Article

Effects of soybean peptide and collagen peptide on collagen synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts

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Abstract

The collagen present in the dermis of the skin is a fibrous protein that fills the gaps between cells and helps maintain tissue flexibility. Effectively increasing the collagen present in the skin is an important goal for cosmetic research. Recent research has shown that soybean peptide (SP) has anti-fatigue activity, antioxidant activity, and the ability to increase type I collagen, while collagen peptide (CP) has the ability to enhance corneal moisture content and viscoelasticity, as well as to increase levels of hyaluronic acid synthesizing enzymes in human skin. Little documented research, however, has been conducted on collagen formation in relation to these peptides. Therefore, this research applied SP and CP with molecular weights primarily around 500 and preparations containing both SP and CP to normal human dermal fibroblasts together with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (VC-PMg), and used real-time PCR to determine the gene expression of type I collagen (COL1A1), which contributes to collagen synthesis, and Smad7, which contribute to collagen breakdown. In addition, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure collagen content in the media. COL1A1 gene expression at 24 h after sample addition showed higher tendency in all samples and increased with time at 4, 8 and 24 h after addition. Smad7 gene expression was not substantially different at 4 h after addition. matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene expression was higher following SP addition, but was lower after the addition of CP and SP+CP. Medium collagen content was higher in all samples and increased with time at 8 h after addition. Collagen levels were higher when SP and CP were added together.

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... Recent studies show that an antioxidant-rich diet can help strengthen body's antioxidant defenses to fight oxidative stress and reduce the risk of associated diseases (8,9). Today, bioactive peptides have drawn increasing attention due to their low molecular weight, easy absorption, significant antioxidant activity, low sensitivity, and high stability under various conditions (10,11). Bioactive peptides are specific sequences of (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) amino acids and remain inactive in the precursor protein sequence until released by proteolytic enzymes (10). ...
... Today, bioactive peptides have drawn increasing attention due to their low molecular weight, easy absorption, significant antioxidant activity, low sensitivity, and high stability under various conditions (10,11). Bioactive peptides are specific sequences of (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) amino acids and remain inactive in the precursor protein sequence until released by proteolytic enzymes (10). Once released, they exhibit numerous physiological functions such as antioxidant (12), antimicrobial (13), anticancer (14), immunomodulatory (15), hypolipidemic (16), and hypoglycemic effects (17). ...
... Today, bioactive peptides have drawn increasing attention due to their low molecular weight, easy absorption, significant antioxidant activity, low sensitivity, and high stability under various conditions (10,11). Bioactive peptides are specific sequences of (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) amino acids and remain inactive in the precursor protein sequence until released by proteolytic enzymes (10). Once released, they exhibit numerous physiological functions such as antioxidant (12), antimicrobial (13), anticancer (14), immunomodulatory (15), hypolipidemic (16), and hypoglycemic effects (17). ...
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... [2] It was found that soy protein has bioactive peptides similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, present in human tissues. [3] These ECM-mimetic peptides can promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration critical for supporting tissue regeneration. [3][4] Furthermore, soy protein carries phytoestrogens that act as a structural and functional analogue to the female sex hormone estrogen, [5] which affects the regulation and development of various organs by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs). ...
... [3] These ECM-mimetic peptides can promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration critical for supporting tissue regeneration. [3][4] Furthermore, soy protein carries phytoestrogens that act as a structural and functional analogue to the female sex hormone estrogen, [5] which affects the regulation and development of various organs by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs). [6] Binding of estrogen to ERs forms dimers that perform as co-activators to stimulate transcription of target gene expressions in various regions. ...
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... During the last decade the influence of ingested CH on skin physiology has been investigated by several groups. In experimental studies the authors examined fibroblast growth, dermal extracellular matrix synthesis, antioxidative protection and reduction of skin wrinkle formation [11,13,15,22,23,[29][30][31][32][33][34] . These investigations suggested that CPs may improve skin appearance and function in skin tissue. ...
