Changes in Neuropsychological and Behavioral Functioning in Children with and without Obstructive Sleep Apnea Following Tonsillectomy
Neuropsychology Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 2.96). 03/2012; 18(2):212-22. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617711001743
The most common treatment for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Following AT, SDB resolves in most cases, and gains in cognitive and behavior scores are consistently reported, although persistent neuropsychological deficits or further declines also have been noted. This study presents results of the comprehensive 1-year follow-up neuropsychological examinations for children in the Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort I (95% return rate). After adjusting for normal developmental and practice-effect related changes in control children, significant improvements 1 year following AT were noted in polysomnography and sleepiness, as well as parental reports of behavior, although cognitive outcomes were mixed. Children undergoing AT with and without polysomnography-confirmed obstructive sleep apnea improved across a range of academic achievement measures, a measure of delayed visual recall, short-term attention/working memory, and executive functioning, along with parental ratings of behavior. On the other hand, measures of verbal abstraction ability, arithmetic calculations, visual and verbal learning, verbal delayed recall, sustained attention, and another measure of visual delayed recall demonstrated declines in ability, while other measures did not improve over time. These findings call into question the expectation that AT resolves most or all behavioral and cognitive difficulties in children with clinical, office-based diagnoses of SDB.
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- "The Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised: Long Version contains 80 items that provide a parent-based approach to the measurement of child behavior between the ages of three and 17 years. Subscales consisting of standardized T-scores were grouped into four separate domains: hyperactivity (including subscales for Hyperactivity, DSM-IV Hyperactive-Impulsive, DSM- IV Inattentive, and Global index of Restless-Impulsive behavior), externalizing (Oppositional and Global Index of Emotional Lability), internalizing (Anxious-Shy, Social Problems, and Perfectionism ), and cognitive rating (Cognitive Problems/Inattention), as primary outcome variables  "
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine whether high intellectual ability, in comparison to average or lower performance, reflects the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing and limits behavioral benefit observed 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: Children aged 3-12 years (n=147) recruited from otolaryngology practices at two hospitals and assessed with Conners' Parent Rating Scales and an age range-appropriate intellectual measure, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale at baseline and 6 months after clinically-indicated adenotonsillectomy. Subjects were classified as having high (IQ≥110), average (90≤IQ<110), or low (IQ<90) cognitive ability. RESULTS: After adenotonsillectomy, improvements in Conners' internalizing, externalizing, hyperactivity, and cognitive domains were observed across IQ groups (main effects for time, all p<0.01 or better), with no evidence for differential improvements among the groups (no significant time by IQ group interactions). The magnitude of behavioral improvement among children with high IQ resembled that observed among the other two groups. Changes in the Conners' domains were not significantly correlated with baseline IQ, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index z-score, or respiratory disturbance index. CONCLUSION: Behavioral function can improve after adenotonsillectomy even among children with relatively high intellectual ability at baseline. Diagnosis and treatment with expectation of neurobehavioral benefit should be considered among high-performing children as readily as it is more traditionally among their lower-performing peers.
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ABSTRACT: While pediatric sleep disorders are relatively common, treatments are often not straightforward. There is often a paucity of gold standard studies and data available to guide clinicians, treatments may yield arguably incomplete results, interventions may require chronic use, and/ or involve multiple modalities including behavioral interventions that require high parental and family commitment. This review points out diagnostic differences compared to adults and focuses on current therapy for selected common pediatric sleep disorders including sleep disordered breathing/ obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Other common pediatric sleep disorders, such as insomnia and parasomnias, are not covered.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To assess the occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing, hypoxemia, and sleep architecture in a cohort of infants and children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and normal or mildly impaired lung function in stable clinical condition. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Cystic Fibrosis Unit of a university hospital and pediatric sleep laboratory. PARTICIPANTS A total of 40 children (aged 6 months to 11 years) with CF in stable condition and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects. INTERVENTION Nocturnal sleep and cardiorespiratory monitoring was performed using a full polysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Sleep architecture and respiratory variables. RESULTS Although awake oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) values were similar in the 2 groups (98%), the CF group had significantly lower values of nocturnal mean SaO2. The apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher in the CF group compared with the controls (mean [SE], 7.3 [1.3] vs 0.5 [0.4], respectively, P < .001), particularly in preschool-aged children and in children with upper airway abnormalities. In addition, 28 (70%) of the 40 children with CF had mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (defined as an apnea-hypopnea index >2). Children with CF compared with controls also had reduced sleep efficiency (CF group vs controls mean [SE], 80% [41%] vs 88% [13.1%], P < .001), rapid eye movement sleep duration (11% [0.9%] vs 13% [1%], P < .05), and increased number of arousals per hour (11.0  vs 8.2 [0.7], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS This study showed an early occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea in children with CF in stable condition, associated with a mild level of sleep disruption. Early routine nocturnal respiratory monitoring is advised in children with CF.
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