Public Health Nutrition: 15(10), 1941–1947 doi:10.1017/S136898001100351X
Guidelines for the New Nordic Diet
*, Lars Ove Dragsted
, Claus Meyer
, Emil Blauert
Mathias Krog Holt
and Arne Astrup
Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958
Frederiksberg C, Denmark:
Meyers Madhus, Copenhagen, Denmark
Submitted 28 March 2011: Accepted 8 December 2011: First published online 17 January 2012
Objective: Diet has a signiﬁcant impact on health, and ensuring that the population
eats a healthy diet remains a public health challenge. Research is needed in
order to improve the palatability of a healthy diet and make it attractive to the
consumer. It has also been suggested that dietary recommendations should
be tailored to regional conditions. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development
and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) project
investigates whether it is possible to develop a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)
that is palatable, environmentally friendly and based on foods originating from
the Nordic region. The present paper describes the overall guidelines for the
NND, developed and investigated in the multidisciplinary, 5-year OPUS research
project. All guidelines are described in relation to the key principles: health,
gastronomic potential and Nordic identity, and sustainability.
Results: The NND is described by the overall guidelines: (i) more calories from
plant foods and fewer from meat; (ii) more foods from the sea and lakes; and
(iii) more foods from the wild countryside. These overall guidelines result in a set
of proposed dietary components which will be presented in a subsequent paper.
Conclusions: Both the guidelines and the diet are composed taking the potential
health-promoting properties and Nordic identity of the NND into account, as well
as concern for environmental issues and gastronomic potential.
Over the past two decades a New Nordic Cuisine has
been developed in Scandinavia. The New Nordic Cuisine
Manifestoywas formulated in 2003
and was adopted by
the Nordic Council of Ministers as the ideology of the
New Nordic Food programme in 2005
, with the aim of
establishing Nordic cuisine as part of the gourmet world
map. Restaurants and chefs focusing on Nordic food
are now rated among the best in the world
, so foods
from the Nordic region clearly have great gastronomic
potential. As regionally produced foods they are also
potentially environmentally sustainable
, the hypothesis
being that transport of food from production to consumer
can be minimized by increased consumption of local
produce, thus minimizing some of the negative effect on
the environment. Stressing regionality, the use of seasonal
produce and the use of foods from the wild countryside
might also be of beneﬁt to the environment. The New
Nordic Cuisine therefore has real potential with regard to
sustainability in the Nordic countries.
The palatability of foods is not always in harmony with
their health-promoting qualities, as some of the nutritionally
dense and less beneﬁcial elements, especially fats, are
important for ﬂavour and mouthfeel
. A new diet needs to
take health aspects into account, as diet plays a major role in
the development of disease today
rest of the world, the prevalence of overweight and obesity
among both children and adults has increased dramatically
over the last 60 years
. Obesity increases the risk of a
wide range of serious medical complications, including
CVD, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease,
osteoarthritis, asthma and several cancers
healthy diet is therefore an important aspect of public health
policies in many countries, and the recommendations for
healthful eating are very similar across countries
yThe aims of the New Nordic Cuisine are to: (i) express the purity,
freshness, simplicity and ethics we wish to associate with our region;
(ii) reﬂect the changing of the seasons in the meals we make; (iii) base
our cooking on ingredients and produce whose characteristics are par-
ticularly excellent in our climates, landscapes and waters; (iv) combine
the demand for good taste with modern knowledge of health and well-
being; (v) promote Nordic products and the variety of Nordic producers,
and spread the word about their underlying cultures; (vi) promote animal
welfare and a sound production process in our seas, on our farmland and
in the wild; (vii) develop potentially new applications of traditional
Nordic food products; (viii) combine the best in Nordic cookery and
culinary traditions with impulses from abroad; (ix) combine local self-
sufﬁciency with regional sharing of high-quality products; and (x) join
forces with consumer representatives, other cooking craftsmen, agri-
culture, the ﬁshing, food, retail and wholesale industries, researchers,
teachers, politicians and authorities on this project for the beneﬁt and
advantage of everyone in the Nordic countries
*Corresponding author: Email firstname.lastname@example.org rThe Authors 2012
Dietary recommendations have not been successful in
reversing the obesity epidemic so far, and there are prob-
ably several reasons for this. Recent studies have shown
that current dietary recommendations may not be effective
for the control of body weight and the prevention of
weight gain and obesity
. Furthermore, palatability
and gastronomic potential are not taken into account in
current dietary recommendations
. Nutrition experts are
often confronted with unpalatability of the recommended
diet. A Danish study found that lack of sufﬁcient focus on
the gastronomic properties of the recommended diet led to
increased drop-out during a course of weight maintenance
following a weight-loss programme in obese indivi-
. In addition, it has been suggested that dietary
recommendations should be more tailored to regional
. Such regional tailoring may help to preserve
cultural diversity in eating habits and contribute to more
environmentally friendly consumption.