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Various dietary supplements are claimed to have cutaneous anti-aging properties; however, there are a limited number of research studies supporting these claims. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of collagen hydrolysate (CH) composed of specific collagen peptides on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 69 women aged 35-55 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g or 5.0 g of CH or placebo once daily for 8 weeks, with 23 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin elasticity, skin moisture, transepidermal water loss and skin roughness were objectively measured before the first oral product application (t0) and after 4 (t1) and 8 weeks (t2) of regular intake. Skin elasticity (primary interest) was also assessed at follow-up 4 weeks after the last intake of CH (t3, 4-week regression phase). At the end of the study, skin elasticity in both CH dosage groups showed a statistically significant improvement in comparison to placebo. After 4 weeks of follow-up treatment, a statistically significantly higher skin elasticity level was determined in elderly women. With regard to skin moisture and skin evaporation, a positive influence of CH treatment could be observed in a subgroup analysis, but data failed to reach a level of statistical significance. No side effects were noted throughout the study. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Moreover, the utilization of the byproducts from plant crops, such as leaves and stems from broccoli, opens the possibility of transforming the industry. In the present work, the study and characterization of the extractions of proteins directly from stems or from isolated membranes from MF is derived from the promising results obtained with other plant proteins (Tokudome et al. 2012;Lemes et al. 2016;Maestri et al. 2016;Burnett et al. 2018;Sanguigno et al. 2018). ...
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Context As the interest on the research of plant derived bioactive peptides (BPs) for nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and medical applications is increasing, in this work, the application of peptide derived from broccoli to keratinocytes was studied. Objective We focussed on the characterization of different peptides hydrolysates from broccoli stems [extracted from total protein (E) and from membrane protein (MF)], and their activity when applied to human keratinocytes. Materials and methods Peptide mixtures from broccoli stems (E and MF) were characterized by proteomics. They were applied to HaCaT cells in order to study cytotoxicity in a concentration range between 20 and 0.15625 µg of protein/mL and wound healing was studied after 24 and 48 h of treatment application. Also, proteomic and gene expression of keratinocytes were analysed. Results Depending on the source, proteins varied in peptide and amino acid composition. An increased proliferation of keratinocytes was shown after the application of the E peptides mixtures, reaching 190% with the lowest concentrations, but enhanced wound healing repair with E and MF appeared, reaching 59% of wound closure after 48 h. At the gene expression and protein levels of keratinocytes, the upregulation of anti-oncogene p53 and keratinization factors were observed. Discussion These results suggest that peptide mixtures obtained from broccoli augmented cell proliferation and prevented the carcinogenic, uncontrolled growth of the cells, with different mechanisms depending on the protein source. Conclusions The results encourage the opening of new lines of research involving the use of Brassica peptides for pharmaceutic or cosmetic use.
... Recently, antioxidant peptides derived from hydrolysis of food proteins such as those from milk, egg, meat, wheat and soy have been reported [29][30][31][32][33][34]. Most peptides were characterized based on either radical-scavenging activity or metal-chelating activity; however, all these chemical assays are performed under cell-free in vitro conditions, making it impossible to extrapolate the results to in vivo situations [35]. ...
Article
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as myocardial infarction and stroke are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Impairment of the normal vasorelaxant functions of the vascular endothelium, termed endothelial dysfunction; appear to underlie the pathogenesis of CVD. Endothelial dysfunction is often secondary to abnormal increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which makes these pathways attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. Given the side-effects associated with synthetic pharmaceutical agents, there is growing interest in using natural products such as bioactive peptides for treating chronic diseases like CVD. In this review, we discuss the potential for bioactive peptides with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and RAS modulating properties for treating endothelial dysfunction and preventing CVD.
... A large body of work exists studying the responses of HDFs to various injurious and/or inflammatory stimuli that correlate well with medical conditions affecting skin tissue [38,39]. Indeed, a number of naturally sourced beneficial products have been validated by their protective actions on dermal fibroblasts, especially through ameliorating deleterious changes in these cells [40][41][42]. ...
