properties and soil microbial diversity (Mateos et al., 2012;Calhoun et al., 2014;Gao et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2020). Previous studies showed that these factors have a negative influence on soil functioning and ecology (Carlson et al., 2012;Li et al., 2018). ...
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The implementation of French mitigation bank requires an approval (agrément SNC) delivered by state services through an instruction phase. However, the ecological expectations of state services need to be clarified. To assist stakeholders, we developed an assessment framework whose aim is to specify the useful criteria to justify/determine whether or not a mitigation bank project is ecologically relevant. In this context, we intended to answer the following question: regarding its ecological gains strategy and the site location, is the project suitable to achieve its ecological gains objectives? We define as ecologically relevant a mitigation bank project whose (1) ecological gains strategy is based on acceptable objectives, realistic and operational restauration, management and monitoring measures. This strategy must be (2) consistent with the intrinsic characteristics of the host site(s) and the (3) landscape context in which the project takes place. (4) The respect of the offset principles is ultimately the guiding line of any mitigation project. The different criteria identified through those four assessment components were organized under the form of a project reading grid on which we give more details.
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How much wetland we should protect or restore is not a simple question, such that conservation targets are often set according to political agendas, then standardized globally. However, given their key regulating hydrological functions, wetlands represent nature-based solutions to the anticipated, exacerbating effect of climate change on drought and flood events, which will vary at the regional scale. Here, we propose a science-based approach to establishing regional wetland restoration targets centered on their hydrological functions, using a case study on several sub-watersheds of a northern temperate basin in south-eastern Canada. We posit that restoration targets should minimally mitigate the negative effects of climate change on watershed hydrology, namely peak and low flows. We used a semi-distributed hydrological model, HYDROTEL, to perform a hydroclimatic assessment, including 47 climate projections over the 1979–2099 period, to test the effect of wetland restoration scenarios on peak and low flows. The results showed that hydrological responses to climate change varied among sub-watersheds (even at the scale of a relatively small region), and that, to mitigate these changes, increases in wetland coverage should be between 20% and up to 150%. At low restoration levels, increasing wetland coverage was more effective in attenuating floods than alleviating droughts. This study indicates that a no-net-loss policy is insufficient to maintain current hydrological cycles in the face of climate change; rather, a ‘net gain’ in wetland cover is needed.
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Chapter
This chapter was written based on four basic beliefs: 1) wetlands will continue to be destroyed worldwide, 2) knowledge of functions and values of natural wetlands will continue to increase, 3) wetland rehabilitation will increase in popularity as a means of increasing wetland resources, and 4) experience from the United States can contribute to wetland rehabilitation both within the United States and elsewhere in the world.