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The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.)

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Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P < 0.01). Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses.
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1982
Research Article
Received: 26 May 2011 Revised: 1 December 2011 Accepted: 1 December 2011 Published online in Wiley Online Library: 23 January 2012
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jsfa.5571
The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of
the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties
(Vitis spp.)
Ali SabiraAhmet Unverband Zeki Karaa
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of
agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops.
Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as
tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from
various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties.
RESULTS: The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid
profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component
comprising 53.669.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2 –31.2%), palmitic (6.9 –12.9%) and stearic (1.44 –4.69%). The oils of
all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg1oil extract). β-Tocopherol,
γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg1, respectively. Linoleic
acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed
between linoleic and oleic acids (r=−0.834, P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape
seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of
tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses.
c
2012 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: grape seed oil; fatty acids; tocopherols; natural antioxidants
INTRODUCTION
Natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, polyphenols,
and flavonoids have been proven as functional compounds that
prevent free radical damage.1Therefore, recent epidemiological
research has focused on the influence of by-products such as
grape seed on chronic diseases including cancer, coronary heart
disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes.2Grape seeds, an agricultural
residue, are attractive sources of potential natural antioxidants,
constituting about 5% by weight of the grape berry and contain
1020% oil with a high vitamin E content, which is important
for human health.3Vitamin E (a generic term for tocopherols
and tocotrienols) possesses hypocholesterolaemic, antitumour,
neuroprotective and antioxidant activities.4,5 Tocopherols have
long been known as the powerful natural fat-soluble antioxidants
whose mode of action is by two unique mechanisms, namely
a chain-breaking electron donor mechanism and an oxidation
preventive property.6
Grape seed oil is also rich in unsaturated fatty acids, such as
linoleic and oleic acid and thus offers many advantages for human
consumption. Accordingly, the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic
industries have shown great interest in grape seed oil due to its
premium antioxidant activity properties. The oil content of grape
seeds in the usual range is 1016% of dry weight, depending on
grape variety.7
In Turkey, various kinds of grapes are locally cultivated.
Approximately 37% of the fresh grapes produced are processed
for grape juice and other local consumption products such as
sausage, vinegar, kofter, pekmez (boiled concentrate juice); 3%
are used in wine production; 27% are marketed as table grapes;
and 33% are dried as raisins.8As a result of such an extensive
industry, large quantities of grape seed are available throughout
the country. As commonly known, by-products of the grape juice
and wine industry have economic potential and may be new
food sources for human consumption. Most of the publications
concerning grape seed have dealt with the determination of lipid
and protein constituents of the wine grapes,9–13 whereas, to
the best of our knowledge, few publications on the table and/or
rootstock varieties were concerned with the fatty acid composition
of the grape seed. This study was conducted to evaluate the fatty
Correspondence to: Ali Sabir, University of Selcuk, Faculty of Agriculture,
Department of Horticulture, 42075, Konya, Turkey. E -mail: asabir@selcuk.edu.tr
aUniversity of Selcuk, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 42075,
Konya, Turkey
bUniversity of Selcuk, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering,
42075, Konya, Turkey
J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92: 1982 –1987 www.soci.org c
2012 Society of Chemical Industry
1983
Fatty acids and tocopherols from grade seed oil www.soci.org
acid and tocopherol contents of a wide range of grape genotypes,
consisting of 19 grape cultivars (table, juice and wine grapes) and
two American rootstocks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
The materials consisted of 17 varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (table
grapes: Red Globe, M ¨
us¸k¨
ule, Antep Karası, Eks¸i Kara, Cardinal,
B¨
uzg ¨
ul ¨
u, Razakı, H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u, Adana Beyazı, Royal, G ¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u, Perle
de Csaba, Italia, Alphonse Lavall´
ee, Siyah Dimrit; and wine grapes:
Narince and Kalecik Karası), a V. labrusca L. variety (Isabella), a
hybrid of V. vinifera ×V. labrusca (Kyoho) with two American
rootstocks, namely 41 B (V. vinifera ×V. berlandieri)and5BB(V.
berlandieri ×V. riparia).
The pomace, produced as by-product of grape processing for
juice or wine-making purposes, was obtained from Research and
Implementation Vineyard of Selcuk University Agriculture Faculty
Horticulture Department (Konya/Turkey) and the commercial
vineyards around the mountainous regions of Konya Province
where viticulture is widespread. The fresh pomace (containing
seeds) was immediately transferred to the laboratory and was
placed on trays and subsequently dried in air. The seeds were then
sieved out from dry pomace.
Crude oil content
The crude oil content of seeds was analysed according to AOAC.14
The seed oils were extracted with n-hexane (50 C) in a Soxhlet
apparatus. The extracts were evaporated under vacuum in a
rotary evaporator. The lipid extracts were collected in a flask. The
extracted lipid was weighed to determine the oil content and
stored under nitrogen at 4 C for further analyses.