Both gastronomists and nutritionists are beginning to
believe that there is a shared route to creating regional
diets and an opportunity to develop a healthy diet that
bridges gastronomy, health and sustainability. This forms
the basis for the multidisciplinary, 5-year research project,
OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for
Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet),
which aims to deﬁne and test a New Nordic Diet (NND).
The hypothesis is that an optimal diet composition, based
on healthy, palatable meals, may not only contribute to
the prevention of excessive weight gain, obesity and
other health disorders, but may also improve quality of life,
learning ability, and mental and physical performance in
The objective of the present paper is to describe the
overall guidelines for the NND. All guidelines are
described in relation to key principles: health, gastro-
nomic potential and Nordic identity, and sustainability.
The nutritional value and dietary composition of an NND
for the Danish region will be elaborated and discussed in
a subsequent paper.
Development of a New Nordic Diet
The NND is developed on the basis of input from experts in
the ﬁelds of human nutrition, gastronomy, environmental
issues, food culture and history, and sensory science, and
from experts with knowledge about children and their food
habits and preferences. This forum was gathered at the
initial OPUS congress held in June 2009 in Copenhagen,
and some participants were subsequently selected to form
advisory boards for the OPUS working groups. The 2009
congress and the subsequent work resulted in a report
OPUS is a Danish project and two intervention studies
within the project are to be carried out in Denmark, so
‘the NND’ in this context is based on the Danish market
and food culture, with references to average dietary
intake in the Danish population. The overall principles
and guidelines can, however, easily be translated and
applied to any country in the Nordic or Northern European
In the development of the NND the following principles
have been crucial: (i) health; (ii) gastronomic potential and
Nordic identity; and (iii) sustainability. These principles are
central in the guidelines for the NND and are elaborated
A healthy diet should contribute to the prevention of
weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, CVD and cancer.
But being healthy is more than just the absence of dis-
ease. In addition, a healthy diet should help maintain and
improve general health, deﬁned by WHO as a state of
complete physical, mental and social well-being
Health effects should be evaluated on the basis of evi-
dence from randomized controlled trials and prospective
cohort studies in human subjects. The NND is based
on the existing scientiﬁc knowledge within health and
nutrition. Dietary components with substantial evidence
of health-promoting properties that are included in the
National Food-based Dietary Guidelines (NFDG) are
naturally included in the NND; e.g. fruits, vegetables,
potatoes, whole grains, nuts, ﬁsh and shellﬁsh
hypothesis is that being healthy is not only achieved by
adding or refraining from speciﬁc nutrients, but more a
condition we approach through what we actually choose
to eat. Testing the hypothesis is a major aim of OPUS.
Gastronomic potential and Nordic identity
Palatability is an important consideration in the develop-
ment of the NND. The New Nordic Cuisine has gained
tremendous respect throughout the world because of its
gastronomically excellent meals based on Nordic foods.
The NND is based on food with a Nordic identity and
cultural heritage, i.e. foods produced in the Nordic
countries and expressing the Nordic terroir. The term
‘terroir’ means the impact of multiple conditions such
as soil, climate and microclimate, location and form of
cultivation on the properties of a speciﬁc food. Terroir has
been elaborated in other food cultures, but is still a
relatively new term for the Nordic food culture. A potato
is not just a potato. It can have a range of different
ﬂavours and textures, dependent on where and how it is
grown. For example, the sandy soils and coastal climate
of the Danish island of Samsø give potatoes grown there
a distinct ﬂavour. Other examples of produce often
associated with the speciﬁc terroir in Denmark include
carrots, apples, mutton, herrings, cheeses and smoked
foods based on terroir-deﬁned produce and special
technology. Such produce are found in all countries,
illustrating the common understanding of the concept.
