Antioxidant activity and protection of pancreatic β-cells by Embelin in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India.
Journal of Diabetes (Impact Factor: 1.93). 01/2012; 4(3):248-56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2012.00187.x
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of embelin in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
  Diabetes was induced in rats fasted overnight by the administration of a single dose of streptozotocin, and analyzed for blood, serum, and biological and histological pancreatic tissue parameters in intact control, diabetic, and embelin-treated diabetic rats (n = 9) at the dose levels of 15, 25, and 30 mg/kg/day for 21 days.
Diabetes caused highly significant abnormalities in blood, serum, and pancreatic tissue biochemical parameters. Embelin and glibenclamide administration to diabetic rats caused a highly significant decline in the blood glycated hemoglobin and serum glucose levels and nitric oxide activity, with a concomitant increase in the serum insulin level (P < 0.001). Furthermore, embelin and glibenclamide treatment increased the pancreatic antioxidant enzyme status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and ascorbic acid), and also decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive oxygen species contents (P < 0.001). The histoarchitecture of the diabetic rats typically showed a degenerated pancreas with reduced β-cell counts, while embelin treatment was shown to significantly regenerate islet cells.
The study proves the potent antioxidant activity of embelin, which has been found to be effective in managing severe hyperglycemia.

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Available from: Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma, Jan 25, 2016
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    • "Previously, fruit extracts of E. ribes showed good antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria and fungi (Khan et al. 2010; Suthar et al. 2009). Embelin, the major benzoquinone, showed several activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities (Chitra et al. 1994, 2003, 2004; Johri et al. 1991; Gupta et al. 2012; Joshi et al. 2007; Rathinam et al. 1976; Dail et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This article reports for the first time the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities of vilangin synthesised from embelin isolated from Embelia ribes berries. E. ribes is widely used as traditional herbal medicine in India. E. ribes is used as appetiser, carminative, anthelmintic, alexiteric, laxative and alterative. This plant is also used to treat tumour, ascites, bronchitis, mental diseases, dyspnoea, heart diseases, urinary discharges, jaundice, hemicrania, and worms in wounds. Here the major compound, embelin, was isolated from the fruits of E. ribes. Vilangin was synthesised by condensation of embelin with formaldehyde in acetic acid solution. The biological activity of vilangin is unknown so far. Hence, we studied antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities of vilangin. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of vilangin was 62.5 lg/mL against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhimurium.The radical scavenging activity was maximum at 1,000 lg/mL. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of vilangin showed a twofold higher value compared to the standard. Vilangin showed 61.95 % of cytotoxic activity in vitro against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line at a dose of 500 lg/mL with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 400 lg/mL. Vilangin can thus be further tested as a new drug. Keywords Antimicrobial � Antioxidant � A549 cancer cell line � Embelia ribes � Embelin � Vilangin.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental Chemistry Letters
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    • "This hypoglycemic effect is similar to the one reported for other plants [17,18,21,22]. Such effect may be explained in part by either a decrease in the rate of intestinal glucose absorption [23-25] or an increase in peripheral glucose utilization [24,25]. In this line, some authors have ascertained increased catabolism of glucose due to GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in muscle and brown adipose cells [19,20], with up-regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and hepatic gluconeogenesis [25,26], causing as a result hyperinsulinemia or enhancement of peripheral glucose utilization [19,27,28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive tumor growth and diffuse tissue invasion are hallmarks of malignant glioma. Embelin is an active compound identified as a novel XIAP inhibitor from the Embelia ribes that exhibits various medicinal effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we investigated whether embelin could have a therapeutic effect in glioma. We found that embelin suppressed proliferation of human glioma cells, but not in normal immortalized human astrocytes. In addition, embelin induced apoptosis in human glioma cells by inhibiting NF-κB, which is a crucial transcription factor associated with several human diseases including cancer and controls multiple genes involved in tumor progression such as cell proliferation and survival. Intriguingly, embelin had no inhibitory effect on XIAP in glioma cells even though discovered as an XIAP inhibitor, but instead inhibited NF-κB activity by reducing nuclear translocation of p65 through decreasing phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of IκBα in glioma cells. Furthermore, p65 overexpression decreased embelin-induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Taken together these results indicate that embelin could be a potent novel therapeutic modality for glioma via blocking cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis by inhibiting NF-κB activity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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