Stress and burnout in postgraduate dental education
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. European Journal Of Dental Education
(Impact Factor: 0.94).
02/2012; 16(1):35-42. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2011.00715.x
High levels of stress and burnout have been documented among dental students and practicing dentists, but evidence among dental residents and postgraduate students is lacking.
Ninety-nine postgraduate students enrolled in clinical, non-clinical and PhD programmes in the Athens University School of Dentistry completed the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES) questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Perceived stress was measured in two domains, academic (GDES-A) and clinical (GDES-C) and burnout was measured using the scales of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Analyses relied on descriptive, univariate and multivariate methods based on ANOVA and generalised linear models.
Participants' mean age was 30 years; two-thirds were women and practised dentistry independently of their graduate studies. Residents in clinical programmes reported significantly higher levels of perceived stress compared to non-clinical and PhD students (P<0.05). There were no gender differences in perceived stress. Forty per cent of respondents were burnout 'cases' on the EE scale, while this proportion was 38% for reduced PA and smaller, 13% for DP. Perceived stress was positively correlated with all burnout dimensions, whereas independent dental practice and higher age had a protective effect.
High rates of burnout manifestations were detected among this sample of Greek postgraduate dental students. Perceived stress correlated with burnout and was more pronounced among those enrolled in clinical residency compared to non-clinical and PhD programmes.
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- "education system in our country. Each individual from different ages takes exams in different stages and are able to continue their education with the success they acquire from those exams. Together with the preparation process for these Available online at www.sciencedirect.com exams students may have stress which can cause burnout through time. (Divaris et. al., 2012; Kutsal and Bilge, 2012). Maslach and Jackson (1981) define burnout as physical exhaustion, long fatigue, desperation and hopelessness, physical and mental symptom that contains negative attitudes towards people, job and the life itself. Many researches have shown that burnout is more common in teachers, doctors, nurses and social servi"
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to analyze the link between the academic procrastination of university students and school burn out, learning styles and gender. 241 students who are studying in high school attended to the survey. In the survey Secondary School Burnout Scale (SSBS) which was developed by Aypay (2012), Academic Procrastination which was developed by Çakıcı (2013) and Grasha-Reichmann Learning Style Scale which was adapted by Koçak (2007) were applied in order to gather data. It is suggested that there is a positive relation between the inactive style and the tendency of academic procrastination within the sub dimensions of school burn-out. In addition it is considered that there are negative relations between academic procrastination and independent style, dependent style, competitive style, participant style. However in the multiple regression analysis it is witnessed that inactive style, independent style, participant style, course burn-out and burnout caused by the family predict the tendency of academic procrastination significantly. Results were discussed by educationalists and counselors according to the findings.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Burnout syndrome appears in all professions based on interpersonal contacts as well as on processing data and production and also in students. The burnout in dentists develops as a result of stress connected with the clinical work and in dental students both from the load of the theoretical knowledge and the clinical work. Objectives. The assessment of burnout level in dental students and comparison in relation to gender. Material and Methods. The study involved 82 dental students of 5th year, out of which 48 were women and 34 men. The students anonymously filled in a questionnaire - the MBI-SS form evaluating the burnout which consisted of 15 items forming three scales assessing emotional exhaustion, cynicism (depersonalisation) and reduced personal accomplishments. Results. The burnout syndrome was found in 2.4% subjects. The most often non-normal values of the cynicism scale (26/82, 31.7%) and then the reduced personal accomplishments (23/82, 28.0%) and emotional exhaustion (20/82, 26.8%) were noticed. In females in comparison to males a slight often emotional exhaustion (17/48, 35,5% vs. 5/34, 14.7%) and reduced personal accomplishments (16/48, 33.3% vs. 7/34, 20.5%) and similar frequency of the cynicism (15/48, 31.3% vs. 11/34, 33.3%) were observed. Considering all subjects, the average values of the three scale scores revealed a significantly higher level (p < 0.00) of emotional exhaustion (3.96 ± 1.05) than reduced Czupersonal accomplishments (2.33 ± 0.64) and cynicism (1.91 ± 147). The women in comparison to men were characterised by the same level of exhaustion (3.97 ± 1.17 vs. 3.97 ± 1.17) and cynicism (1.90 ± 1.37 vs. 1.93 ± 1.37) but a slightly lower level of reduced personal accomplishments (2.26 ± 0.67 vs. 2.42 ± 0.59). The positive correlation between levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism was found. Conclusions. The burnout syndrome is recognized in 2.4% dental students. The students are characterised by a higher level of emotional exhaustion than reduced personal accomplishments and comparatively low level of cynicism.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of high levels of stress as well as its multilevel consequences is well documented amongst students in the health sciences, and particularly in dentistry. However, investigations of perceived stress amongst Spanish-speaking student groups are sparse. This study aimed to (i) describe the translation, adaptation and psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Dental Environment Stressors questionnaire and (ii) to examine the perceived sources of stress and their associations with the students' study year and gender in two dental schools in Latin America.
All students officially registered in the dental schools of the University of San Sebastian (USS) in Chile and the Catholic University of Cordoba (CUC) in Argentina were invited to participate in the study. The DES30 questionnaire was adapted in Spanish using translation/back-translation, an expert bilingual committee, and consensus building. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the instrument's internal consistency, and iterated principal factor analysis with promax rotation was employed to explore its underlying factor structure. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the patterns of association between individual stressors, factor scores and students' characteristics.
Three hundred and four students comprised the study's analytical sample, with two-thirds of those being female. The DES30-Sp demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89). A four-factor solution emerged and included 'academic workload', 'clinical training', 'time constraints' and 'self-efficacy beliefs' factors. 'Fear of failing a course or a year', 'examinations and grades' and 'lack of time for relaxation' were amongst the top individual-item stressors reported by students in both schools. Amongst this group of undergraduate dental students, those in Argentina, in higher study year, and females reported higher perceived stress.
Increased workload, time constraints and some aspects of clinical training were the top stressors of approximately 300 Chilean and Argentinean dental undergraduates. Some variations between schools, males and females and study years were noted. The Spanish version of the DES30 questionnaire performed well, but future studies should evaluate the instrument's properties in larger and more diverse dental student populations.
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