Inhibition of protein kinase B activity induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early G 1 phase in CHO cells

Cellular Dynamics, Institute of Biomembranes, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Cell Biology International (Impact Factor: 1.93). 04/2012; 36(4):357-65. DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110092
Source: PubMed


Inhibition of PKB (protein kinase B) activity using a highly selective PKB inhibitor resulted in inhibition of cell cycle progression only if cells were in early G1 phase at the time of addition of the inhibitor, as demonstrated by time-lapse cinematography. Addition of the inhibitor during mitosis up to 2 h after mitosis resulted in arrest of the cells in early G1 phase, as deduced from the expression of cyclins D and A and incorporation of thymidine. After 24 h of cell cycle arrest, cells expressed the cleaved caspase-3, a central mediator of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that PKB activity in early G1 phase is required to prevent the induction of apoptosis. Using antibodies, it was demonstrated that active PKB translocates to the nucleus during early G1 phase, while an even distribution of PKB was observed through cytoplasm and nucleus during the end of G1 phase.

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Available from: Johannes Boonstra, Jul 02, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Akt is a central player in the signal transduction pathways activated in response to many growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and nutrients and is thought to control a myriad of cellular functions including proliferation and survival, autophagy, metabolism, angiogenesis, motility, and exocytosis. Moreover, dysregulated Akt activity is being implicated in the pathogenesis of a growing number of disorders, including cancer. Evidence accumulated over the past 15years has highlighted the presence of active Akt in the nucleus, where it acts as a fundamental component of key signaling pathways. For example, nuclear Akt counteracts apoptosis through a block of caspase-activated DNase: deoxyribonuclease and inhibition of chromatin condensation, and is also involved in cell cycle progression control, cell differentiation, mRNA: messenger RNA export, DNA repair, and tumorigenesis. In this review, we shall summarize the most relevant findings about nuclear Akt and its functions.
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