Fatty acid analysis
For the determination of fatty acid composition of the oils, fatty
acid methyl esters were prepared from grape seed oils, using a cold
transmethylation15 by shaking a solution of 0.2 g oil and 3 mL of
hexane with 0.4 mL of 2 mol L1methanolic potassium hydroxide.
A Shimadzu (Kyoto, Japan) gas chromatograph, equipped with
a flame ionisation detector and a split/splitless injector, was
employed. Separations were made on a Teknokroma TR-CN100
(Barcelona, Spain) fused-silica capillary column (60 m ×0.25 mm
i.d. ×0.20 µm film thickness). The carrier gas was nitrogen, with a
flow rate of 1 mL min1. The temperatures of the injector and the
detector were held at 220 and 250 C, respectively. The initial oven
temperature of 90 C was maintained for 7 min, raised to 240C
at a r ate of 5 Cmin
1, where it was maintained for 15 min. The
injection volume was 1 µL. Peaks were identified by comparison of
their retention times with those of authentic reference compounds
(SigmaAldrich, St Louis, MO, USA).
Determination of tocopherols
Tocopherols were evaluated according to IUPAC 2432 method.16
Seed oils (1.5 g) were dissolved in 10 mL hexane and injected
into the high-performance liquid chromatography system with
a LiChroCART, Si 60 column (25 cm ×4mm ×5µm) (Merck,
Darmstadt, Germany). The chromatographic separation was
performed using a Shimadzu liquid chromatograph equipped
with an isocratic pump LC-20AT prominence, a CTO-10AS VP heater
(column temperature 22 C), a SIL-20A prominence autosampler
and a SPD-M20A Prominence diode-array detector, fixed at a
wavelength of 295 nm (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). The mobile phase
was 0.5% isopropanol in n-hexane. The total run time was 40 min
and the injection volume was 20 µL. Tocopherols were quantified
by an external standard method; α-, β-, γ-andδ-tocopherol
standards were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA).
Statistical analysis
Data on fatty acid composition and tocopherols were reported
as mean ±standard deviation (SD) from triplicate determinations
for each grape seed oil sample. Analyses of significant group
differences were conducted (SPSS for Windows, Ver. 13.0, Chicago,
IL, USA) by using the Tukey test to identify differences among
means. Statistical significance was declared at P<0.05 or
P<0.01.In addition, the analysedfatty acids and tocopherolswere
separately subjected to correlation analysis for further exploring
and illustrating the relationship between them.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Seed oil contents of the varieties
As illustrated in Fig. 1, statistically significant (P<0.01) variation
was determined in the quantity of seed oils across the grape
varieties consisting of various Vitis spp. genotypes including two
American rootstocks (41 B and 5 BB). Italia (V. vinifera L.) and Isabella
(V. labrusca) cultivars were outstanding with their markedly higher
oil yields with their values 223.7 and 214.4 g kg1, respectively. In
contrast, the oil contents of Perle de Csaba (V. vinifera), Kyoho (V.
vinifera ×V. labrusca), Siyah Dimrit (V. vinifera) cultivars and 5 BB (V.
berlandieri ×V. riparia) rootstock (73.2, 88.1, 91.4 and 93.9 g kg1,
respectively) were substantially lower than the others. Overall
range of the seed oil across the genotypes conforms to literature
investigations revealed by various researchers using different
cultivars.17 – 19 On the other hand, the oil content range obtained
in the present study is apparently higher than that suggested by
Beveridge et al.20 who studied the oil content of eight grapes by
supercritical carbon dioxide (in range of 5.9 –13.6%) and petroleum
ether (in range of 6.6– 11.2%). Such a partial discrepancy might
most probably have arisen from varietal distinction as well as
different cultivation conditions which, according to Noreen and
Ashraf21 affect the chemical composition of grape seeds. Besides,
Ohnishi et al.17 and Gokturk-Baydar and Akkurt18 sugested that
oil content differences among the cultivars might also be related
with the time of berry maturity.
Fatty acid composition of the varieties
The proportional composition of the analysed fatty acids of the
grape seed oil revealed that the grape seed oil is constituted mainly
by the unsaturated (such as linoleic, oleic and linolenic) and also by
the saturated (palmitic and stearic) fatty acids (Table 1). The studied
fatty acid compositions displayed significant (P<0.05) variation
across the genotypes. Among the varieties under the study, oleic
(C18 : 1) and linoleic acids (C18 : 2) were the most abundant fatty
acids as previously indicated by several researchers.10,12,13 The
highest linoleic acid content was found in 41 B rootstock (70.4%),
followed by G ¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u (70.1%), M ¨
us¸k¨
ule (69.6%) and Perle de
Csaba (69.4%). In contrast, the least linoleic acid content was
determined in Isabella (53.3%) and H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u (56%) cultivars. Oleic
acid (C18 : 1) was the second fatty acid in abundance across the
samples. The highest oleic acid content was found in H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u
(31.2%), followed by Isabella (30.5%), then 5 BB rootstock (26.2%),
and finally Razakı (24.1%). Comparing the oleic and linoleic acid
J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92: 1982 –1987 c
2012 Society of Chemical Industry wileyonlinelibrary.com/jsfa
1984
www.soci.org A Sabir, A Unver, Z Kara
Figure 1. Seed oil contents of the analysed varieties (g kg1). Each column represents the mean of triplicate determinations. Error bar stands for the
standard deviation of that mean.
