Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging LaboratoryAthinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Bldg 75, 13th St, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. Pharmaceutical Research
(Impact Factor: 3.42).
01/2012; 29(5):1180-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-012-0679-7
Nanotechnology is evolving as a new field that has a potentially high research and clinical impact. Medicine, in particular, could benefit from nanotechnology, due to emerging applications for noninvasive imaging and therapy. One important nanotechnological platform that has shown promise includes the so-called iron oxide nanoparticles. With specific relevance to cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticle-based therapy represents an important alternative to conventional chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Iron oxide nanoparticles are usually composed of three main components: an iron core, a polymer coating, and functional moieties. The biodegradable iron core can be designed to be superparamagnetic. This is particularly important, if the nanoparticles are to be used as a contrast agent for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surrounding the iron core is generally a polymer coating, which not only serves as a protective layer but also is a very important component for transforming nanoparticles into biomedical nanotools for in vivo applications. Finally, different moieties attached to the coating serve as targeting macromolecules, therapeutics payloads, or additional imaging tags. Despite the development of several nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we believe that iron oxide nanoparticles are still the most promising platform that can transform nanotechnology into a conventional medical discipline.
Available from: Wei Zhang
- "Iron and iron oxide nanoparticles have received significant interest in recent years for applications such as: anodes for lithium-ion batteries , magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic fluid hyperthermia and cancer diagnosis. The synthesis method should be simple, cheap and scalable, as well as ideally being able to provide a means of protecting the "
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ABSTRACT: A method to simultaneously synthesize carbon-encapsulated magnetic iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) and attach these particles to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is presented. Thermal decomposition of cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer [(C5H5)2Fe2(CO)4], over a range of temperatures from 250° C to 1200° C, results in the formation of Fe-NPs attached to MWCNT. At the same time, a protective carbon shell is produced and surrounds the Fe-NPs, covalently attaching the particles to the MWCNT and leading to resistance to acid dissolution. The carbon coating varies in degree of graphitisation, with higher synthesis temperatures leading to a higher degree of graphitisation. The growth model of the nanoparticles and subsequent mechanism of MWCNT attachment is discussed. Adsorption potential of the hybrid material towards organic dyes (Rhodamine B) has been displayed, an indication of potential uses as material for water treatment. The material has also been electrospun in to aligned nanocomposite fibres to produce a soft magnetic composite (SMC) with future applications in sensors and fast switching solenoids.
Available from: Ersin Kilinc
- "SPIONs sized between 10 and 100 nm can be used for in vivo and in vitro studies due to size similarities with biological macromolecules, cells, and enzymes (Yiu and Keane 2012). Magnetic nanoparticles could be converted to biocompatible forms by coating with poly(ethyleneglycol), dextran, chitosan, copolymers, polyethyleneimine , liposomes, and micelles for in vivo studies (Veiseh et al. 2010, Yigit et al. 2012). Additionally, surface coating could also signifi cantly infl uence the cytotoxicities of SPIONs (Donadel et al. 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles composed from C60 fullerene and γ-Fe2O3 were synthesized by hydrothermal method. XRD, FT-IR, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM were employed for characterizations. The magnetic saturation value of C60-γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles was 66.5 emu g(- 1). Concentration of Fe in nanoparticles asdetermined by ICP-OES was 40.7% Fe. Particle size of C60-γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles was smaller than 10 nm. Maximum adsorption capacity of C60-γ-Fe2O3 for flurbiprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was calculated from Langmuir isotherm as 142.9 mg g(- 1).
Available from: Yoonseok Choi
- "Following the rapid developments in nanotechnology, MNPs have been used to efficiently deliver drugs and genes into cells and tissues and to simultaneously image these processes in vitro and in vivo
–. MNP are taken up by cells through endocytosis which is a complex process ,  The endocytic uptake and endosomal escape mechanisms by which cells take MNP and release specific MNP from endosome would be of interest to the researchers in the field of nanomedicine, cancer diagnosis and treatment. miR-200a-MB-MNPs tend to rapidly accumulate inside endocytic organelles, escape from endosome stained with late endosomal marker, Rab7 and reach the cytosolic space efficiently. "
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ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays important roles in tumor progression to metastasis. Thus, the development of an imaging probe that can monitor transient periods of the EMT process in live cells is required for a better understanding of metastatic process. Inspired by the fact that the mRNA expression levels of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) increase when cells adopt mesenchyme characteristics and that microRNA-200a (miR-200a) can bind to ZEB1 mRNA, we conjugated molecular beacon (MB) mimicking mature miR-200a to magnetic nanoparticles (miR-200a-MB-MNPs) and devised an imaging method to observe transitional changes in the cells during EMT. Transforming growth factor-β1 treated epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines representing both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were used for the validation of miR-200a-MB-MNPs as an EMT imaging probe. The real-time imaging of live cells acquired with the induction of EMT revealed an increase in fluorescence signals by miR-200a-MB-MNPs, cell morphology alterations, and the loss of cell-cell adhesion. Our results suggest that miR-200a-MB-MNPs can be used as an imaging probe for the real-time monitoring of the EMT process in live cells.
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