Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine and Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, 1000 Oakland Drive, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/2012; 59(1):27-43, ix-x. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2011.10.003
Source: PubMed


Epidemiologic data gathered over the last 40 years report that the conservative estimate of autistic spectrum disorder prevalence is 27.5 per 10,000 individuals; however, the prevalence estimate based on newer surveys is 60 per 10,000 individuals. Several factors are considered in various epidemiologic surveys of autism, especially the evolution of the concept of autism and changing criteria for diagnosis. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for autism.

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    • "In the past decades, the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increased fourfold (Duchan and Patel 2012). This increase in childhood diagnoses of ASD implies a growing public health issue, since individuals with ASD often use mental health care and special education, probably not only in childhood, but also later in life. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were administered in childhood (ages 6-12) and in adolescence (ages 12-20) to 72 individuals with a pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). ADOS calibrated severity scores showed a large stability (r = .51). Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood and adolescence were not associated with ASD severity in adolescence. Mental health care use (87 %) and special education needs were high (71 %). Reevaluation of ASD severity and psychiatric comorbidity later in life seem useful when PDD-NOS is diagnosed in childhood.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    • "The newest research insights on its etiology have shown that ASD is highly heritable (Eapen 2011) and indicate a delay in brain development (Bastiaanse et al. 2011; Hazlett et al. 2006; Hedvall et al. 2014; Hua et al. 2011; Roberts et al. 2013; Whitehouse et al. 2011). Survey studies propose the best estimate for the prevalence of ASD as being 70–90/10,000 (Fombonne 2009), with a male to female ratio of 4:1 (Duchan and Patel 2012). However, in studies after 2004, this ratio has increased to 100–250/10,000 (Isaksen et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or its delegate. Results show an extremely low prevalence of 0.11 % of pupils with any ASD diagnosis; another 0.21 % were suspected to have ASD, but were without a diagnosis. This low prevalence suggests that children and adolescents with ASD are not included in regular education in Quito. These results are discussed in the light of low diagnostic identification of ASD and low inclusion tolerance.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    • "Current epidemiological data show that ASDs are more common than was thought a few years ago. Specifically, there are between 6 and 8 cases per 1000 inhabitants (1%) and AS is 8–10 times more common in males (Duchan & Patel, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in interpersonal skills. Different theories have tried to explain this disorder by taking into account general intelligence, information processing, executive functions, emotional intelligence, etc., but to date, none of these completely explains the cause of these deficits. The present study investigates the relations between interpersonal skill deficits and different cognitive skills. A total of 45 children with Asperger Syndrome, between the ages of 7 and 13, were assessed using tests of intelligence, executive function (using a dynamic assessment methodology) and social comprehension. The results show that Asperger Syndrome children profit from the brief training inserted into a dynamic assessment test. In addition, dynamic assessment reveals differences within the Asperger Syndrome group that go unnoticed in standard assessment, and shows how these differences are related to measures of social comprehension and to the intercorrelation between WISC sub-tests. In conclusion, use of dynamic assessment methodology may be useful for planning interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Learning and Individual Differences
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