The Nordic terroir can be summarized as a cool climate
1942 C Mithril et al.
often leading to a slow growth rate, many hours of
light during the summer and the opposite during the
winter, limited differences in temperature from night to
day, and a lot of coastal waters with large variations in salt
content. The challenge is to identify the produce best
suited to a particular terroir, and in particular any produce
where its gastronomic properties are enhanced by local
conditions. In the development of the NND we have
been looking for foods which gain special gastronomic
potential when grown in the Nordic region. The origin
and historical time of entry to the local environment
of the different kinds of produce do not necessarily
determine whether a food can be part of the NND. The
more important factor is the ability of the produce to
thrive in the Nordic terroir with exceptional gastronomic
properties as a result.
Food production and preparation affect the environment
in many ways, including effects on greenhouse gases,
biodiversity, landscape, environmental toxins, etc.
The impact is affected by consumer demand. The global
population is growing rapidly and there is a need for food
supply strategies for all regions that will ensure food
security without jeopardizing the environment. Four
simple considerations for sustainability were used in the
formulation of the NND:
1. Focus on locally grown foods to minimize the
transport of foodstuffs, thereby minimizing the nega-
tive impact of transportation on the environment.
2. Focus on foods from organic food production. The
organic production principle is based primarily on
consideration for nature and biodiversity, and it is an
attempt to care for soil, biodiversity, quality, health
and the welfare of nature, including plants, animals
and humans. The current ofﬁcial organic labelling
system in Denmark is a technical and legal guarantee
that a food is grown without GM organisms, synthetic
pesticides, inorganic fertilizers or other synthetic agents,
and without the use of germicidal irradiation
In addition, manufacturers of organic food products
must comply with a clear set of rules regarding
the use of additives. Ideally, all meals and dietary
components in the NND should meet these basic
criteria with a minimal use of additives. However, this
would require that organic food production be fully
established and integrated in society, but it is not yet
fully developed and there are still many challenges to
3. Focus on composing a proportion of the diet from
foods sourced from the wild countryside, encouraging
biodiversity and minimizing use of fertilizers and
4. Focus on minimizing waste and utilizing all of every
Guidelines for the New Nordic Diet
The road from the overall concept of the New Nordic
Cuisine to an NND for the general population involved
generalization and popularization. This led to the formula-
tion of three fundamental guidelines as the basis of the NND
as compared with the current average Danish diet. These
are: (i) more calories from plant foods and fewer from
meat; (ii) more foods from the sea and lakes; and (iii) more
foods from the wild countryside. In the following each of
these guidelines is elaborated with respect to the overall
principles mentioned previously: health, gastronomic
potential and Nordic identity, and sustainability.
More calories from plant foods and fewer
Consumption of meat has almost doubled in the Nordic
countries over the past 50 years, and meat intake in the
Nordic population is among the highest in the world
There is evidence that high protein intake can reduce the
risk of several diseases, particularly among the large
proportion of sedentary and slightly overweight individ-
uals in the population
. However, meat is among the
least environmentally friendly foods, so more envir-
onmentally friendly protein sources, with greater health
beneﬁts, are to be preferred
A lower intake of meat makes room for more legumes,
vegetables, fruit, grains, potatoes, nuts, herbs, etc. in the
daily diet, most of which have substantially better impacts
on health. Studies have shown that a daily intake of 600 g
or more of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of
, overweight and obesity
and probably certain
. Studies on whole grains have found a sig-
niﬁcant inverse association between intake of whole grains
and risk of CVD
, type 2 diabetes
weight gain or risk of obesity
. Starchy plant foods like
potatoes are an important source of dietary ﬁbre, vitamins
and C, folate, Fe, K and Mg in the Danish diet
replacement of some of the meat we eat today with plant
foods would lead to a reduction in the intake of saturated
fat and increased intakes of unsaturated fats, dietary ﬁbres,
vitamins and minerals. Most plant foods are low in calories,
making it possible to eat larger amounts while lowering the
energy density of the diet and still satisfying the senses and
satiety. A high intake of plant foods therefore has a natural
place in a diet which, together with other lifestyle changes,
can reduce the risk of weight gain, obesity and the
development of several lifestyle diseases.
