Usefulness of the Right Parasternal Approach to Evaluate the Morphology of Atrial Septal Defect for Transcatheter Closure Using Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography

Division of Medical Support, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Kita-ku Shikata-Cho, Okayama, Japan.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (Impact Factor: 4.06). 01/2012; 25(4):376-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.echo.2012.01.002
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of addition of the right parasternal approach to the conventional left parasternal and apical approaches using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for morphologic evaluation in cases of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs).
In 112 consecutive patients with ASDs, the morphology of the defects was evaluated for transcatheter closure in the right parasternal view in addition to the conventional left views using 2D and 3D TTE. Measurements of the maximal ASD diameter and detection of deficient rim obtained on 2D TTE were compared with those obtained by 2D transesophageal echocardiography. The shapes and locations of ASDs visualized by 3D TTE were compared with those visualized by 3D transesophageal echocardiography.
In 88 patients (80.0%), optimal images from the right parasternal approach for morphologic evaluation of ASDs were obtained. Although there was a significant difference in maximal ASD diameter obtained only in the conventional left approach compared with transesophageal echocardiographic measurements (P < .05), when the right parasternal approach was applied, a significant difference was not found (P = .18), and the diagnostic concordance of the rim deficiency was improved from 85.2% to 90.9%. Three-dimensional TTE from the right parasternal approach improved visualization of the shape and location of ASDs from 65.5% to 74.5%.
Additional use of the right parasternal approach enables detailed morphologic evaluation for transcatheter closure of ASDs. In patients with suboptimal images on 3D TTE in the left conventional approach, additional 3D TTE in the right parasternal approach can improve the feasibility of obtaining optimal 3D images to evaluate the shapes and locations of ASDs.

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    • "By contrast, the excellence of 3D images has been reported by many interventionists. Reconstructed en-face CT or TEE images are superior for visualizing the morphology and the number of defects16,22,23,24,25). The morphology and location of the defect may be more easily understood on 3D images obtained from CT than those obtained from TEE. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects has become a popular procedure. The availability of a preprocedural imaging study is crucial for a safe and successful closure. Both the anatomy and morphology of the defect should be precisely evaluated before the procedure. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography are helpful for understanding the morphology of a defect, which is important because different defect morphologies could variously impact the results. During the procedure, real-time 3D echocardiography can be used to guide an accurate closure. The safety and efficiency of transcatheter closures of atrial septal defects could be improved through the use of detailed imaging studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult congenital heart disease is one of the most important clinical issues not only for pediatric cardiologists but also adult cardiologists. After the introduction of catheter intervention for atrial septal defect in the pediatric population, therapeutic advantages of this less invasive procedure now focused on even geriatric patients. The most valuable clinical benefit of this procedure is the significant improvement in symptoms and daily activities, which result from the closure of left to right shunt without thoracotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Although currently available therapeutic options for device closure for congenital heart disease in Japan are limited to atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or some vascular abnormalities such as coronary arteriovenous fistula, various new techniques or devices such as ventricular septal defect device, pulmonary valve implantation, are going to be introduced in the near future. To perform safely and achieve good procedure success, real time imaging plays an important role in interventional procedures. Real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can provide high quality imaging for anatomical evaluation including defect size, surrounding rim morphology, and the relationship between device and septal rim. In adult patients, optimal management of comorbidities is an important issue, including cardiac function, arrhythmias, pulmonary function, and renal function. In particular, atrial arrhythmias are key issues for long-term outcome. Because the interventional procedures are not complication-free techniques, the establishment of a surgical back-up system is essential for achieving a safe procedure. Finally, the establishment of a team approach including pediatric and adult cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, and anesthesiologists is the most important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. Their roles include pre-interventional hemodynamic evaluation, good imaging technique for anatomical evaluation, management of comorbidities, and surgical back up.
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