Positive Affect and Self-affirmation Are Beneficial, but Do They Facilitate Maintenance of Health-Behavior Change? A Self-determination Theory Perspective

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14607, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 02/2012; 172(4):327-8. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.1830
Source: PubMed
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    • "First, competence refers to students' perceptions of their capability of doing well in class (Fortier et al., 1995) and has been defined as being good at specified behaviors and believing that one can accomplish tasks (Van den Broek, Vansteenkiste, De Witte, Soenens, & Lens, 2010). As it pertains to this aspect of self-determination theory, Williams and Niemiec (2012) suggested that positive affect may increase individuals' perceptions of their own capability by enhancing people's " resolve to overcome difficult experiences and/or their desire to sustain change " (p. 328). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the application of a translational research model in developing The Trial Using Motivational Interviewing and Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension (TRIUMPH), a theoretically-based, randomized controlled trial. TRIUMPH targets blood pressure control among African-Americans with hypertension in a community health center and public hospital setting. TRIUMPH applies positive affect, self-affirmation, and motivational interviewing as strategies to increase medication adherence and blood pressure control. A total of 220 participants were recruited in TRIUMPH and are currently being followed. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical framework and study design of TRIUMPH and concludes with a critical reflection of the lessons learned in the process of implementing a health behavior intervention in a community-based setting. TRIUMPH provides a model for incorporating the translational science research paradigm to conducting pragmatic behavioral trials in a real-world setting in a vulnerable population. Lessons learned through interactions with our community partners reinforce the value of community engagement in research.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Positive affect has been associated with better prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise mediated this relationship in patients with established ischemic heart disease. Methods and results: The sample comprised 607 patients with ischemic heart disease from Holbæk Hospital, Denmark. In 2005, patients completed the Global Mood Scale (GMS) to assess positive affect and a purpose-designed question on exercise. Data on mortality and hospitalization were collected from Danish national registers for the period 2006-2010. Adjusted Cox and logistic regression were used to analyze the mediation model. Because no significant association between positive affect and cardiac-related hospitalization was found, we constructed no mediation model for hospitalization. Importantly, patients with high positive affect had a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.92; unadjusted analysis) and were more likely to exercise (odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.76; unadjusted analysis; odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.13; adjusted analysis). When controlling for positive affect and other relevant variables, patients engaged in exercise were less likely to die during follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.80; P=0.004). Importantly, exercise acted as a mediator in the relationship between positive affect and mortality. Conclusions: Patients with higher levels of positive affect were more likely to exercise and had a lower risk of dying during 5-year follow-up, with exercise mediating the relationship between positive affect and mortality. Interventions aimed at increasing both positive affect and exercise may have better results with respect to patients' prognosis and psychological well-being than interventions focusing on 1 of these factors alone.
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