Article
Ovomucin is a mucin-like protein from egg white with a variety of biological functions. We hypothesized that ovomucin derived peptides might exert anti-inflammatory activity. The specific objectives were to test the anti-inflammatory activities of different ovomucin hydrolysates and its various fractions in human dermal fibroblasts, and to understand the possible molecular mechanisms. Three ovomucin hydrolysates were prepared and desalted; only the desalted Alcalase hydrolysate showed anti-inflammatory activity. Desalting of ovomucin hydrolysate enriched the proportion of low molecular weight (MW) peptides. Indeed, ultrafiltration of this hydrolysate displayed comparable anti-inflammatory activity in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the responsible role of low MW bioactive peptides in exerting the beneficial biological function. The anti-inflammatory activity of low MW peptides was regulated through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity. Our study demonstrated that both peptide composition and MW distribution play important roles in anti-inflammatory activity. The low MW fractions prepared from ovomucin Alcalase hydrolysate may have potential applications for maintenance of dermal health and treatment of skin diseases.
... In this study, we show that the oral consumption of a nutricosmeceutical containing a blend of collagen peptides and antioxidants significantly increases skin elastic-ity of +7.5% after 90 days of treatment. We hypothesize that this increase may be due to the dual action mechanism of collagen bioactive peptides in the dermis: (1) free amino acids provide support for the formation of collagen fibers [34] ; (2) bioactive peptides bind to fibroblasts membrane receptors and stimulate their proliferation [35] and the production of new collagen [33,36,37] , elastin [33] , and hyaluronic acid [29] . ...
Article
Background: Skin aging is a multifactorial phenomenon which causes alterations in skin physiological functions and, most visibly, phenotypic changes. In particular, during the aging process, hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin fibers undergo structural and functional changes. Aims: This study aimed to give an insight into the photo-protective benefits and efficacy of an oral liquid nutricosmeceutical containing collagen bioactive peptides and antioxidants to counteract the signs of aging. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted by an independent esthetic clinic on 120 healthy volunteer subjects for 90 days. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: 60 subjects consumed 1 bottle (50 mL) of the nutricosmeceutical daily and the other 60 consumed 1 bottle (50 mL) of the placebo. Outcome measures were related to skin elasticity (expressed as Young's elasticity modulus) and skin architecture (histological analysis). In addition, the subjects recruited in this study underwent observational assessments through self-assessment questionnaires. Results and conclusions: Overall, we demonstrated a significant increase in skin elasticity (+7.5%), p ≤ 0.001 and an improvement in skin texture after daily oral consumption of the nutricosmeceutical. We also obtained a positive patient feedback through the self-assessment questionnaires. Taken together these results show that this nutricosmeceutical supplement may have photo-protective effects and help improve skin health.
... Several studies about the antioxidant activity of peptides and hydrolysates derived from milk, egg yolk, wheat germ, wheat gliadin, pea, chickpea, wheat, and soy have been described both in vivo and in vitro [92,95,103,[106][107][108][109][110][111]. The bioactivity of antioxidant peptides has been related to both the amino acids composition and to their ability to chelate metallic ions and to transfer proton [104]. ...
Article
Background and objective: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that dietary products and their active components are independently or jointly responsible for the apparent reduction of the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk. Discussion: Nowadays, there is a growing attention in the use of nutraceuticals as a new approach for the prevention and management of many diseases, as well as for controlling rising of chronic illnesses with minimal side effects. Food-derived peptides, as well as peptide-rich protein hydrolysates, represent new and valuable tools for the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, acting as modulators of oxidative stress, inflammation, and overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Conclusion: This review summarizes the recently published data on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vascular protective properties of nutraceuticals, notably on the effects of food-derived bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates, paying particular attention to those derived from fermented foods.
... It was revealed that an intake of soybean containing 2% collagen peptide for 2 weeks enhanced levels of Type I and Type III tropocollagen, as well as mRNA levels of COL1A1 and COL3A1 (Table 2). Another group has reported that collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts increases in the presence of soy and collagen peptides ( Table 2) [27]. In the study, a mixture of soy peptides and collagen peptides increased Type I collagen gene expression after 24 h of treatment, while downregulation was seen for Smad7 and MMP-1 gene expression (two factors that are responsible for collagen degradation). ...