Gastronomic potential and Nordic identity
Plant foods help in deﬁning a regional kitchen. They
provide colour and ﬂavour variation in meals. Plant foods
such as berries, cabbages, root vegetables, legumes,
potatoes and herbs can maximize tastiness and help create
The New Nordic Diet 1943
a clear Nordic identity while being a minor burden to the
environment. They can form part of everyday meals
all year around, and could be the basis of many Nordic
meals. These plant foods thrive in the Nordic climate and
there is a long tradition of cultivating and consuming them
. Many plant foods have an as yet unexplored
production potential in the Northern climate, including
possibilities for cultivation across the seasonal calendar.
The introduction of new or different varieties could pro-
long the growing season and increase the selection of plant
foods grown in the Nordic countries. In the Middle Ages
foods such as fresh herbs, legumes, cabbage and root
vegetables played a major role in the Nordic diet, but their
use has decreased signiﬁcantly over recent decades and
exotic dried spices, rice and pasta have partially taken their
. Nordic plant foods have a large gastronomic
potential and could very well be promoted to their former
importance in our food culture.
The suggestion of reducing intake of meat should be seen
in the light of the fact that the meat intake of the Nordic
populations is among the highest in the world
been estimated that the climate impact of the Danish diet
alone could be reduced by approximately 30 % compared
with the current average Danish diet if the population were
to consume a diet in accordance with the NFDG (less meat
and more plant foods and ﬁsh)
and choose their foods
with more consideration for the environment
among the least environmentally friendly foods and a 30 %
reduction in meat intake for the Danish population would
correspond to a reduction of 6?6 million tonnes of CO
equivalents per annum
. Plants such as cabbage, potatoes
and root vegetables can easily be grown using organic
farming methods in the Nordic countries. For example,
compared with producing 1 kg of beef, ﬁfty-seven times
less greenhouse gases are emitted when producing
1 kg of potatoes
. In order to ensure adequate protein
content in the diet while reducing meat intake, the NND
includes larger amounts of alternative protein sources
such as legumes and ﬁsh. In this way protein intake can
be maintained and the environmental burden reduced.
More foods from the sea and lakes
The Nordic countries are surrounded by water, and
high-quality ﬁsh and shellﬁsh are abundant here. A large
proportion of the Nordic ﬁshing catch is currently exported,
so there is good potential for increasing local consumption.
Furthermore, the Nordic countries have vast amounts of
seaweed, a source of nutrition that has mostly been over-
looked in the Western world, except for a few Nordic
regions where its use has been traditional. Fish and shellﬁsh
have a signiﬁcant health-promoting potential, as does sea-
weed. However, there are some safety issues in the use of
seaweed in the human diet that still remain to be clariﬁed
Increasing the proportion of freshwater and sea foods in the
diet has a large potential to improve health, provides
variation in meals and can contribute as an environmentally
friendly protein source in the NND.
Fish and shellﬁsh have a signiﬁcant health-promoting
potential. Studies have shown that n-3 fatty acids, present
in signiﬁcant amounts in fatty ﬁsh, may improve child
brain development and help prevent heart disease and
nervous disorders in adults
. In addition, ﬁsh and shell-
ﬁsh have high contents of valuable vitamins and minerals,
including vitamin D, iodine and Se, which are difﬁcult to
ﬁnd naturally in other foods. Low vitamin D status, espe-
cially during the winter, is relatively common in Denmark
and can lead to osteoporosis
. Some studies also suggest
that a high intake of Se is associated with a reduced risk of
. Fish and shellﬁsh contain high amounts of
protein and an increased intake may help to prevent
weight gain and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and sarcopenia in
. Different species of ﬁsh and shellﬁsh
contain different amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty
acids. The intake should therefore be alternated between
fatty and lean species, and between catches from different
origins (Atlantic, Baltic, fresh water, etc.) in order to get the
full health beneﬁts while minimizing risks of toxicity from
pollution with organohalides and heavy metals.
Seaweed has high contents of essential minerals, pro-
tein, dietary ﬁbre, vitamins (A, B, C, E) and essential fatty
. It also contains a range of bioactive compounds
which may play a role in the prevention of CVD and
possess certain antiviral and anticancer effects
weed is a relatively unknown food in Denmark and it
deserves greater attention here. Exploration of variations
between species and origin in nutrient composition,
including evaluation of risks from relatively high content
of iodine in some species, is warranted.
