Robinton, DA and Daley, GQ. The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy. Nature 481: 295-305

Article (PDF Available)inNature 481(7381):295-305 · January 2012with196 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/nature10761 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The field of stem-cell biology has been catapulted forward by the startling development of reprogramming technology. The ability to restore pluripotency to somatic cells through the ectopic co-expression of reprogramming factors has created powerful new opportunities for modelling human diseases and offers hope for personalized regenerative cell therapies. While the field is racing ahead, some researchers are pausing to evaluate whether induced pluripotent stem cells are indeed the true equivalents of embryonic stem cells and whether subtle differences between these types of cell might affect their research applications and therapeutic potential.
    • "Since being first described in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka, iPSCs have been used for various research purposes [92, 93]. A limited yet expanding number of studies have focused on using iPSCs for therapeutic purposes [93][94][95][96]. Given their potential as a therapy, the use of iPSCs as a therapeutic approach for NCLs is now being considered by a number of research laboratories. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders that annually affect 1:100,000 live births worldwide. This family of diseases results from mutations in one of 14 different genes that share common clinical and pathological etiologies. Clinically, the diseases are subcategorized into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adult forms based on their age of onset. Though the disease phenotypes may vary in their age and order of presentation, all typically include progressive visual deterioration and blindness, cognitive impairment, motor deficits and seizures. Pathological hallmarks of NCLs include the accumulation of storage material or ceroid in the lysosome, progressive neuronal degeneration and massive glial activation. Advances have been made in genetic diagnosis and counseling for families. However, comprehensive treatment programs that delay or halt disease progression have been elusive. Current disease management is primarily targeted at controlling the symptoms rather than "curing" the disease. Recognizing the growing need for transparency and synergistic efforts to move the field forward, this review will provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches currently being pursued in preclinical and clinical trials to treat different forms of NCL as well as provide insight to novel therapeutic approaches in development for the NCLs.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "However, there are still many obstacles to overcome. For example, researchers found that numerous subtle but substantial genetic and epigenetic differences exist between iPSCs and ESCs [14] , which delay the use of iPSCs for transplantation therapies in human. First, it is necessary to assess survival potential, capability of functional integration into tissues, genetic stability, and absence of tumorigenic potential in reprogrammed cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to all cell types of an organism’s body and have a tremendous potential for numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology. However, molecular mechanisms behind the reprogramming process remain largely unknown and hamper generation of bona fide iPSCs and their use in human clinical practice. Large animal models are essential to expand the knowledge obtained on rodents and facilitate development and validation of transplantation therapies in preclinical studies. Additionally, transgenic animals with special traits could be generated from genetically modified pluripotent cells, using advanced reproduction techniques. Despite their applicative potential, it seems that iPSCs in farm animals haven’t received the deserved attention. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic overview on iPSC generation in the most important mammalian farm animal species (cattle, pig, horse, sheep, goat, and rabbit), compare protein sequence similarity of pluripotency-related transcription factors in different species, and discuss potential uses of farm animal iPSCs. Literature mining revealed 32 studies, describing iPSC generation in pig (13 studies), cattle (5), horse (5), sheep (4), goat (3), and rabbit (2) that are summarized in a concise, tabular format.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to cells of a specific fate holds promise to study a wide variety of human diseases (Robinton and Daley, 2012). Several groups have reported the generation of hepatocyte-like cells from human PSCs by the sequential addition of growth factors (Agarwal et al., 2008; Basma et al., 2009; Cai et al., 2007; Hay et al., 2008; Song et al., 2009; Si-Tayeb et al., 2010a; Sullivan et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When comparing hepatic phenotypes between iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells from different liver disease patients, cell heterogeneity can confound interpretation. We proposed that homogeneous cell populations could be generated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Using cell-surface capture proteomics, we identified a total of 300 glycoproteins on hepatocytes. Analyses of the expression profiles during the differentiation of iPSCs revealed that SLC10A1, CLRN3, and AADAC were highly enriched during the final stages of hepatocyte differentiation. FACS purification of hepatocyte-like cells expressing SLC10A1, CLRN3, or AADAC demonstrated enrichment of cells with hepatocyte characteristics. Moreover, transcriptome analyses revealed that cells expressing the liver gene regulatory network were enriched while cells expressing a pluripotent stem cell network were depleted. In conclusion, we report an extensive catalog of cell-surface N-linked glycoproteins expressed in primary hepatocytes and identify cell-surface proteins that facilitate the purification of homogeneous populations of iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
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