... Indeed, a number of naturally sourced beneficial products have been validated by their protective actions on dermal fibroblasts, in the absence or presence of inflammatory cytokines or UV rays [26,46,[50][51][52][53]. Collagen derived peptides have been shown to induce proliferation and protein synthesis in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting their potential as enhancers of skin health [30,54]. ...
Article
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Collagen is a major extracellular matrix protein. Given the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profiles of these bioactive compounds, there has been increasing interest in using collagen derived peptides and peptide-rich collagen hydrolysates for skin health, due to their immunomodulatory, antioxidant and proliferative effects on dermal fibroblasts. However, all hydrolysates are not equally effective in exerting the beneficial effects; hence, further research is needed to determine the factors that improve the therapeutic applicability of such preparations. We used different enzymatic conditions to generate a number of different collagen hydrolysates with distinct peptide profiles. We found that the use of two rather than one enzyme for hydrolysis generates a greater abundance of low molecular weight peptides with consequent improvement in bioactive properties. Testing these hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblasts showed distinct actions on inflammatory changes, oxidative stress, type I collagen synthesis and cellular proliferation. Our findings suggest that different enzymatic conditions affect the peptide profile of hydrolysates and differentially regulate their biological activities and potential protective responses on dermal fibroblasts.
... In recent studies, the wound healing potentialities of a Glycine max (soy) lysate, containing BP with amino acid sequences similar to those of ECM proteins present in the human skin, was explored (Tokudome et al., 2012). These ECM-mimetic peptides produced in soy improved wound healing by increasing dermal ECM synthesis, stimulating reepithelialization, promoting cell adhesion and supporting tissue regeneration (Chien et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Bioactive peptides (BP) are specific protein fragments that are physiologically important for most living organisms. It is proven that in humans they are involved in a wide range of therapeutic activities as antihypertensive, antioxidant, anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, hypocholesterolemic, and anti-inflammatory. In plants, BP are involved in the defense response, as well as in the cellular signaling and the development regulation. Most of the peptides used as ingredients in health-promoting foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical preparations are obtained by chemical synthesis or by partial digestion of animal proteins. This makes them not fully accepted by the consumers because of the risks associated with solvent contamination or the use of animal derived substances. On the other hand, plant and microalgae derived peptides are known to be selective, effective, safe, and well tolerated once consumed, thus they have got a great potential for use in functional foods, drugs, and cosmetic products. In fact, the interest in the plant and microalgae derived BP is rapidly increasing and in this review, we highlight and discuss the current knowledge about their studies and applications in the cosmetic field.
... A number of clinical studies have examined the effects of hydrolyzed collagen when ingested orally, showing improvements in extracellular matrix synthesis in the dermis as well as in skin microcirculation, enhancement of fibroblast growth, and a reduction in reactive oxidative radicals. [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] However, few of these clinical studies have included control groups other than studies by Zague 13 and Proksch et al. 14 A current approach in the treatment of facial wrinkles is the use of fillers, which are augmentation agents providing aesthetic facial soft tissue. Given the need for repeated treatments with fillers and potential adverse effects on appearance, 15 other approaches have evolved, including treatments that can slow down the processes that contribute to the early appearance of wrinkles and oral agents that might delay the onset or visible appearance of facial wrinkles by noninvasive methods and that can avoid adversely affecting the structure of the skin or injuring the deep dermal plane. ...
