A review of rifaximin and bacterial overgrowth in poorly responsive celiac disease

Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 01/2012; 5(1):31-6. DOI: 10.1177/1756283X11422264
Source: PubMed


A proportion of patients with celiac disease have a poor response to a gluten-free diet, which may be due to small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Treatment with rifaximin is often used in the clinical setting, but there is limited literature to support this practice. In addition, challenges in the diagnosis of SIBO confound response interpretation. Our recent placebo-controlled trial did not demonstrate any improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms after treatment with rifaximin and casts doubt on the utility of lactulose-hydrogen breath testing for SIBO in this population.

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Available from: Peter H R Green, Mar 26, 2014
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    • "There is also evidence suggesting that the symptoms in IBS might be caused by continuous low-grade small-bowel mucosal inflammation [30,31,33], a condition which may persist in coeliac disease despite a strict gluten-free diet [34,35]. Finally, small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth may account for symptoms in both coeliac disease and IBS and is also accompanied by mucosal inflammation [33,36,37]. Whatever mechanisms lie behind the persistent symptoms, our results indicate that they could be ameliorated by diagnosing coeliac disease as early as possible. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evidence suggests that many coeliac disease patients suffer from persistent clinical symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life despite a strict gluten-free diet. We aimed to find predictors for these continuous health concerns in long-term treated adult coeliac patients. Methods In a nationwide study, 596 patients filled validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires and were interviewed regarding demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment of coeliac disease, time and place of diagnosis and presence of coeliac disease-associated or other co-morbidities. Dietary adherence was assessed by a combination of self-reported adherence and serological tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression. Results Diagnosis at working age, long duration and severity of symptoms before diagnosis and presence of thyroidal disease, non-coeliac food intolerance or gastrointestinal co-morbidity increased the risk of persistent symptoms. Patients with extraintestinal presentation at diagnosis had fewer current symptoms than subjects with gastrointestinal manifestations. Impaired quality of life was seen in patients with long duration of symptoms before diagnosis and in those with psychiatric, neurologic or gastrointestinal co-morbidities. Patients with persistent symptoms were more likely to have reduced quality of life. Conclusions There were a variety of factors predisposing to increased symptoms and impaired quality of life in coeliac disease. Based on our results, early diagnosis of the condition and consideration of co-morbidities may help in resolving long-lasting health problems in coeliac disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: The symptoms and signs of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) are often identical to a variety of diseases and can lead to diagnostic confusion. To review the diagnostic options for SIBO and present new investigative options for the condition. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for English articles and abstracts. Search terms included free text words and combinations of the following terms 'small intestinal bacterial overgrowth', 'small bowel bacterial overgrowth', 'diagnostic tests', 'treatment', 'antibiotics', 'probiotics', 'metabonomics', 'proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy', 'electronic nose' and 'field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry'. All of the available methods to test for SIBO have inherent limitations and no 'gold-standard' diagnostic test for the condition exists. Accurate diagnosis of SIBO requires identification of bacterial species growing inappropriately within the small intestine and symptom response to antibiotics. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electronic nose technology and/or field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry may represent better investigative options for the condition. Novel diagnostic options are needed to supplement or replace available tests.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance caused by an excessive amount of bacteria in the upper alimentary tract. Physiological microbiota are replaced by pathogenic bacteria mainly from large intestine, which is called dysbacteriosis. SIBO disturbs digestion and absorption in the alimentary tract, which seems to cause inflammation. SIBO affects the morphology and function of the digestive system and causes systemic complications (e.g. osteoporosis, macrocytic anemia). Inflammation interferes with gene expression responsible for producing and secreting mucus, therefore, a correlation between SIBO and cystic fibrosis, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic abdominal pain are postulated. All conditions leading to bacterial growth such as congenital and anatomical abnormalities in the digestive tract, motility disorder or immunological deficits are risk factors of SIBO. A typical clinical manifestation of SIBO comprises meteorism, enterectasia, abdominal discomfort and diarrhea. Diagnostic procedures such as glucose, lactulose, methane, 13C mixed triglyceride breath tests are being used in diagnosing SIBO.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Advances in Medical Sciences