Temporal trends and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances in livers of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) populations from Northern Europe, 1991-2008
NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens gate 14, NO-9296 Tromsø, Norway.Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 03/2012; 419:216-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.050
Long-term temporal trends (1991-2008) and spatial differences of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were investigated in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) liver samples of juvenile females from the Baltic and North Sea. Additionally, spatial differences between the populations in the Baltic Sea and Atlantic Ocean (i.e. Iceland and Norway) and the influence of the body mass, age and sex on the PFAS concentrations were examined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound with a concentration range of 160-2425 ng/g wet weight (ww), followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, 1-237 ng/g ww) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA, 3-124 ng/g ww). In terms of temporal trends, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and PFOSA concentrations decreased over time, while, conversely, the C(9)-C(13) perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFCA) concentrations increased. Spatial distribution of the contaminant concentrations showed consistently higher concentrations in the Baltic Sea and lowest concentrations in the Icelandic population of the Atlantic Ocean.
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ABSTRACT: The levels and congener patterns of HBCDs (hexabromocyclododecanes) and PFCs (perfluorinated compounds) were determined in filter-feeding molluscs collected in 2008 and 2010 along the coasts of mainland France. α-HBCD and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) were detected in all samples, revealing widespread contamination of the coastal environment by these emerging contaminants. The spatial distribution of Σ-HBCD concentrations showed higher median levels in samples from the Mediterranean Sea and English Channel respectively, i.e. 0.19ngg(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.08ngg(-1) ww, related to high anthropogenic pressure from urban and industrial activities, while the median concentration was 0.05ngg(-1) ww in samples from the Atlantic coast. Among PFCs, PFOS was the only compound detected in all samples and PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid) was the second most frequently-detected compound. PFOS median concentrations were 0.18ngg(-1) ww, 0.09ngg(-1) ww and 0.04ngg(-1) ww in samples from the English Channel, the Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean coast respectively. The highest PFOS concentration was found in the Loire estuary, possibly related to local industrial activities. The Mediterranean samples showed a different pattern, with predominant long-chain PFCAs (perfluorocarboxylic acids), suggesting the presence of alternative sources on the Mediterranean coast. The temporal trends studied in archived samples from the Seine estuary site showed a significant exponential increase in HBCD concentrations between 1981 and 2011, with a doubling time of 7years, while PFOS levels underwent a significant linear decrease over time. These trends are coherent with current regulations on the use of these compounds. The results presented in this paper provide the first data on the contamination of the French coastal marine environment by the selected emerging compounds, and constitute a reference for the future monitoring of French coastal contamination by emerging contaminants.
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n=9), blood (n=19), brain (n=16), muscle (n=5), and adipose (n=5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0±0.5% of Σ-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4±0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61±0.10%, and 3.26±0.13% of Σ-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs.
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