Article
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Context: Dietary supplement manufacturers claim cutaneous anti-aging properties for their products; however, research supporting these claims remains sparse. Objectives: The study intended to determine if a correlation existed between the effects of a collagen dietary supplement and changes associated with skin aging. Design: The study was a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: The study took place at a clinical facility specializing in dermatological testing that could perform biophysical, instrumental analysis on the effects of proprietary supplement on human skin. Participants: Participants were 128 females, aged 39-59 (50.57 ± 5.55). Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a placebo. The intervention consisted of twice daily oral administration of a supplement containing BioCell Collagen, a chicken sternal cartilage derived dietary ingredient composed of a naturally-occurring matrix of hydrolyzed collagen type-II (≥300 mg), chondroitin sulfate (≥100 mg), hyaluronic acid (≥50 mg). Outcome measures: The primary parameters included transepidermal water loss, viscoelasticity, hydration, (indirect) collagen content, chromophore (melanin) content and hemoglobin level, and photographic analysis. An expert visually graded participants' skin to determine the intervention's efficacy, measuring facial lines and wrinkles, crow's feet lines and wrinkles, skin texture and smoothness, and skin tone. The presence of erythema and/or dryness determined tolerance. Secondary outcome measures were tolerance and incidence of adverse events, and the participant's perception of the supplement's value. Results: For the 113 participants completing the study, the dietary supplementation compared to a placebo: (1) significantly reduced facial lines and wrinkles (P = .019) and crow's feet lines and wrinkles (P = .05), (2) increased skin elasticity (P = .008) and cutaneous collagen content (P < .001) by 12%, (3) improved indicators associated with a more youthful skin appearance based on visual grading and wrinkle width (P = .046), and (4) decreased skin dryness and erythema. No difference existed between the supplement and the placebo for skin-surface water content or retention. The supplement was well tolerated, with no reported adverse reactions. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with chicken, sternal cartilage extract supports the accumulation of types-I/III collagen in skin to promote increased elasticity and reduced skin wrinkling.
... It is an abundant and natural renewable resource, and it has a greater storage stability compared to other biodegradable polymers and natural proteins [218]. Besides that, it was found that soy protein has bioactive peptides similar to the human hormone estrogen and the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins [219]. The presence of different reactive groups in soy protein isolate (SPI), such as -NH 2 , -OH, and -SH, confers suitability for chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications directed towards the diverse requirements of specific health applications [160]. ...
Article
Background: The high surface-to-volume ratio of polymeric nanofibers makes them an effective vehicle for the release of bioactive molecules and compounds such as growth factors, drugs, herbal extracts and gene sequences. Synthetic polymers are commonly used as sensors, reinforcements and energy storage, whereas natural polymers are more prone to mimicking an extracellular matrix. Natural polymers are a renewable resource and classified as an environmentally friendly material, which might be used in different techniques to produce nanofibers for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, implantable medical devices, antimicrobial barriers and wound dressings, among others. This review sheds some light on the advantages of natural over synthetic polymeric materials for nanofiber production. Also, the most important techniques employed to produce natural nanofibers are presented. Moreover, some pieces of evidence regarding toxicology and cell-interactions using natural nanofibers are discussed. Clearly, the potential extrapolation of such laboratory results into human health application should be addressed cautiously.
... Soy protein is considered a complete protein as it contains most of the essential amino acids required by the human body. Apart from proteins and oil, it also contains various minerals and plethora of bioactive phytochemicals such as anthocyanins (Tsoyi et al., 2008) isoflavones (Gilbert and Liu, 2013), soy peptides (Tokudome et al., 2012), which have been reported to be associated with a variety of health-promoting and/or disease-preventing biological activities. The consumption of soybean and soy products is thus gaining increasing attention for its potential role in improving risk factors for various life-threatening diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and cardio-vascular diseases, which are gaining enhanced prevalence in today's society because of increasing incidences of over-weight and obesity in the population due to changing dietary patterns. ...
Article
Consumption of soybean is dependent on its protein quality and texture which is influenced by protein modification. In the present study, modifications of soybean proteins were investigated by chemical analysis. Irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in reduced turbidity, surface hydrophobicity and protein oxidation, but caused increase in protein solubility and sulfhydryl contents in both the genotypes. Free phenolics, DPPH and FRAP activites in all the genotypes increased significantly at 2.0 kGy and declined at 5.0 kGy with the exception of DPPH. However, lipoxygenase and bound phenolics decreased with the increase doses of gamma irradiation in both the genotypes tested. To the best of our knowledge this study is the virgin report exploring the use of gamma irradiation for improvement of soybean protein stability, quality and its bioavailability by reducing protein oxidation& modification and/or by enhancing the total inherent antioxidant capacity.