Table 1. Proportional fatty acid composition of grape seeds (%, mean ±SD)
Cultivar Linoleic, C18 : 2 Oleic, C18 : 1 Palmitic, C16 : 0 Stearic, C18 : 0 Linolenic, C18 : 3 Arachidic, C20 : 0
Red Globe 68.8±0.30 18.1±0.12 10.7±0.04 1.89 ±0.01 0.61 ±0.008 0.09 ±0.003
M¨
us¸k¨
ule 69.6±0.38 22.3±0.04 6.9±0.09 1.81 ±0.01 0.40 ±0.005 0.10 ±0.005
Antep Karası 63.8±0.26 22.7±0.10 10.5±0.13 1.71 ±0.01 0.43 ±0.008 0.10 ±0.003
Eks¸i Kara 68.4±0.22 18.3±0.03 10.2±0.07 2.14 ±0.10 0.71 ±0.008 0.11 ±0.006
Narince 65.3±0.11 24.0±0.11 9.3±0.02 1.90 ±0.01 0.40 ±0.003 0.03 ±0.004
Cardinal 56.0±0.10 23.8±0.13 12.9±0.07 4.69 ±0.17 0.59 ±0.004 0.12 ±0.002
B¨
uzg ¨
ul ¨
u63.0±0.01 23.8±0.06 10.4±0.01 1.87 ±0.03 0.75 ±0.006 0.18 ±0.002
Razakı 66.2±0.17 24.1±0.11 8.3±0.06 1.89 ±0.02 0.47 ±0.006 0.03 ±0.004
H¨
on ¨
us ¨
u53.6±0.38 31.2±0.06 9.3±0.06 1.44 ±0.04 0.45 ±0.007 0.04 ±0.003
Kyoho 62.6±0.37 23.8±0.10 8.0±0.05 3.59 ±0.35 0.47 ±0.005 0.12 ±0.002
Adana Beyazı 67.7±0.23 21.8±0.08 9.5±0.10 1.79 ±0.02 0.20 ±0.005 0.11 ±0.003
Royal 67.4±0.08 21.3±0.03 8.6±0.06 2.35 ±0.06 0.29 ±0.007 0.08 ±0.005
G¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u70.1±0.20 19.8±0.06 8.8±0.09 1.70 ±0.05 0.21 ±0.007 0.08 ±0.002
Perle de Csaba 69.4±0.23 16.2±0.03 9.0±0.07 2.95 ±0.06 0.63 ±0.006 0.16 ±0.007
Isabella 53.3±0.28 30.5±0.06 10.0±0.11 4.40 ±0.16 0.91 ±0.010 0.06 ±0.004
Italia 65.6±0.21 24.6±0.28 7.0±0.10 1.37 ±0.02 0.61 ±0.008 0.09 ±0.002
41 B 70.4±0.37 19.3±0.21 7.5±0.07 1.79 ±0.11 0.42 ±0.008 0.07 ±0.003
5BB 62.8±0.23 26.2±0.11 8.7±0.05 1.44 ±0.13 0.52 ±0.009 0.10 ±0.005
Alphonse Lavall´
ee 66.6±0.47 21.8±0.27 7.8±0.13 2.03 ±0.06 0.41 ±0.011 0.10 ±0.007
Siyah Dimrit 66.5±0.40 18.5±0.36 11.7±0.06 1.89 ±0.11 0.50 ±0.009 0.16 ±0.008
Kalecik Karası 63.7±0.38 23.2±0.14 10.3±0.06 2.47 ±0.14 0.20 ±0.008 0.10 ±0.004
Mean 64.79 22.64 9.30 2.24 0.48 0.096
Values are means of triplicate determinations.
contents of Isabella and H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u, the assertion of Pardo et al.12
regarding the reverse order between these two fatty acids might
be verified. The researchers found that the highest oleic acid
content was found in Garnacha Tintorera whose linoleic content
was the lowest, while, conversely, Petit Verdot had the highest
amount of linoleic acid and the least oleic acid.
Due to the high unsaturated fatty acid content (around
85%), grape seed oil is proven as a high-quality nutritional oil
which possesses unique properties in prevention of thrombosis,
reduction of cholesterol in blood serum, dilation of blood vessels,
alleviation of cardiovascular diseases and regulation of autonomic
nerves.22 Evidence from epidemiological and clinical secondary
prevention trials suggests that linoleic acid (configurational
isomers of C18 : 2) is an effective agent for inhibiting coronary
heart disease, colon, forestomach and skin carcinogenesis.23
Palmitic acid (C16 : 0) is known to be the predominant saturated
fatty acid. The porportion of palmitic acid (also known as
hexadecanoic acid) content in grape seed oil varied from 12.9%
(Cardinal) to 6.9% (M ¨
us¸k¨
ule). The highest stearic (C18 : 0) acid was
found in Cardinal (4.69%), followed by Isabella (4.40%), while the
least values were determined in Italia (1.37%) and H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u (1.44%).