Gastronomic potential and Nordic identity
Catch Area 27 is the sea around Denmark and the Nordic
countries, where the so-called arctic ﬁsh and shellﬁsh are
found. The Nordic countries are characterized by long
coastlines, and several of the countries have a huge
number of freshwater lakes, providing extensive access to
large amounts of locally caught high-quality ﬁsh and
shellﬁsh with very distinctive ﬂavours. The waters of the
North Sea, Baltic Sea and the Bothnic Bay vary greatly in
salinity and mineral content, making distinct terroirs for
ﬁsh such as herring and salmon, which vary in texture
and taste according to locality. The majority of the ﬁsh
caught is currently exported. A greater knowledge of the
richness of these foods from the seas, coastal waters and
lakes could encourage increased local use and contribute
to a more distinct Nordic identity of our meals. The same
considerations apply to seaweed. Historically, seaweed
was part of the poor man’s diet along most Nordic
. Seaweed has a broad application in the
1944 C Mithril et al.
kitchen and can be eaten raw, boiled, baked, roasted,
´ed, dried, granulated or deep fried. The taste and
texture of seaweed are very dependent on how it is treated.
Seaweed can have a broad palette of ﬂavours ranging from
a strong and robust taste to sweet or salty, mild or spicy
sea-notes. A supply chain would need to be established
before Nordic seaweed is commonly available as a food.
It is important to consider the environment when pro-
posing an increased consumption of ﬁsh and shellﬁsh.
Raising ﬁsh in ﬁsh farms is less environmentally friendly
than catching ﬁsh in the wild
. Farmed ﬁsh are often fed
partly on vegetable oils because there is not enough trash
ﬁsh for feed, resulting in a reduced amount of healthy
ﬁsh oils in the ﬁsh sold for consumption as a con-
. The NND therefore focuses on wild-living
species, which can be ﬁshed in a sustainable manner.
One way to ensure a sustainable ﬁshery is to choose ﬁsh
that are MSC (Marine Stewardship Council) labelled,
where the following criteria must be met: (i) the stock
of ﬁsh should be sustainably ﬁshed, or evidently on its
way to becoming so; (ii) ﬁshing must not damage the
ecosystem or marine environment; and (iii) ﬁshing should
be managed effectively so that sustainability and the
ecosystem are guaranteed
There is a great potential for sustainable harvesting of
seaweed, both wild and cultivated, in large quantities in
the Nordic seas. It is also possible to create aquacultures
where, together with clams and ﬁsh, seaweed can be
cultivated in sustainable ecosystems
More foods from the wild countryside
In the Nordic countries the population has reasonable
access to large quantities of foods from the wild country-
side, e.g. plants, mushrooms, berries, fruits and meat.
Foods foraged from the wild are interesting because of their
possible health potential, their ﬁrm gastronomic potential
and their minimal impact on the environment. They can be
collected by the individual or systematic gathering and
distribution could be established, making them available
for all. In this way some of the greatest gastronomic
experiences could be made accessible for all. Foods from
the wild countryside differ from country to country and are
an important part of the identity of a regional cuisine.
It seems that wild plants contain higher amounts of vita-
mins, minerals, secondary plant metabolites and n-3 fatty
acids than conventionally grown plants
. It has been
found that wild plants have higher contents of vitamin C,
vitamin E, phenols and other compounds that increase
the antioxidant level in plants
. Purslane and white
goosefoot, usually regarded as weeds, have been described
as two of the most nutritious plants in the world. Purslane
contains large amounts of a-linolenic acid, while white
goosefoot is rich in protein, vitamin A, Ca, P and K
However, some caution should be exercised before
including wild plants in the diet as many have a high
content of bioactive components, the composition of
some is still unknown and or not well understood, and
some can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.
It is not only plant foods from the wild that seem to have
a health-promoting potential. Meat from wild animals
and fowl generally contains less fat and has a healthier
fatty acid composition, with less saturated fat and more
polyunsaturated fat, than meat from commercially reared
animals, kept inside with no access to pasture. Moreover, a
signiﬁcantly higher content of n-3 fatty acids has been
found in meat from animals caught in the wild
. Access to
game and fowls is limited in the Nordic region, but studies
have shown that meat from domestic animals that graze in
open pastures also has a healthier fatty acid composition,
with less saturated fat and more polyunsaturated fat, than
meat from animals reared indoors without access to herbs
. The NND therefore focuses on game from
the wild, but includes meat from free-range animals.
