Malnutrition and intestinal helminth infections in schoolchildren from Dibanda, Cameroon
Department of Plant and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Cameroon. Journal of Helminthology
(Impact Factor: 1.42).
01/2012; DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X12000016
Intestinal helminth infections and malnutrition constitute a major health burden in developing countries, with infants and children being the most vulnerable groups. The extent of the burden of intestinal helminth infections and malnutrition was investigated in a cross-sectional study involving 265 children aged between 4 and 14 years residing in Dibanda, a semi-rural area located in Buea, South West Region, Cameroon. The prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was determined microscopically after faecal samples were prepared by the formol-ether sedimentation concentration technique of stool analysis. Nutritional status was determined using age and the anthropometric parameters of weight and height. Standard deviation (SD) or Z scores of height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) were computed based on the World Health Organization 2006 growth reference curves. Anaemia was assessed by packed cell volume (PCV). The prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in the study population was 47.2% (125/265). All infections were of low intensity, with Ascaris recording the highest geometric mean egg count (GMEC) ± SEM of 363.51 ± 60.35 (egg count range: 76-3000 eggs/gram of stool). Overall, 42.3% of children had PCV < 31%. Also, 47.2% of those with intestinal helminth infections also had PCV < 31%. The prevalence of malnutrition was 30.2% (80/265). Of 80 malnourished children, 5.3% were wasted ( < - 2SD weight-for-height Z-score), 7.2% underweight ( < - 2SD weight-for-age Z score) and 24.2% stunted ( < - 2SD height-for-age Z score). The mean values of all the anthropometric indices were lower in helminth-infected children. Findings from this study are strongly suggestive that intestinal helminth infections and malnutrition exist in children residing in Dibanda and constitute a major health problem that needs to be addressed immediately to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Available from: Endalew Zemene
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ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia.
Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method.
Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7 % (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8 %) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7 %) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8 % of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants.
Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.
Available from: Irene Sumbele
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The contradictory results on the interaction between nutritional status and malaria warrants further investigation in various epidemiological settings, to assert the antagonistic or synergistic relationship. This study examines the prevalence, severity and predictors of malnutrition and its influence on malaria parasitaemia and anaemia severity in children in the Mount Cameroon area.
A cross-sectional study involving 454 children ≤ 14 years was carried out from February to May 2013 in Muea community. Anthropometric measures of malnutrition (z-scores < −2 standard deviations below mean) were obtained and spleen size assessed. The prevalence and density of malaria parasites were determined and haemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count obtained using an automated haematology analyzer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate influence of malnutrition on anaemia, malaria parasitaemia and predictors respectively.
The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 22.8 %, with stunting being the most common form (17.1 %), followed by underweight (8.2 %) and wasting (5.5 %). Stunting was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in males (23.1 %) than in females (11.9 %). The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly highest (P = 0.03) in children ≤5 years old (29.5 %) than their counterparts. Severe stunting, wasting and underweight were prevalent in 4.9 %, 1.6 % and 1.8 % of the children respectively. Clinical malaria parasitaemia was significantly higher (P = 0.01) in children who were stunted (16.9 %) and underweight (21.6 %) than their normal counterparts (7.5 %; 8.2 % respectively). The model demonstrated sex (P = 0.006) and age group 1.1-3 years (P = 0.03) as significant predictors of malnutrition. In children who were malaria parasite negative, the prevalence of anaemia as well as severities were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively) in those malnourished.
The presence of stunting in the community significantly augmented the prevalence and clinical presentation of Plasmodium infection. Malnutrition enhanced the severity of anaemia in malaria parasite negative children hence, their health and growth potential needs to be improved upon.
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