... Pregledom literaturnih podataka, uočava se da je u zavisnosti od porekla proteina, vrste enzima i procesnih parametara, antioksidativna aktivnost dobijenih hidrolizata proteina soje poprilično različita. Na primer, hidrolizovani proteini soje, odnosno smeše peptida inhibiraju slobodne radikale DPPH • (78 %) i ABTS •+ (88 %), ali i obrazovanje reaktivnih vrsta tiobarbiturinske kiseline u model sistemu sa svinjskim mesom (62 %) i mesom lososa (65 %) [3], proces lipidne oksidacije u model sistemu sa fosfatidilholinom (28 do 65 %) [6], i u model sistemu emulzije sa triacilglicerolom [7]. Čen (Chen) i sar. ...
Article
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Soy proteins known for their high nutritional value and pronounced techno-functional properties, can be hydrolyzed by using proteolytic enzymes and thus converted into hydrolysates rich in di-, tri- and oligopeptides. The resulting peptides are carriers of valuable biological activities, which make the soy hydrolysates very important in functional food applications as techno-functional and bioactive ingredients. However, commercial incorporation and application of soy protein hydrolysates can be hinderedby their low bioavailability and instability, bitter taste, hygroscopicity and possibility to interact with the food matrix. The aim of this research is encapsulation of the soy protein hydrolysate in liposomes in order to overcome the stated shortcomings, while preserving the biological activities that protein hydrolysates exhibit. The soy hydrolysate was prepared by a two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of a soy protein concentrate using commercial food-grade proteases, endoprotease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Neutrase?) and egzo- and endoprotease from Aspergillus oryzae (Flavourzyme?) and encapsulated within liposomes. The liposomes were produced by a thin film method using a commercial lipid mixture (Phospolipon? 90G) containing mainly phosphatidylcholine. Next, the obtained multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with the soy protein hydrolysate were treated by high-intensity ultrasound waves generated by using (1) an ultrasonic probe at a frequency of 20 kHz and (2) an ultrasonic bath with a frequency 40 kHz. The smallest (310 nm) and uniform (unimodal size distribution) liposomes with the highest efficiency of peptide encapsulation (19 %) were obtained by the probe sonication. The presented results showed that incorporation of the soy protein hydrolysates was achieved within the liposome membrane and caused an increase in the liposome size in all tested formulations, namely: from 297 to 310 nm by using the ultrasonic probe, from 722 to 850 nm by using the ultrasonic bath, while in formulations without the ultrasonic treatments the increase from 2818 to 3464 nm was recorded. The entrapped peptides caused enlargement of all liposomes and the increase in negative charge of zeta potential values, which in the case of MLV liposomes was below -30 mV, indicating high stability of these liposomes. Significant antioxidant activity of the probe-sonicated liposomal formulation was confirmed by the ABTS scavenging ability and iron-chelating activity. Release studies conducted under simulated gastrointestinal conditions confirmed that liposomes provide prolonged release of encapsulated soy protein hydrolysates as compared to diffusion of the free hydrolysate. In the first 75 min, only 20 % of liposome encapsulated soy peptides diffused, which is 2.2-fold lower as compared to the diffusion of the non-encapsulated soy hydrolysate. Liposome encapsulated soy protein hydrolysates may provide the possibility for application in the areas such as food science and technology, with the aim to enhance the nutritional value and shelf life of food products, and develop functional foods.
... while the latter increases corneal moisture content and viscoelasticity [65]. Tokudome et al. [66] showed that when dermal fibroblasts are supplemented with both soybean peptide and collagen peptide, there is an increase in collagen level due to a lower gene expression of MMP-1. Similarly, asiaticoside, extracted from Centella asiatica upregulates collagen 1 gene expression by enhancing the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression [67]. ...