Results on the analysed fatty acid composition showed that
the grape seed oil was rather poor in linolenic (between 0.20 and
0.91%) and arachidic (between 0.03 and 0.18%) acids. The highest
linolenic acid (C18 :3) content was found in Isabella (0.91%) while
Kalecik Karası, a common Turkish red wine variety, had the least
linolenic acid (0.20%). Linolenic acid content of grape seed is
markedly lower than those of soybean, maize and olive,24 which
accordingly raises the oxidative stability. Assurance of a high
quality of seed lipids and prolonging their storage time is directly
associated with their optimum stabilisation. The high oxidation
stability of lipids is important for health protection and economic
reasons.25 Morover, according to Gokturk-Baydar et al.10 low levels
of linolenic acid are desired in edible oils, because high levels of
wileyonlinelibrary.com/jsfa c
2012 Society of Chemical Industry J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92: 1982 –1987
1985
Fatty acids and tocopherols from grade seed oil www.soci.org
Table 2. Tocopherol composition of grape seeds (mg kg1oil extract, mean ±SD)
Cultivar α-Tocopherol β-Tocopherol γ-Tocopherol δ-Tocopherol
Red Globe 142.2±1.74 1.29 ±0.022 25.5±0.66 0.87 ±0.013
M¨
us¸k¨
ule 159.1±1.61 0.94 ±0.031 21.6±0.47 0.65 ±0.024
Antep Karası 260.5±1.47 0.87 ±0.027 14.1±0.26 0.98 ±0.006
Eks¸i Kara 154.4±1.45 0.73 ±0.019 26.6±0.71 0.65 ±0.042
Narince 170.2±1.09 1.10 ±0.008 29.1±0.15 0.89 ±0.016
Cardinal 188.6±1.47 0.72 ±0.053 17.3±0.53 0.72 ±0.010
B¨
uzg ¨
ul ¨
u 156.8±0.60 1.05 ±0.049 17.9±0.28 1.26 ±0.005
Razakı 192.1±1.49 0.95 ±0.036 23.8±0.36 1.08 ±0.031
H¨
on ¨
us ¨
u 200.8±0.70 0.96 ±0.019 30.2±0.55 0.80 ±0.005
Kyoho 167.4±1.79 0.85 ±0.029 21.6±0.36 0.96 ±0.008
Adana Beyazı 196.1±1.53 0.98 ±0.007 13.7±0.65 0.66 ±0.008
Royal 161.0±1.84 0.79 ±0.014 18.0±0.18 0.84 ±0.010
G¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u 213.2±2.58 0.50 ±0.005 27.7±1.01 0.50 ±0.005
Perle de Csaba 235.5±1.60 1.75 ±0.017 17.0±0.69 0.91 ±0.009
Isabella 214.4±1.15 1.26 ±0.013 20.9±1.00 0.71 ±0.007
Italia 212.7±1.58 0.95 ±0.057 18.2±0.47 0.77 ±0.003
41 B 166.7±1.48 0.79 ±0.005 23.4±0.64 0.89 ±0.004
5 BB 195.8±1.49 0.89 ±0.014 16.1±0.24 1.46 ±0.004
Alphonse Lavall´
ee 135.1±1.02 0.46 ±0.004 20.0±0.11 1.40 ±0.007
Siyah Dimrit 139.4±1.15 0.79 ±0.003 27.4±0.42 0.88 ±0.010
Kalecik Karası 172.4±1.90 0.70 ±0.007 27.5±0.47 0.63 ±0.005
Mean 187.6±1.47 0.98 ±0.020 22.2±0.50 0.92 ±0.011
Values are means of triplicate determinations.
this fatty acid can produce an unfavourable odour and taste in
oil. Moreover, linolenic acid is oxidised readily because of the
three double bonds on its hydrocarbon chain26 and therefore the
stability or shelf life of linolenic acid-rich oil would be shorter.
Overall, the fatty acid composition of the studied cultivars fall
within the similar ranges in the literature10,12,18,19,27 although wide
variability among the varieties can be observed and explained by
genetic factors. Nonetheless, certain fatty acid contents in several
cultivars were found to be slightly beyond the general ranges. For
example, oleic acid contents of H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u and Isabella were higher;
while, conversely, stearic acid levels of G ¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u (0.70%), Adana
Beyazı (0.79), M ¨
us¸k¨
ule (0.81%) and Narince (0.90%) were markedly
lower than those of literature reports. It is well accepted that
environmental conditions have considerable effects on the fatty
acid composition of plants.21 Therefore, the present differences
may most probably be the result of different cultivation conditions
as well as cultivar aptitude. The analysed fatty acid compositions
of V. labrusca grape Isabella and hybrid cultivar Kyoho (V. vinifera
×V. Labrusca) were found to be in the same range as the seed oil
content in Vitis vinifera grapes.
