Differences in Autism Symptoms Between Minority and Non-Minority Toddlers

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3901 Greenspring Ave, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.06). 01/2012; 42(9):1967-73. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1445-8
Source: PubMed


Little is known about whether early symptom presentation differs in toddlers with ASD from ethnic minority versus non-minority backgrounds. Within a treatment study for toddlers with ASD, we compared 19 minority to 65 Caucasian children and their parents on variables obtained from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Caregiver Questionnaire. The majority of parents were from the upper classes irrespective of ethnic membership. Minority children had lower scores in language, communication, and gross motor than non-minority children. Findings indicate that subtle communication delays may be undetected or presumed unremarkable by parents of minority toddlers, and that more significant delays are needed to prompt the search for intervention services.

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Available from: Rebecca Landa, Apr 03, 2014
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    • "Presenting symptoms of ASD and family interpretations of symptoms may also differ by cultural group. Some investigators maintain an uncertainty about the differences in symptom presentation for African American children (Cuccaro et al. 2007; Valicenti-McDermott et al. 2012), while others believe the heterogeneity of ASD symptom presentation to be affected by cultural norms (Grinker et al. 2011; Lord and Bishop 2010; Mandell et al. 2007; Tek and Landa 2012). Recent studies reported that more Caucasian children than African American children were diagnosed on the milder spectrum of ASD, suggesting that cultural differences may confuse the severity of the diagnosis (Baio et al. 2014; Jarquin et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Few tools are available to screen or assess infant's cognitive development, especially in French-speaking Africa. This study evaluated the use of the French translation of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), and the "Ten Questions" questionnaire (TQ) in 1-year-old children in Benin, a francophone country. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 health centers serving a semirural area in Benin. Three hundred fifty-seven children aged 12 months and their mothers were enrolled in 2011. Infant development was assessed at local health centers followed by a home visit to collect information on socioeconomic status, maternal Raven score, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child interactions (Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment [HOME] Inventory), and to administer the TQ. The infant's gender (female), the HOME, and maternal education were associated with a higher Early Learning Composite score in multivariate analyses (p = .02, p = .004, p = .007, respectively). The HOME and family wealth were also associated with the Gross Motor Scale (p = .03 and p = .03, respectively). Mothers were more likely to report difficulties on the TQ when the child presented lower score on the MSEL. When considering the Gross Motor Scale as the gold standard to define moderate delays, the 2 combined motor-related questions on the TQ showed good sensitivity and specificity (76.5 and 75.7). In a low-resource rural setting in Africa, the TQ effectively identified 3 quarters of 1-year-old infants with delayed development. After this screening, the MSEL may be useful for further assessment as it showed good feasibility and sensitivity to known risk factors for poor child development.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP
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