Dosimetric research on intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy planning for left breast cancer after breast-preservation surgery
School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji'nan, China.Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (Impact Factor: 0.76). 01/2012; 37(3):287-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.meddos.2011.11.001
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has played an important role in breast cancer radiotherapy after breast-preservation surgery. Our aim was to study the dosimetric and implementation features/feasibility between IMRT and intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (Varian RapidArc, Varian, Palo Alto, CA). The forward IMRT plan (f-IMRT), the inverse IMRT, and the RapidArc plan (RA) were generated for 10 patients. Afterward, we compared the target dose distribution of the 3 plans, radiation dose on organs at risk, monitor units, and treatment time. All 3 plans met clinical requirements, with RA performing best in target conformity. In target homogeneity, there was no statistical significance between RA and IMRT, but both of homogeneity were less than f-IMRT's. With regard to the V(5) and V(10) of the left lung, those in RA were higher than in f-IMRT but were lower than in IMRT; for V(20) and V(30), the lowest was observed in RA; and in the V(5) and V(10) of the right lung, as well as the mean dose in normal-side breast and right lung, there was no statistically significance difference between RA and IMRT, and the lowest value was observed in f-IMRT. As for the maximum dose in the normal-side breast, the lowest value was observed in RA. Regarding monitor units (MUs), those in RA were higher than in f-IMRT but were lower than in IMRT. Treatment time of RA was 84.6% and 88.23% shorter than f-IMRT and IMRT, respectively, on average. Compared with f-IMRT and IMRT, RA performed better in target conformity and can reduce high-dose volume in the heart and left lung-which are related to complications-significantly shortening treatment time as well. Compared with IMRT, RA can also significantly reduce low-dose volume and MUs of the afflicted lung.
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ABSTRACT: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique allowing dose escalation and normal tissue sparing for various cancer types. For breast cancer, the main goals when using IMRT were to improve dose homogeneity within the breast and to enhance coverage of complex target volumes. Nonetheless, better heart and lung protections are achievable with IMRT as compared to standard irradiation for difficult cases. Three prospective randomized controlled trials of IMRT versus standard treatment showed that a better breast homogeneity can translate into better overall cosmetic results. Dosimetric and clinical studies seem to indicate a benefit of IMRT for lymph nodes irradiation, bilateral treatment, left breast and chest wall radiotherapy, or accelerated partial breast irradiation. The multiple technical IMRT solutions available tend to indicate a widespread use for breast irradiation. Nevertheless, indications for breast IMRT should be personalized and selected according to the expected benefit for each individual.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between total monitor units (MU), dosimetric findings, and pre-treatment quality assurance for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RapidArc (RA). Ten patients with breast cancer were considered. Dose prescriptions were: 48 Gy and 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions to, respectively, PTVBoost and PTVWholeBreast. A reference plan was optimized and four more plans using the "MU Objective", a tool for total MU controlling, were prepared imposing ±20 and ±50% total MU for inducing different complexities. Plan objectives were: D95% > 95% for both PTVs, and D2% < 107% for PTVBoost; mean dose < 9.5 Gy and V20 Gy < 10% for ipsilateral lung; V18 Gy < 5% for heart; mean dose <3 Gy for controlateral breast; furthermore V5 Gy, V10 Gy , V20 Gy, and V30 Gy to body were minimized. Plans were evaluated in terms of technical parameters, dosimetric plan objectives findings and pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). Concerning PTVs, there were no significant differences for target coverage (D95%); mean doses for ipsilateral lung and controlateral breast, and V18 Gy for heart decreased with MUs increasing, reaching a plateau with reference plan. Body volume receiving low dose (V5-10 Gy) was minimized for reference plans. All plans had GAI (3 mm, 3%) > 95%. The data suggest that the best plan is the reference one, where the "MU Objective" tool was not used during optimisation. Nevertheless, it is advisable to use the "MU Objective" tool for re-planning when low GAI is found to increase its value. In this case, attention should be paid to OARs dose limits, since their values may be increased.
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ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy increases the morbidity of immediate breast reconstruction. To spare the flapped area without an adverse dose distribution of the target volume and organ at risks, various radiation techniques were assessed. Twelve breasts undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction were evaluated. After a delineation of whole breast, the doughnut-like breast target volume (BTV) including the chest wall and skin and the subtracted central flapped volume (FV) were defined. The opposed wedge tangential radiotherapy (3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT) ), field-in-field radiotherapy (FiF), inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (iIMRT), volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMRT) and the mixture of FiF and iIMRT (HYBRID) were tried. Total 50 Gy was prescribed to the BTV. The paired student t-tests were performed. The V47.5Gy of the BTV was improved in iIMRT and VMRT compared with 3-D CRT and FiF. The mean FV doses in iIMRT and VMRT were 76.7 ± 3.9% and 85.5 ± 4.0%, respectively. However the mean ipsilateral lung doses were aggravated by iIMRT and VMRT. In terms of HYBRID, the V47.5Gy for the BTV was 97.5 ± 0.7%. The mean FV dose was 89.4 ± 2.1%. While the mean FV dose in HYBRID was 13.7 ± 2.1% (P < 0.001) lower than FiF, it was 12.8 ± 1.9% (P < 0.001) higher than iIMRT. The mean ipsilateral lung dose in HYBRID was 2.8 ± 1.9% (P < 0.001) worse than FiF, and 2.6 ± 1.8% (P < 0.001) better than iIMRT. The HYBRID could minimise the adverse dose distribution of lung and reduce 10% of the mean dose to the flapped area. For patients with adverse factors for the failure of breast reconstruction, the HYBRID could be considered.
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