According to the overall results of the present study, the
proximate fatty acid composition of the analysed grapes could
be adjusted to the following values: 53 –70% linoleic acid (C18 : 2),
18 –31% oleic acid (C18 : 1), 7 – 13% palmitic acid (C16 : 0), 1.4 –4.7%
stearic acid (C18 :0), 0.2– 0.9% linolenic acid (C18: 3), 0.06–0.16%
arachidic acid (C20 : 0). These % compositions are consistent with
those that have been previously reported by several researchers7,20
for these grape seed oils, except for stearic acid which was slightly
lower in most of the varieties studied. Such deviation about the
proportion of stearic acid was also reported by Pardo et al.12 which
may probably indicate the sensitivity of stearic acid to distinct
cultivation conditions. The consistent findings of various studies
including the present work indicate the existence of a tight genetic
control of the basic oil composition of the seeds.
Tocopherol content of the varieties
The tocopherol contents of grape seeds are presented in
Table 2. There are four isoforms of tocopherol, α-, β-, γ-and
δ-tocopherols,28 with their relative vitamin E potencies of 100,
50, 10 and 3%, respectively.6The four isoforms were detected in
all samples in significantly varying degrees (P<0.05). Individual
tocopherol contents of 21 grape varieties exhibited great variation.
Mean values of individual tocopherol contents of the studied
samples were 187.6, 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg1oil extract for
α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols, respectively. These values are overly
similar to the previous reports by Wie et al.29 who analysed the
tocopherol contents of grape seeds from 14 different varieties
growninKorea.α-Tocopherol ranged from 135.1 to 260.5 mg kg1
oil extract. It was the most abundant tocopherol among the
samples analysed as previously indicated by Gokturk-Baydar and
Ozkan9who determined the tocopherol contents of wine by-
products including grape seed, pomace (seed, skin and stem) and
bagasse (skin and stem) by using two different extraction methods.
The highest α-tocopherol content was found in Antep Karası
(260.5 mg kg1oil), followed by Perle de Csaba (235.5 mg kg1
oil), then Isabella (214.4 mg kg1oil), and finally G ¨
ul ¨
uz ¨
um ¨
u
(213.2 mg kg1oil). Among the studied varieties, Perle de Csaba
was also outstanding with its markedly higher linoleic acid and
α-tocopherol contents, pointing to an inheritable capacity that
makes this variety valuable in breeding programmes for high
linoleic and/or α-tocopherol line. γ-Tocopherol was the second
most abundant constituent, ranging from 13.7 mg kg1(Adana
Beyazı) to 30.2 mg kg1(H ¨
on ¨
us ¨
u). β-Tocopherol and δ-tocopherol
J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92: 1982 –1987 c
2012 Society of Chemical Industry wileyonlinelibrary.com/jsfa
1986
www.soci.org A Sabir, A Unver, Z Kara
Table 3. Correlations between the fatty acids analysed
Acid
Acid Stearic Palmitic Arachidic Oleic Linoleic Linolenic
Stearic 1 0.2920.775∗∗ 0.405∗∗ 0.717∗∗ 0.723∗∗
Palmitic – 1 0.357∗∗ 0.063 0.450∗∗ 0.452∗∗
Arachidic – 1 0.403∗∗ 0.735∗∗ 0.788∗∗
Oleic 1 0.834∗∗ 0.395∗∗
Linoleic 1 0.771∗∗
Linolenic – 1
P<0.05 ∗∗ P<0.01.
were found in low concentrations compared with α-andγ-
tocopherols.
Tocopherols, fat-soluble vitamin complexes, are invaluable
antioxidant sources for human nutrition and healthy diets.30
Previously, seeds of higher plants were reported to contain
predominantly the γ-tocopherol (>70%) form.31 In contrast to this,
the results presented in this study, verifying several reports, show
that grape seeds contain primarily the alpha form of tocopherol.
α-Tocopherol possesses the highest vitamin E activity among the
tocopherols existing in functional foods. Therefore grape seed
appears to have unique potential for human health as a great
vitamin E source.
Correlation analysis between individual fatty acids and
tocopherols
The correlation coefficients among the fatty acids of the grape
seeds are presented in Table 3. Analysis using combined data from
all the studied grape genotypes revealed that linoleic acid, the
major oil component, showed significantly negative correlation
with oleic (r=−0.834, P<0.01), linolenic (r=−0.771,
P<0.01), arachidic (r=−0.735, P<0.01), stearic (r=−0.717,
P<0.01) and palmitic (r=−0.450, P<0.01) acids. The
strongest inverse association existed between linoleic and oleic
acids, the predominant fatty acids in grape seeds. Such a high
negative correlation was also reported before by Gokturk-Baydar
and Akkurt,18 analysing oil properties of 18 grape cultivars. A
similarly strong inverse association between the mentioned acids
was also revealed by Were et al.32 who analysed the fatty acid
composition of 30 sesame accessions in a 3-year study. Actually,
linoleic acid displays significantly negative correlation with all
the fatty acids analysed. The implication of the results is that
selection for high linoleic acid, an effective agent for inhibiting
coronary heart disease, in grape should lead to a concomitant
reduction in palmitic and stearic acids (dominant saturated acids
in proportional quantity). Accordingly, for a breeding study, aiming
to improve an accession with high and healthy oil content, linoleic
acid-rich genotypes would be strongly desired.
