Beverage consumption, appetie, and energy intake. What did you expect?

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 03/2012; 95(3):587-93. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.025437
Source: PubMed


Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented.
This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food forms and identifies physiologic processes that may account for them.
Fifty-two healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 24.7 ± 5.5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 26.3 ± 6.3] completed this randomized, 4-arm crossover study. Participants consumed oral liquid and solid preloads that they perceived, through cognitive manipulation, to be liquid or solid in their stomach (ie, oral liquid/perceived gastric liquid, oral liquid/perceived gastric solid, oral solid/perceived gastric liquid, or oral solid/perceived gastric solid). However, all preloads were designed to present a liquid gastric challenge. Appetite, gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, and selected endocrine responses were monitored for the following 4 h; total energy intake was also recorded.
Oral-liquid and perceived gastric-liquid preloads elicited greater postprandial hunger and lower fullness sensations, more rapid gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, attenuated insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 release, and lower ghrelin suppression than did responses after oral-solid and perceived gastric-solid treatments (all P < 0.05). Faster gastric-emptying times were significantly associated with greater energy intake after consumption of perceived gastric-liquid preloads (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on days when perceived gastric-liquid preloads were consumed than when perceived gastric solids were consumed (2311 ± 95 compared with 1897 ± 72 kcal, P = 0.007).
These data document sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behavior and identify physical and endocrine variables that may account for the low satiety value of beverages. They are consistent with findings that clear, energy-yielding beverages pose a particular risk for positive energy balance. This study was registered at as NCT01070199.

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    • "A strong relationship between obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been found in both epidemiological (Malik & Hu, 2012) and experimental studies, including those using rodents (Kawasaki et al., 2005). One reason that sucrose-containing drinks may be more harmful than sucrosecontaining foods is that less accurate energy compensation occurs with drinks than with foods containing an equivalent amount of sucrose (Cassidy, Considine, & Mattes, 2012; DiMeglio & Mattes, 2000). It has been widely suggested that incomplete satiety following consumption of SSBs is mainly due to the fructose they commonly contain, whether in sucrose or in the high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used predominantly as a sweetener in North America (Lustig, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of the well-documented metabolic and behavioural effects of supplementing rats' diets with access to a sucrose solution, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of 10% sucrose with that of an isoenergetic (10.4%) solution of hydrolysed starch, maltodextrin. This polysaccharide is metabolised at least as rapidly as sucrose and is also very palatable to rats, but does not contain fructose. Each of three experiments contained three groups: one given a sucrose solution, one given a maltodextrin solution and a control group maintained on standard chow and water alone. In Experiment 1 the sucrose and maltodextrin groups were given their supplementary drinks for 2-h each day, while in Experiments 2 and 3 these groups had 24-h access to their supplements. Ad libitum access to maltodextrin produced at least as rapid weight gain as sucrose and in Experiment 2 retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in the two carbohydrate groups than in the control group. Moreover, in Experiment 3 impaired performance on a location recognition task was also found in both carbohydrate groups after only 17 days on the diets. These results indicate that the harmful effects of excess sucrose consumption can also be produced by another rapidly absorbed carbohydrate that does not contain fructose.
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    • "Several studies using foods in different forms have found that increasing the viscosity of a food reduces food intake [11], [12] or suppresses appetite [13], [14]. Nonetheless, comparing different food forms, such as a beverage vs a semi-solid or solid food, may not give a true indication of the effect of viscosity on appetite due to cognitive differences in how participants view the test products (e.g., liquid beverages quench thirst whereas semi-solid or solid foods sate hunger) [15]. In addition, the physiological mechanisms that explain these observations have received little attention. "
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    • "Excessive consumption of caloric beverages has been widely viewed as contributing to the obesity epidemic [14,15], although systematic reviews have highlighted the need for better randomised controlled trials, in order to demonstrate a causal effect [16,17]. The main putative mechanism involves reduced satiety and incomplete compensation for calories ingested in liquid form [18]. According to this theory, so-called “liquid calories” are more likely than solid calories to result in passive overconsumption and excess energy intake [19]. "
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