Gastronomic potential and Nordic identity
Current dietary recommendations advise the population
to eat a diet that satisﬁes the body’s need for a wide range
of nutrients and with a certain energy composition, while
the importance of the individual’s needs for pleasure and
taste are not taken into consideration. A lean diet is often
experienced as tiresome, without satisfying the need for
pleasure, taste and sensory stimulation. The NND aims to
include foods that bring taste and volume to a meal.
Foods such as fresh herbs, wild plants and mushrooms
are highly aromatic and can provide taste and volume to a
meal containing less fat, helping to compensate for the
deprivation some people might experience when exposed
to a reduction of fat in the diet
Wild herbs, berries, etc. vary from region to region,
depending on the local climate and soil conditions. Salt
meadows, heath land and beech forests are examples of
habitats which provide distinctive foods, each with a
distinct taste and aroma. Meat from game shot in the wild
is highly prized in gastronomy, because the animals have
fed on wild plants that impart characteristics speciﬁc to
the region to the meat. Although perhaps mostly on the
symbolic and cultural level, game and wild plants play a
role in the NND in that they display a maximum of
diversity and local variation and at the same time differ-
entiate Nordic cuisine from other food cultures.
Fungi such as chanterelles and Portobello mushrooms,
and plants such as nettles, ground elder, wild garlic,
meadowsweet and goosefoot, can be gathered freely in
season in the countryside by everyone. The mileage from
soil to table can be reduced signiﬁcantly when produce is
collected from our own backyard. Wild plants and fungi
The New Nordic Diet 1945
grow without fertilizers, pesticides or the expense of
external energy, making a very small negative impact
on the environment compared with conventional food
production. However, there is a limit to how much food
the population can gather from the wild before making
a negative impact on the environment. Even so, it is
estimated that only 2–4 % of the berries growing wild
in the Nordic region are collected and consumed by
and that only a limited part of the remaining
96–98 % is consumed by birds and wild animals. The
same can be assumed for many other plants and foods, so
these could (and should) be exploited to a greater extent.
The current paper presents the principles and guidelines
behind the formulation of a healthy NND. These guidelines
have been used to identify speciﬁc components for the NND
and suggestions for intake. The resulting diet will be detailed
in a subsequent publication. The diet is currently being
tested in two intervention studies in the OPUS project, one
in adults and one in schoolchildren. The NND is a prototype
regional diet taking health, food culture, palatability and
the environment into account. The principles and guidelines
could be applied in any region, including any other speciﬁc
region within the Nordic countries.
Sources of funding: The present study is a part of the
OPUS project. OPUS is an acronym of the Danish title of
the project ‘Optimal well-being, development and health
for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet’.
The OPUS Centre is supported by grant from the Nordea
Foundation, Denmark, and is independent of all com-
mercial interests. Conﬂict of interest: C. Mithril, L.O.D.
and M.K.H. have no conﬂicts of interest. C. Meyer is an
owner of restaurants, food companies and a cooking
school. As a food ideology, the New Nordic Cuisine is the
brainchild of one of these restaurants, noma, and today
the New Nordic Cuisine is a theme in most of C. Meyer’s
companies. E.B. is employed at Meyers Madhus. A.A. is an
advisor, an advisory board member or a scientiﬁc board
member for the Communications and Scientiﬁc Advisory
Board of The Global Dairy Platform (Chicago, IL, USA),
the Kraft Health & Wellness Advisory Council (Glenview,
IL, USA), the Beer Knowledge Institute (Amsterdam,
The Netherlands), the Pathway Genomics Corporation
(La Jolla, CA, USA) and Jennie Craig (Carlsbad, CA, USA);
and receives honoraria as a speaker and research funding
from a wide range of Danish and international concerns.
Authors’ contributions: The draft paper was elaborated by
C. Mithril based on an OPUS report on the NND, which
was developed by C. Mithril in close collaboration with
C. Meyer, E.B., M.K.H., L.O.D. and A.A. L.O.D. helped
C. Mithril shape the draft paper into its ﬁnal form which
was then approved with minor corrections by the other
co-authors. Acknowledgements: The authors thank the
Advisory Boards assisting OPUS Work Package 1 and the
participants at the OPUS congress held in June 2009 in
Copenhagen for their valuable input and help in the
development of the NND.
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