On the other hand, correlation coefficients between tocopherols
were not pronounced as with the fatty acids (Table 4). There were
statistically significant (P<0.01) positive correlations between
α-andβ-tocopherols (r=0.573) and also between β-and
δ-tocopherols (r=0.423).
The results of this study along with the previous reports suggest
that grape seeds have great nutritional potential with their high
oil and tocopherol contents. The expected growth of the grape
processing industry will increase the volume of grape seed as by-
Table 4. Correlations between the tocopherols analysed
α-
Tocopherol
β-
Tocopherol
γ-
Tocopherol
δ-
Tocopherol
α-Tocopherol 1 0.573∗∗ 0.047 0.236
β-Tocopherol – 1 0.158 0.423∗∗
γ-Tocopherol – 1 0.05
δ-Tocopherol – – – 1
∗∗ P<0.01.
product. Accordingly, this by-product is likely to become a great
source for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
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... It has been reported that the seeds of varieties of Vitis vinifera L. contain oil at ratios ranging from 3.9% to 22.4%, while ratios range from 10.8% to 21.4% for seeds of varieties of Vitis labrusca [24][25][26][27]. The amount of oil in grape seeds may vary depending on the variety, the ecological conditions of the place where cultivation is performed, and the ripening state of the grapes [28][29][30]. ...
... Seeds (10 g) were dried for 72 hours at 65 • C in the laboratory and then ground and subjected to oil extraction (6 hours) with hexane in a Soxhlet device [25,54,55]. After the extraction process, balloon flasks were kept in a drying oven at 60 • C for 24 hours in the laboratory to separate the hexane from the oil-hexane mixture. ...
... The extraction method used for obtaining oil from grape seeds can affect the amount and the composition of that oil [39,76,77]. The seed oil ratios that we found were within the lower and upper limit values determined by researchers who previously analyzed the oil contents of grape seeds using the same method [25,27]. In addition, it was reported previously by other researchers [25,75] that the seeds of the Red Globe and Hatun Parmagi varieties contain more oil than those of Horoz Karasi. ...
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... The usual process of obtaining grape seed oil involves the separation of the grape seeds from the rest of the pomace and the subsequent extraction of the oil with hexane [7][8][9]. The amount of oil obtained and its composition strongly depend on factors such as the grape variety and its growing conditions [10][11][12][13][14]. Grape seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid, and vitamin E [15][16][17]. ...
... It is known that a high value of fatty acids in oils may be associated with the greater ease of oxidation, giving rise to problems of oxidation and the deterioration of the oils [12]. For this reason, COX values have been calculated to determine the oxidative stability of the grape oils studied. ...
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Grape pomace and seeds are important winemaking by-products. Their oils are rich in bioactive compounds such as fatty acids and tocopherols. We have characterized oils from both by-products from five Spanish grape varieties (Palomino Fino, Pedro Ximénez, Muscat of Alexandria, Tempranillo and Tintilla de Rota). A high content of UFAs was found in all the analyzed samples. Grape pomace oils generally had the same oleic acid (PUFAω-6) content as seed oils, and lower PUFA contents; they also had a markedly higher linolenic acid (PUFAω-3) content, improving the PUFAω-6/PUFAω-3 ratio. All the oil studied show good indicators of nutritional quality: low values of the atherogenicity (0.112–0.157 for pomace, 0.097–0.112 for seed) and thrombogenicity indices (0.30–0.35 for pomace, 0.28–0.31 for seed) and high values of the relationship between hypo- and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (6.93–9.45 for pomace, 9.11–10.54 for seed). Three tocopherols were determined: α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol. Pomace oils have higher relative contents of α- and δ-tocopherol, whereas seed oils have higher relative contents of γ-tocopherol. A significantly higher content of total tocopherols has been found in pomace oil; it is higher in the oils from red varieties of pomace (628.2 and 706.6 mg/kg by-product), and in the oils from pomace containing stems (1686.4 mg/kg by-product). All the oils obtained can be considered as a source of vitamin E, and their consumption is beneficial for health.
... When the oils from the seeds of 21 different grape types (Vitis spp.) were examined, it was discovered that α-tocopherol predominated (range from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg −1 oil extract). The overall means of δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol, were also found to be 0.92, 0.98, and 22.2 mg kg −1 [61]. Seeds of grapes used for Spanish wines having protected denomination of origin (PDO) were used to make the oil that J. C. Bada et al. examined. ...
