Intraoperative blood product resuscitation and mortality in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

Vascular Surgery Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (Impact Factor: 3.02). 03/2012; 55(3):688-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.10.028
Source: PubMed


The resuscitation of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) has not been well studied, and the potential benefit of autotransfusion (AT) is unknown. The increased use of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) has been associated with decreased mortality rates in trauma patients and may also improve RAAA survival. We explored the influence of intraoperative AT and FFP resuscitation on mortality rates in massively transfused RAAA patients.
A single-center review of RAAA patient records from April 1989 to October 2009 was undertaken. Clinical data and outcomes were studied. Operative and anesthesia records were queried for intraoperative transfusion totals. Massive transfusion was defined as ≥10 units of red blood cells (RBCs) inclusive of AT units.
We identified 151 RAAA patients, of which 89 (60%) received a massive transfusion and comprised the study population. These 89 patients had an in-hospital mortality rate of 44%. Univariate predictors of mortality included increased age, preoperative hypotension, operative blood loss, and crystalloid, RBCs, and FFP volume. AT was used in 85 patients, with an increased ratio of AT:RBC units associated with survival. Mortality was 34% with AT:packed RBCs (PRBC) ≥1 (high AT) and 55% with AT:PRBC of <1 (low AT; P = .04). On multivariate analysis, age > 74 years (P = .03), lowest preoperative systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mm Hg (P = .06), blood loss >6 liters (P = .06), and low AT (P = .02) independently predicted mortality. The mean RBC:FFP ratio was similar in those that died (2.7) and in those that lived (2.9; P = .66). RBC:FFP ≤2 (high FFP) was present in 38 (43%) patients, with mortality of 49%. RBC:FFP >2 (low FFP) had 40% mortality (P = .39). RBC:FFP ratios decreased over time from 3.6 (years 1989 to 1999) to 2.2 (years 2000 to 2009; P < .001), but more liberal use of FFP was not associated with decreased mortality (47% vs 41%; P = .56). AT:PRBC ratios were stable over time (range, 1.4-1.2; P = .18).
Greater use of AT but not of FFP was associated with survival in massively transfused RAAA patients. No mortality benefit was seen with increased FFP, but few patients had high FFP transfusion ratios. Further study to identify RAAA patients at risk for massive transfusion should be undertaken and a potentially greater role for AT in RAAA resuscitation investigated.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) remains a challenging problem: 2,410 cases were treated in Germany in 2010. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be suspected in patients over age 50 who complain of pain in the abdomen or back and in whom examination reveals a pulsatile abdominal mass. The incidence of hospitalization for rAAA is 12 per 100 000 persons over age 65 per year (statistics for Germany, 2010), and rAAA carries an overall mortality of 80%. The current state of knowledge of rAAA was surveyed in a selective review of pertinent literature retrieved by an electronic search in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases with the keywords "abdominal aortic aneurysm," "ruptured," "open repair," and "endovascular." Publications in English or German up to and including March 2012 were considered, among them the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (1). Recent reports show that the treatment of rAAA is still fraught with high mortality and high perioperative morbidity. Improvement is needed. It would be advisable for the care of rAAA to be centralized in specialized vascular centers implementing defined treatment pathways. Systematic screening, too, would be beneficial. An increasing number of reports suggest that endovascular treatment with stent prostheses improves outcomes; more definitive evidence on this matter will come from prospective, randomized trials that are now in progress.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the outcome and predisposing factors related to perioperative bleeding in patients treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 525 consecutive patients (73% elective) with AAA underwent EVAR at two vascular centres from 2008 to 2011. From registry data perioperative bleeding was analysed in relation to outcome and preoperative data. RESULTS: A total of 453 (86%) patients presented with a perioperative bleeding <1000 ml, 42 (8%) patients 1000-1999 ml, 19 (4%) patients 2000-5000 ml and 11 (2%) >5000 ml. Other than ruptured AAA (n = 90), no preoperative risk factors for increased perioperative bleeding were found. Open femoral artery access (n = 101), branched (n = 18) and uni-iliacal endografts (n = 18) and introducer size were associated with increased perioperative bleeding (P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression only rupture and perioperative bleeding >2000 ml were significantly related to 30-day mortality (odds ratio 10.6 (range 3.8-29.6) and 13.4 (range 4.8-37.4), respectively). Postoperative renal failure, multi-organ failure, >5 days at intensive care unit, bowel ischaemia and abdominal compartments syndrome were significantly related to perioperative bleeding >2000 ml (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Large perioperative bleeding during EVAR is a clinical problem that affects outcome. About 10% of elective AAA patients and 34% of patients with ruptured AAA, undergoing EVAR, present a perioperative blood loss exceeding 1 l. In our study, a perioperative blood loss exceeding 2 l was independently associated with increased mortality and morbidity in both acute and elective AAA patients. Open femoral access, branched EVAR and larger diameter introducers were associated with increased perioperative blood loss. ETHICAL APPLICATION: 2011/664-31/3 (approved).
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review outcomes of massive transfusion protocol (MTP) activation and determine the impact of MTP implementation on blood bank use. MTP has been established to rapidly provide plasma and packed red blood cells in ratios approaching 1 : 1. Due to availability, MTP has been utilised in non-traumatic haemorrhage despite evidence of benefit in this population. Our hospital-wide implementation of MTP was reviewed for propriety, outcomes and effect on blood bank resources. Retrospective cohort study of patients receiving transfusion after MTP activation from October 2009 to 2011. Underlying medical conditions and baseline medication use were determined. In-hospital and 24-h mortality were compared with evaluation for confounding by Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score and duration of MTP activation. Blood product use before and after MTP implementation was reviewed. MTP activation occurred in 62 trauma and 63 non-trauma patients. Non-trauma patients were older, had more underlying medical conditions and higher APACHE scores compared with trauma patients; 24-h mortality was higher in trauma compared with non-trauma patients (27·4 vs 11·1%, P = 0·02). There was no significant difference of in-hospital mortality. Transfusion ratio did not differ between trauma and non-trauma patients and was not associated with mortality even when MTP activation duration and APACHE score were considered. Hospital-wide blood product use did not change with MTP implementation. MTP may be successfully used in trauma and non-trauma settings without significantly impacting overall blood product utilisation. Inclusion of non-trauma patients into prospective studies of resuscitation with blood products is warranted to ensure benefit in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Transfusion Medicine
Show more