Clinical Outcomes after Bariatric Surgery: A Five-Year Matched Cohort Analysis in Seven US States

Center for Health Care Research and Policy, Department of Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center/Case Western Reserve University, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp building R234A, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA.
Obesity Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.75). 01/2012; 22(5):749-63. DOI: 10.1007/s11695-012-0595-2
Source: PubMed


Bariatric surgery is the most effective weight loss treatment, yet few studies have reported on short- and long-term outcomes postsurgery.
Using claims data from seven Blue Cross/Blue Shield health plans serving seven states, we conducted a non-concurrent, matched cohort study. We followed 22,693 persons who underwent bariatric surgery during 2003-2007 and were enrolled at least 6 months before and after surgery. Using logistic regression, we compared serious and less serious adverse clinical outcomes, hospitalizations, planned procedures, and obesity-related co-morbidities between groups for up to 5 years.
Relative to controls, surgery patients were more likely to experience a serious [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.0] or less serious (OR 2.5, CI 2.4-2.7) adverse clinical outcome or hospitalization (OR 1.3, CI 1.3-1.4) at 1 year postsurgery. The risk remained elevated until 4 years postsurgery for serious events and 5 years for less serious outcomes and hospitalizations. Some complication rates were lower for patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Planned procedures, such as skin reduction, peaked in postsurgery year 2 but remained elevated through year 5. Surgery patients had a 55% decreased risk of obesity-related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, in the first year postsurgery, which remained low throughout the study (year 5: OR 0.4, CI 0.4-0.5).
While bariatric surgery is associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes compared to controls, it also substantially decreased obesity-related co-morbidities during the 5-year follow-up.

13 Reads
  • Source
    • "Incisional hernias can occur but are less common with the increased use of laparoscopic techniques [10]. Marginal ulcers are usually late complications of bariatric surgery and occur in 2% of patients within the first post-operative year, and then in 0.5% for up to five years [132]. Proton pump inhibition is the preferred treatment but ulcers can be refractory and may require revisional surgery [133]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is recognized as a global health crisis. Bariatric surgery offers a treatment that can reduce weight, induce remission of obesity-related diseases, and improve the quality of life. In this article, we outline the different options in bariatric surgery and summarize the recommendations for selecting and assessing potential candidates before proceeding to surgery. We present current data on post-surgical outcomes and evaluate the psychosocial and economic effects of bariatric surgery. Finally, we evaluate the complication rates and present recommendations for post-operative care.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed on overweight individuals. A significant benefit with respect to cardiovascular (CV) events and survival has been documented. After weight loss, reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria is almost consistently seen; small studies documented retardation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss after bariatric surgery; reduction of blood pressure (BP) is less consistent. It has been known for a long time that the frequency of oxalate stones is increased after bariatric surgery. The main renal threat of hyperoxaluria is renal oxalosis, often irreversible, causing persisting renal failure. The causes are reduced oxalate binding by calcium due to saponification of calcium causing fat malabsorption, increased permeability for oxalate because of increased permeability of colon mucosa triggered by increased bile salts and reduced colonization of the colon by oxalobacter formigenes. These mechanisms are susceptible to treatment.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs consisting of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) is unclear. The aim of the study was to quantify weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program in Sweden (Itrim; cost: $1300/€1000; all participants paid their own fee). This observational cohort study linked commercial weight-loss data with National Health Care Registers. Weight loss was induced with a 500-kcal liquid-formula VLCD [n = 3773; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 34 ± 5 (mean ± SD); 80% women; 45 ± 12 y of age (mean ± SD)], a 1200-1500-kcal formula and food-combination LCD (n = 4588; BMI: 30 ± 4; 86% women; 50 ± 11 y of age), and a 1500-1800-kcal/d restricted normal-food diet (n = 676; BMI: 29 ± 5; 81% women; 51 ± 12 y of age). Maintenance strategies included exercise and a calorie-restricted diet. Weight loss was analyzed by using an intention-to-treat analysis (baseline substitution). After 1 y, mean (±SD) weight changes were -11.4 ± 9.1 kg with the VLCD (18% dropout), -6.8 ± 6.4 kg with the LCD (23% dropout), and -5.1 ± 5.9 kg with the restricted normal-food diet (26% dropout). In an adjusted analysis, the VLCD group lost 2.8 kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.2) and 3.8 kg (95% CI: 3.2, 4.5) more than did the LCD and restricted normal-food groups, respectively. A high baseline BMI and rapid initial weight loss were both independently associated with greater 1-y weight loss (P < 0.001). Younger age and low initial weight loss predicted an increased dropout rate (P < 0.001). Treatment of depression (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and psychosis (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.3) were associated with an increased dropout rate in the VLCD group. A commercial weight-loss program, particularly one using a VLCD, was effective at reducing body weight in self-selected, self-paying adults.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Show more