Article
Collagen is an important protein in various biological functions such as providing elasticity and waterproofing to the skin, structural stability to the cells in connective tissues (e.g. tendons, and bone) and stabilisation of atherosclerotic plaques. Collagen as a peptide with a peculiar triple helical structure is majorly composed of glycine and proline amino acids and is synthesised by fibroblasts via intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. Collagen plays an important role in wound healing, bone repair and plaque build-up during atherosclerosis. Various factors such as interleukins, insulin-like growth factor-I, nicotine, and glucose have been shown to influence collagen synthesis. This paper provides an overview of collagen structure, synthesis mechanisms, and the parameters that stimulate those mechanisms. Poly-l-lactic acid as a well-known biocompatible and biodegradable polymer has proved to stimulate collagen synthesis in various physical forms. As such, in this review special emphasis is laid on the effects of poly-l-lactic acid as well as its mechanism of action on collagen synthesis.
... Recently, the development of soy products for fatigue recovery in businessmen has been gaining attention. These studies intend to demonstrate the effect of SPs in businessmen, who are most vulnerable to psychological and physical fatigue, through in-person experience [10,151,152]. In addition, a new marketing strategy using the concept of household essential drugs, which are always available in households and accessible at any time, is being attempted. ...
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Peptides present in foods are involved in nutritional functions by supplying amino acids; sensory functions related to taste or solubility, emulsification, etc.; and bioregulatory functions in various physiological activities. In particular, peptides have a wide range of physiological functions, including as anticancer agents and in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels, enhancing immunity, and promoting calcium absorption. Soy protein can be partially hydrolyzed enzymatically to physiologically active soy (or soybean) peptides (SPs), which not only exert physiological functions but also help amino acid absorption in the body and reduce bitterness by hydrolyzing hydrophobic amino acids from the C- or N-terminus of soy proteins. They also possess significant gel-forming, emulsifying, and foaming abilities. SPs are expected to be able to prevent and treat atherosclerosis by inhibiting the reabsorption of bile acids in the digestive system, thereby reducing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and fat levels. In addition, soy contains blood pressure-lowering peptides that inhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and antithrombotic peptides that inhibit platelet aggregation, as well as anticancer, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, opiate-like, hypocholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activities. In animal models, neuroprotective and cognitive capacity as well as cardiovascular activity have been reported. SPs also inhibit chronic kidney disease and tumor cell growth by regulating the expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle arrest, invasion, and metastasis. Recently, various functions of soybeans, including their physiologically active functions, have been applied to health-oriented foods, functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This review introduces some current results on the role of bioactive peptides found in soybeans related to health functions.
... Another study revealed that L. sakei K040706, which is from traditional Korean fermented soybean paste, increased the spleen indices of cyclophosphamideinduced immunosuppressed mice (27). In addition, the ability of isoflavones and soy peptides to increase collagen in the skin and reduce photo-aging of the skin had also been proved (28,29). Based on these findings, our preliminary conclusion is that the antioxidant effect of L. fermentum CQPC04-fermented soy milk on organs or tissues may be related to the synergistic antioxidant capacity of L. fermentum CQPC04, isoflavones, and peptides. ...
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... An increased tendency was observed, reaching a value of relative gene expression of 1.5 for the concentration of 1mg/mL. Similar results have been obtained by other authors [13,14]. In contrast, this dose-response effect was not observed for the cell cultures treated with BSCH-C during 48 and 72 h [15] previously observed similar behavior in fibroblast cell cultures treated with collagen hydrolysates from bovine skin. ...
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We evaluated the effect of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) on collagen synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts and on proliferation of fibroblasts. At concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mmol/L, AA-2G effectively stimulated collagen synthesis with an effectiveness comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. On the other hand, 6-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid showed a weak effect. The stimulation of collagen synthesis by AA-2G was attenuated by the addition of a collagen synthesis inhibitor, L-azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, AA-2G-induced stimulation of collagen synthesis could be completely inhibited by the addition of castanospermine, an inhibitor of neutral alpha-glucosidase. Relatively high alpha-glucosidase activity, which would contribute to release of ascorbic acid from AA-2G, could be detected in the lysate of cultured fibroblasts. The stimulatory activity of AA-2G on collagen synthesis was observed after 5 d in culture, whereas L-ascorbic acid tended to lose its stimulatory activity. Continuous supplementation of AA-2G (0.25 mmol/L) to culture medium for 24 d enhanced the cell growth four times that of the control. These results indicate that AA-2G is gradually cleaved by the cellular alpha-glucosidase to release L-ascorbic acid, which adequately stimulates collagen synthesis and proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.