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... Grape seeds are considered a raw material with high content of phytochemicals that can be used as a source of dietary supplements with antioxidative properties. According to Sabir et al. [47], the seed contains fibers (40%) and oils (10-20%). Also, the seeds contain proteins (11%), carbohydrates (26.43%), phenols (7%) and mineral salts according to Owon [48]. ...
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... Mean values of individual tocopherol contents of the studied samples were 44.04; 8.68 and 22.88 mg/kg of oil for α, β and γ-tocopherols, respectively ( Figure 3). These values are overly similar to the previous reports by Sabir et al. [40] who analysed the tocopherol contents of grape seeds from 21 different varieties grown in Turkey and to research realised by Wei et al. [41] who determine the tocopherol contents of grape seeds from fourteen varieties grown in Korea. Our data revealed that in terms of the tocopherol composition of different varieties α-tocopherol was the most abundant, followed in order by γ and β-tocopherol. ...
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... It was established that the oil was constituted of 14 fatty acids ( Table 1) amurensis × V. riparia) (Górnaś et al., 2019). Further, previous studies have shown that UFAs comprise almost 90% of the total fatty acid composition (Fernandes et al., 2013;Garavaglia et al., 2016;Lachman et al., 2015;Lutterodt et al., 2011;Sabir et al., 2012); our study indicated that total UFAs amounted 88.91% of the total fatty acids, making our results consistent with the previous reports. ...
... It was established that the oil was constituted of 14 fatty acids ( Table 1) amurensis × V. riparia) (Górnaś et al., 2019). Further, previous studies have shown that UFAs comprise almost 90% of the total fatty acid composition (Fernandes et al., 2013;Garavaglia et al., 2016;Lachman et al., 2015;Lutterodt et al., 2011;Sabir et al., 2012); our study indicated that total UFAs amounted 88.91% of the total fatty acids, making our results consistent with the previous reports. ...
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This study was designed to explore functional food properties of edible seed oil obtained from Tamjanika seeds—autochthonous grape variety of Balkan Peninsula. In order to accomplish our goals, seed oil was isolated by Soxhlet apparatus and chemically characterized regarding fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. Antimicrobial activity of the isolated oil was tested by microdilution method. For that purposes, six bacterial species were used, belonging to human infectious agents and food contaminants. Furthermore, the activity of the oil was investigated against clinical isolates of dermatomycetes. Our study has shown that oil of Vitis vinifera L. Tamjanika variety was an abundant source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (81.43%) with predominant linoleic acid. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of carotenoid lutein (0.15 mg/100 g). The seed oil was rich in tocotrienols (85.04 mg/100 g) predominating over tocopherols (8.37 mg/100 g). The oil possessed microbicidal activity against all the tested microbes. Bacteria were more sensitive to the effect of the oil (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 7.7–15.4) when compared with oil effect on tested dermatomycetes (MIC 20–40). Our investigation has shown for the first time that grape oil could be active against wide spectrum of bacteria and clinically isolated dermatomycetes. The significance of this study lies in the fact that it pointed out the functional food properties of grape seed oil that was fully chemically characterized. This study was designed to explore functional food properties of edible fatty oil obtained from Tamjanika seeds—autochthonous grape variety of Balkan Peninsula.
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Grape seeds are the main byproduct of the grape‐processing industry and contain oil with high content of high‐quality compounds. In this sense, grape seed oil extracted by Soxhlet, pressing and ultrasound was evaluated in relation to its physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, degree of unsaturation, and critical properties. Interesting values of antioxidant capacity by ORAC were obtained for lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts (~24–67 and ~2‐7 μmol ET/g of oil, respectively). The composition of the grape seed oil varied with the methods of extraction, as expected, with a higher content of linoleic acid in the extraction by pressing due to the absence of the temperature effect in the process. The bis‐allylic position and oxidizability indexes were high for pressing, Soxhlet, and ultrasound extraction, respectively. Grape seeds oil content extracted from Cabernet Sauvignon and Ives species ranged from ~7 to ~18% with saturated, mono‐ and polyunsaturated fatty acids highest concentrations of 187, 124 and 698 mg per gram of oil, respectively, and the highest oil content obtained in the ultrasound‐assisted extraction was under condition of 50 °C, 60 min and solvent‐to‐seeds ratio of 1:8. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
The winery industry produces at least 14.5 million tonnes of solid residues annually, mainly grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace (GP, 20–30% of processed grapes), stalks (2–8%), and wine lees (2–6% of the wine produced). Overall, winery waste management has been linear through landfilling, incineration, and composting with adverse financial, humanitarian, and ecological implications. However, there has been a growing interest to valorise these biowastes into the circular economy to produce high value-added feed and animal source food (ASF). The wine extraction process retains over 70% of bioactive phytochemicals in GP comprising of fibre, sugars, proteins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, β-carotenoids, and phenolics. Grape seed, GP, and their extracts have been used as feed ingredients and biopreservatives to improve animal health and growth performance, quality of eggs, meat, and milk, and reduce methane and nitrogen emissions. While documentation of these biowastes uses has been increasing, the practical value of grape seed oil, stalks, and wine lees in the feed and ASF is not well documented. The current chapter gives an overview of winery biowastes’ chemistry and their nutritional and phytochemical applications for sustainable animal production and edible products’ quality enhancement.KeywordsAnimal source foodBioactive phytochemicalsGrape biowastesSustainable waste valorisation
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In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed oil could be an important source for production of an edible vegetable oil and lowering wine production costs.
