Berry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling in the Brain
USDA-ARS, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University , 711 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 2.91).
02/2012; 60(23). DOI: 10.1021/jf2036033
Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of preclinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antioxidant effects, dietary supplementation with berry fruits also has direct effects on the brain. Intake of these fruits may help to prevent age-related neurodegeneration and resulting changes in cognitive and motor function. In cell and animal models, berry fruits mediate signaling pathways involved in inflammation and cell survival in addition to enhancing neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and calcium buffering, all of which lead to attenuation of age- and pathology-related deficits in behavior. Recent clinical trials have extended these antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cognition-sparing effects to humans. This paper reviews recent evidence for the beneficial signaling effects of berry fruits on the brain and behavior.
Available from: John C Beaulieu
- "Heightened consumer awareness of the health benefits of consuming phytonutrient-rich fruits and aggressive marketing have resulted in expanding markets for blueberries, fruit juices, a large number of nutritional supplements, and value-added foods containing berries. Diets rich in blueberries deliver antiinflammatory , anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic components that help protect the brain, cardiovascular and central nervous system as well as reduce cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (Basu et al., 2010; Kalt et al., 2007; Miller and Shukitt- Hale, 2012; Seeram, 2008; Soto-Vaca et al., 2012). ''Superfruits'' such as blueberries have become popular as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high-antioxidant, healthier diets. "
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ABSTRACT: There are very few studies detailing the aroma, astringency, and flavor of rabbiteye blueberry [RAB (Vaccinium ashei)] fruit typically grown in the southeastern United States. The objectives were to investigate the rapid and qualitative solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry volatile composition of several local RAB cultivars with an overall goal to build a database of possible flavor and aroma compounds. Volatile profiles were obtained in five Louisiana-grown RAB cultivars (Brightwell, Climax, Premier, Powder Blue, and Tifblue) assayed at four maturities. The method routinely captured 53 volatiles, including 12 aldehydes, six alcohols, 11 esters, four ketones, 17 terpenoids, one furan, and two aromatics. Of the 33 compounds considered important in blueberries, 17 were recovered in the RAB cultivars assessed. Herein, 10 compounds were recovered for the first time in blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) and five of those compounds were confirmed with standards [2-ethylfuran, (E)-2-pentenal, (Z)- dehydroxylinalool oxide, (E)-dehydroxylinalool oxide and 1,4-cineole]. In general, terpenoids and their subclass linalools were the most significant volatiles followed closely by esters, aldehydes, and then alcohols. Terpenoids and linalools displayed the greatest significant differences in 'Powder Blue' and 'Premier'. Esters and aldehydes were the most significant compound classes based on cultivar effect per maturity in firm-ripe fruit. From the suite of 17 of the 33 important compounds in upright blueberry, 10 were recovered across the five cultivars at four maturities that displayed a high level of significance. These were linalool, methyl 3-methylbutanoate, 1,8-cineole, (E)-2-hexanal, (Z)-3- hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, limonene, hexyl acetate, hexanal, and a-terpineol. These data will be useful to evaluate aroma volatiles in RAB and changes in processed and value-added byproducts.
Available from: José P Andrade
- "The number of individuals aged 65 years and older will increase steeply in Europe and North America leading to a global demographic shift  . This situation will markedly increase the occurrence of age-related disorders including cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases . "
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ABSTRACT: Green tea (GT) displays strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties mostly attributed to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), while experiments focusing on other catechins are scarce. With the present work we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of prolonged consumption of a GT extract (GTE) rich in catechins but poor in EGCG and other GT bioactive components that could also afford benefit. The endpoints evaluated were aging-induced biochemical and morphological changes in the rat hippocampal formation (HF) and behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats aged 12 months were treated with GTE until 19 months of age. This group of animals was compared with control groups aged 19 (C-19M) or 12 months (C-12M). We found that aging increased oxidative markers but GTE consumption protected proteins and lipids against oxidation. The age-associated increase in lipofuscin content and lysosomal volume was also prevented by treatment with GTE. The dendritic arborizations of dentate granule cells of GTE-treated animals presented plastic changes accompanied by an improved spatial learning evaluated with the Morris water maze. Altogether our results demonstrate that the consumption of an extract rich in catechins other than EGCG protected the HF from aging-related declines contributing to improve the redox status and preventing the structural damage observed in old animals, with repercussions on behavioral performance.
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ABSTRACT: Emerging pathological evidence indicates that major chronic aging-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases, are inflammation-related. In this review, inflammation is examined as a possible underlying basis for the molecular alterations that link aging and age-related pathological processes. A proposal for the molecular inflammation hypothesis of the aging views the redox derangement that occurs during aging as the major factor for increased risk for age-related inflammation. Accumulated data strongly indicate the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and dysregulated gene expression under the age-related oxidative stress seems to be the major culprits. Key players involved in the inflammatory process are the age-related upregulation of NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, cyclooxygenase-2, adhesion molecules, and inducible NO synthase. Furthermore, data are presented on the molecular events involved in age-related NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase/NIK and MAPKs. Experimental data on anti-aging calorie restriction (CR) for its antiinflammatory efficacy by suppressing the upregulated proinflammatory mediators will be reviewed. Also, the involvement of another super family of transcription factors, PPARs (PPARalpha, gamma) as regulators of proinflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling pathway is described as well as a discussion on the physiological significance of a well-maintained balance between NF-kappaB and PPARs.
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