Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) can develop a condition referred to as ICU-acquired weakness. This condition is characterized by profound weakness that is greater than might be expected to result from prolonged bed rest. ICU-acquired weakness often is accompanied by dysfunction of multiple organ systems. Individuals with ICU-acquired weakness typically have significant activity limitations often requiring physical assistance for even the most basic activities associated with bed mobility. Many of these individuals have activity limitations months to years after hospitalization. The purpose of this article is to review evidence that guides physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired weakness. Included are diagnostic criteria, medical management, and prognostic indicators as well as criteria for beginning physical rehabilitation, with an emphasis on patient safety. Data are presented indicating that rehabilitation can be implemented with very few adverse effects. Evidence is provided for appropriate measurement approaches and for physical intervention strategies. Finally, some of the key issues are summarized that should be investigated to determine the best intervention guidelines for individuals with ICU-acquired weakness.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. There is practical evidence that physical rehabilitation of patients can be implemented with few adverse effects . In recent years appropriate assessments were developed and description of suitable physical intervention strategies were described in the literature [1 8-12]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Due to its simplicity, the ubiquitous Elmore delay, or first moment of the impulse response, has been an extremely popular delay metric for analyzing RC trees and meshes. Its inaccuracy has been noted, however, and it has been demonstrated that higher order moments can be mapped to dominant pole approximations (e.g. AWE) in the general case. The first three moments can be mapped to a two-pole approximation, but stability is an issue, and even a stable model results in a transcendental equation that must be iteratively evaluated to determine the delay. In this paper we describe an explicit delay approximation based on the first three moments of the impulse response. We begin with the development of a provably stable two-pole transfer function/impedance model based on the first three moments (about s=0) of the impulse response. Then, since the model form is known, we evaluate the delay (any waveform percentage point) in terms of an analytical approximation that is consistently within a fraction of 1 percent of the “exact” solution for this model. The result is an accurate, explicit delay expression that will be an effective metric for high-speed interconnect circuit models.