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Referee: Dr. Kozi Asada, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuyama University, Gakuencho 1, Fukuyama 729-0292, Japan Tocopherols and tocotrienols, which differ only in the degree of saturation of their hydrophobic prenyl side chains, are lipid-soluble molecules that have a number of functions in plants. Synthesized from homogentisic acid and isopentenyl diphosphate in the plastid envelope, tocopherols and tocotrienols are essential to maintain membrane integrity. α-Tocopherol is the major form found in green parts of plants, while tocotrienols are mostly found in seeds. These compounds are antioxidants, thus they protect the plant from oxygen toxicity. Tocopherols and tocotrienols scavenge lipid peroxy radicals, thereby preventing the propagation of lipid peroxidation in membranes, and the ensuing products tocopheroxyl and tocotrienoxyl radicals, respectively, are recycled back to tocopherols and tocotrienols by the concerted action of other antioxidants. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols protect lipids and other membrane components by physically quenching and reacting chemically with singlet oxygen. The scavenging of singlet oxygen by α-tocopherol in chloroplasts results in the formation of, among other products, α -tocopherol quinone, a known contributor to cyclic electron transport in thylakoid membranes, therefore providing photoprotection for chloroplasts. Moreover, given that α-tocopherol increases membrane rigidity, its concentration, together with that of the other membrane components, might be regulated to afford adequate fluidity for membrane function. Furthermore, α-tocopherol may affect intracellular signaling in plant cells. The effects of this compound in intracellular signaling may be either direct, by interacting with key components of the signaling cascade, or indirect, through the prevention of lipid peroxidation or the scavenging of singlet oxygen. In the latter case, α-tocopherol may regulate the concentration of reactive oxygen species and plant hormones, such as jasmonic acid, within the cell, which control both the growth and development of plants, and also plant response to stress.
Article
Tocopherols and tocotrienols, which differ only in the degree of saturation of their hydrophobic prenyl side chains, are lipid-soluble molecules that have a number of functions in plants. Synthesized from homogentisic acid and isopentenyl diphosphate in the plastid envelope, tocopherols and tocotrienols are essential to maintain membrane integrity. α-Tocopherol is the major form found in green parts of plants, while tocotrienols are mostly found in seeds. These compounds are antioxidants, thus they protect the plant from oxygen toxicity. Tocopherols and tocotrienols scavenge lipid peroxy radicals, thereby preventing the propagation of lipid peroxidation in membranes, and the ensuing products tocopheroxyl and tocotrienoxyl radicals, respectively, are recycled back to tocopherols and tocotrienols by the concerted action of other antioxidants. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols protect lipids and other membrane components by physically quenching and reacting chemically with singlet oxygen. The scavenging of singlet oxygen by α-tocopherol in chloroplasts results in the formation of, among other products, α-tocopherol quinone, a known contributor to cyclic electron transport in thylakoid membranes, therefore providing photoprotection for chloroplasts. Moreover, given that α-tocopherol increases membrane rigidity, its concentration, together with that of the other membrane components, might be regulated to afford adequate fluidity for membrane function. Furthermore, α-tocopherol may affect intracellular signaling in plant cells. The effects of this compound in intracellular signaling may be either direct, by interacting with key components of the signaling cascade, or indirect, through the prevention of lipid peroxidation or the scavenging of singlet oxygen. In the latter case, α-tocopherol may regulate the concentration of reactive oxygen species and plant hormones, such as jasmonic acid, within the cell, which control both the growth and development of plants, and also plant response to stress.
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α-Tocopherol is formed from homogentisate and phytylpyrophosphate in chloroplasts. Homogentisate originates from tyrosine formed by the plastidic shikimate pathway. Phytylpyrophosphate is formed by the mevalonate pathway and plastidic polyprenyl pyrophosphate synthesis. As a new result, the capacity of the plastidic mevalonate pathway strongly decreases and, vice versa, the import of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into chloroplasts increases during chloroplast development. Biosynthese von α-Tocopherol in Chloroplasten von höheren Pflanzen In Chloroplasten wird α-Tocopherol aus Homogentisat und Phytylpyrophosphat gebildet. Homogentisat stammt aus Tyrosin, welches im plastidären Shikimat-Weg gebildet wird. Phytylpyrophosphat wird im Mevalonate-Weg in der anschließenden plastidären Polyprenylpyrophosphat-Synthese gebildet. Als neues Ergebnis wird gezeigt, daß die Kapazität des plastidären Mevalonat-Wegs während der Chloroplastenentwicklung stark abnimmt, während umgekehrt der Import von Isopentenylpyrophosphat in den Chloroplasten zunimmt.