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Natto is a traditional Japanese fermented food made by fermenting boiled soy beans with Bacillus natto. Its contents of inhibitors against the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC3.4.15.1) were investigated. Relatively strong inhibitory activity (IC50: 0.4 mg/ml, 11.8 inhibition units/g natto) was detected in natto extracts and the inhibitory activity observed in the viscous fraction was more potent than in the bean extract. Two groups of inhibitors in the viscous material, high and low molecular weight inhibitors, were resolved by dialysis test. The inhibitor of high molecular weight was a protein with low IC50 value (0.12 mg/ml). The two types of low molecular weight inhibitors were detected in ethanol extracts (IC50: 0.53 mg/ml and 0.95 mg/ml) and they were found to be stable over a wide range of pH and temperature up to 100 degrees C. They were different in the mode of ACE inhibition. One is competitive, and the other noncompetitive against the hydrolysis of Bz-Gly-His-Leu by ACE.
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Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of three collagenases that can degrade the interstitial collagens, types I, II, and III at neutral pH. As these collagens are the most abundant proteins in the body, collagenase plays a critical role in modeling and remodeling the extracellular matrix. Therefore, it is not surprising that MMP-1 gene expression can be regulated at multiple points. Procollagenase can be activated by mechanisms that generate an active enzyme with differing specific activities, and the active enzyme can be inhibited by complexing with either the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) or alpha 2 macroglobulin. The activator protein-1 (AP-1) site in the collagenase promoter plays a prominent role in the transcriptional control of the collagenase gene. It is essential for basal transcription, and contributes to induction by phorbol esters, although other sites in the proximal promoter are essential. In contrast, transactivation by cytokines such as Interleukin-1 depends on sequences in more distal regions of the promoter. Posttranscriptional mechanisms also regulate gene expression, and several cytokines and growth factors increase the stability of the collagenase transcript. Finally, glucocorticoid hormones repress transcription of the collagenase gene by the interaction of glucocorticoid receptors with the AP-1 proteins, Fos and Jun. Retinoids also suppress transcription by mechanisms that involve down-regulation of fos and jun mRNA, sequestration of Fos and Jun proteins, and the formation of complexes of retinoic acid receptors (RAR/RXR heterodimers) and AP-1 proteins on the DNA. These multiple points of regulation assure precise control of collagenolytic activity in a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions.
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Numerous attempts have been made to find the mechanism and component of the cholesterol lowering activity of soybean. In this study, it was proved that the peptides in soybean protein hydrolysate (SPH) made by certain proteases have a hypocholesterolemic effect. Among the mechanisms suggested, that is, blockage of bile acid and/or cholesterol absorption, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, and stimulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) transcription, SPH appeared to stimulate LDL-R transcription. When Hep T9A4 cells were incubated with soy protein hydrolysates by using the proteases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FSE-68, LDL-R transcription was strongly stimulated, but the other mechanisms were not affected. Among the six types of SPH, F1-15, hydrolyzed with the neutral protease to a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 15%, showed the highest LDL-R transcription. The fractions of molecular weight of 200 and 3000 Da showed LDL-R transcription stimulating activity. The bioactivity is due to soybean peptides because the ethanol extract of soybean protein which contains isoflavones does not stimulate LDL-R transcription. In conclusion, dietary upregulation of LDL-R transcription by soybean may be consequent to an enhanced catabolism or a reduced synthesis of intracellular cholesterol. Therefore, we suggest that soy peptides can effectively stimulate LDL-R transcription in the human liver cell line and reduce blood cholesterol level.