Graft-versus-Tumor Effect According to Type of Graft-versus-Host Disease Defined by National Institutes of Health Consensus Criteria and Associated Outcomes
Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.4). 01/2012; 18(7):1136-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.01.010
The impact of National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NCC) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on survival has rarely been investigated in a large cohort of patients with GVHD presenting before and after day 100 posttransplantation. We retrospectively investigated 775 patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation and assessed the GVHD effects on survival by the time-dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression models. Using the NCC, the patients were classified into 4 groups: (1) no GVHD (n = 251); (2) acute GVHD (aGVHD) only (n = 199), including 26 patients with late aGVHD; (3) classic chronic GVHD (cGVHD; n = 232); and (4) overlap syndrome (OS; n = 93). Multivariate analyses showed that classic cGVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.77) and OS (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.96) were associated with significantly decreased risk of relapse, whereas aGVHD only was not associated with relapse rate (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63). All aGVHD events, including the period of aGVHD in patients who developed cGVHD after aGVHD, also did not affect the risk of relapse (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.49-1.12). All types of GVHD were significantly associated with higher nonrelapse mortality in common. Finally, patients with aGVHD only had significantly lower overall survival and disease-free survival compared with those without GVHD, in contrast to favorable survival outcomes in patients with cGVHD without previous aGVHD. This study demonstrates that NCC GVHD type is associated with different graft-versus-tumor effects. Further studies are needed to investigate risk factors, pathogenesis, and biomarkers for each type of NCC GVHD.
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Article: Prevention of graft-vs.-host disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative treatment for many malignant and non-malignant hematologic disorders. However, graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic HCT and limits the success of this approach. Areas covered: This paper reviews recent developments in the prevention of acute and chronic GVHD. In the setting of acute GVHD prevention, recent trials of T-cell depletion using Fresenius-ATG are reviewed, as well as studies testing total lymphoid irradiation, mesenchymal stromal cells, rituximab, statins, sirolimus and other investigational agents. In the setting of chronic GVHD, results with Fresenius-ATG are reviewed, as well as B-cell depletion with rituximab, and the potential role of the B-cell regulatory cytokine BAFF in chronic GVHD is also discussed. Finally, the emerging role of resident skin and gut bacterial flora-the so-called microbiome-in the pathogenesis of GVHD is covered. Expert opinion: Current methods of acute GVHD prevention are highly successful, and a number of investigational approaches promise to further reduce the risk of this complication. By contrast, chronic GVHD is more poorly understood and more difficult to prevent. Future studies are required to delineate the roles of these approaches and to abrogate GVHD without sacrificing the beneficial immunologic graft-vs.-tumor effect.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the risk factors for acute GVHD (aGVHD), based on NIH consensus criteria (NCC), we evaluated 775 patients who underwent allogeneic transplantation. Of them, 346 patients developed aGVHD by NCC, in whom we also analyzed factors affecting aGVHD-specific survival. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD was 44.7%, consisting of classic aGVHD (n=320) and late-onset (n=26). Multivariate analyses revealed that younger age (P=0.015), unrelated donors (P=0.004) and acute leukemia compared with other hematologic malignancies (P=0.005) were significant risk factors for aGVHD, whereas PBSCs showed no association (P=0.720). Multivariate analyses, with only aGVHD patients, revealed that late-onset aGVHD had superior aGVHD-specific survival to classic aGVHD (P=0.044), and identified the association of visceral organ involvement (P=0.002), severity of aGVHD at onset (P=0.035) and advanced disease status (P<0.001) with inferior aGVHD-specific survival. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the risk and prognostic factors for aGVHD by NCC with some differences with the previous reports that were based on old criteria. The difference in the risk factors according to different criteria will give insights about the pathophysiology of GVHD. The better prognosis of late-onset aGVHD than of classic aGVHD raises the necessity for prospective trials with a large cohort focusing on the onset time.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract We assessed the retrospective applicability and prognostic value of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 159 consecutive patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Seventy-four patients (46.5%) resulted affected by late-acute GVHD (n=19; 25.7%), classic cGVHD (n= 44; 59.4%) and overlap syndrome (n=11; 14.9%). Overall, NIH-defined cGVHD patients (i.e. classic cGVHD and overlap syndrome) had better 10-year Overall Survival (OS) as compared to patients without GVHD (76.9% vs 47.4%, p=0.0002) or with late-acute GVHD (47.4%, p=0.001). Relapse Mortality (RM) was lower in NIH-defined cGVHD patients than in patients without GVHD (14.5% vs 38.7%, p=0.001), but comparable to that of late-acute type (19.4%, p=0.31). Non-Relapse Mortality (NRM) was lower in patients with NIH-defined cGVHD as compared to late-acute GVHD (10.0% vs 41.1%, p=0.0005), as well as to patients without GVHD (22.2%, p=0.045). At multivariate analysis, NIH-defined cGVHD remained independently predictive for lower RM, but not for NRM. Thus, the new NIH classification identifies two subtypes of GVHD (late-acute and chronic) with different long-term outcomes and impact on RM and NRM.